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The Battle of Manila Bay ( fil, Labanan sa Look ng Maynila; es, Batalla de Bahía de Manila), also known as the Battle of Cavite, took place on 1 May 1898, during the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
. The American
Asiatic Squadron The Asiatic Squadron was a squadron Squadron may refer to: * Squadron (army), a military unit of cavalry, tanks, or equivalent subdivided into troops or tank companies * Squadron (aviation), a military unit that consists of three or four flight ...
under
Commodore Commodore may refer to: Ranks * Commodore (rank) Commodore is a senior naval rank used in many navies which is equivalent to brigadier and air commodore that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. It is either regarded as ...
George Dewey George Dewey (December 26, 1837January 16, 1917) was Admiral of the Navy Admiral of the Navy was the highest possible rank in the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unof ...

George Dewey
engaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron under ''Contraalmirante'' (
Rear admiral Rear admiral is a senior naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for wa ...
)
Patricio Montojo Patricio in Spanish, or Patrício in Portuguese, is a male given name equivalent to Patrick in English. The Spanish name is pronounced with the stress on the same first i as Portuguese, but an accent is not needed because this follows normal rul ...

Patricio Montojo
. The
battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force ...

battle
took place in
Manila Bay Manila Bay ( fil, Look ng Maynila) is a natural harbor A harbor (American English) or harbour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) (synonym: haven) is a sheltered body o ...

Manila Bay
in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, and was the first major engagement of the Spanish–American War. The battle was one of the most decisive
naval battles Naval warfare is human combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving a major body of water such as a large lake or wide river. History Mankind has fought battles on the sea for more than 3,000 years. Even in the interi ...
in history and marked the end of the Spanish colonial period in Philippine history. Tensions between Spain and the United States worsened over the Spanish conduct during their efforts to quell the
Cuban War of Independence The Cuban War of Independence (), fought from 1895 to 1898, was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, ...
, with many Americans being agitated by largely falsified reports of Spanish atrocities against the
Cuban population
Cuban population
. In January 1898, fearing the fate of American interests in Cuba due to the war, the cruiser
USS ''Maine''USS may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Ubiquitous Synergy Seeker, a Canadian band, also known as USS or U.S.S. * Universal Studios Singapore, a theme park in Singapore Businesses and organizations * Union of Sovereign States, the plann ...
was dispatched to protect them. Less than a month later, the cruiser exploded while lying at anchor in
Havana Havana (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguati ...

Havana
harbor, killing 261 sailors onboard and inflaming American opinion, with Spain being portrayed as the culprit in the
American media Mass media in the United States consist of several types of Media (communication), media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and web sites. The U.S. also has a strong music industry. Many of the media are controlled by large f ...
regardless of the actual source of the explosion. Two months later, war was declared. Upon the outbreak of war, the Americans realized that defeating a significant Spanish squadron then stationed in the Philippines was important to ensuring victory in the war. The U.S. Asiatic Squadron commanded by Dewey, a veteran of the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
, was dispatched to ensure success. On the 1st of May, the American squadron steamed into Manila Bay to engage with the Spanish. The Spanish, aware that they were hopelessly outgunned, made a desperate defense against the Americans. The battle was not much of contest, with superior American naval gunnery and seamanship ensuring the entire Spanish fleet would be sunk with minimal casualties for the Americans, who suffered only ten casualties in all. Upon realising that the battle was hopeless, Montojo ordered his two protected cruisers to be
scuttled 283px, The Monument to the Sunken Ships, dedicated to ships destroyed during the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War, designed by Amandus Adamson Scuttling is the deliberate sinking of a ship by allowing water to flow into the Hull (water ...
to ensure that they did not fall into the hands of the Americans. The battle remains one of the most significant naval battles in American
maritime history Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximatel ...
.


Prelude

Americans living on the
West Coast of the United States#REDIRECT West Coast of the United States The West Coast of the United States, also known as the Pacific Coast, Pacific states, and the western seaboard, is the coastline along which the Western United States The Western United States (also calle ...
feared a Spanish attack at the outbreak of the Spanish–American War. Only a few U.S. Navy warships, led by the
cruiser A cruiser is a type of warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to with ...

cruiser
, stood between them and a powerful Spanish fleet. In practice however '' Olympia'' was far superior to the Spanish colonial fleet, as the battle would show. Admiral Montojo, a career
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...
officer who had been dispatched rapidly to the Philippines, was equipped with a variety of obsolete vessels. Efforts to strengthen his position amounted to little. The strategy adopted by the Spanish bureaucracy suggested they could not win a war and saw resistance as little more than a face-saving exercise.Nofi, A.A., 1996, ''The Spanish–American War, 1898'', Pennsylvania: Combined Books, Administration actions worked against the effort, sending explosives meant for
naval mine A naval mine is a self-contained explosive An explosive (or explosive material) is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion An explosion is a rapid expansion in volume assoc ...
s to civilian construction companies while the Spanish fleet in
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are ...

Manila
was seriously undermanned by inexperienced sailors who had not received any training for over a year. Reinforcements promised from Madrid resulted in only two poorly-armored scout cruisers being sent while at the same time the authorities transferred a squadron from the Manila fleet under Admiral
Pascual Cervera Admiral (rank), Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete (18 February 1839, Medina-Sidonia, Cadiz (province), Cádiz, Spain – 3 April 1909, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain) was a prominent Spanish people, Spanish naval officer with the rank of ''Spanish Navy ...

Pascual Cervera
to reinforce the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
. Admiral Montojo had originally wanted to confront the Americans at
Subic Bay Subic may refer to: * Šubić family The Šubić family was one of the Twelve noble tribes of Croatia and a great noble house which constituted Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages. They held the county of Bribir (Dalmatia), Bribir (''Varvaria'') ...
, northwest of Manila Bay, but abandoned that idea when he learned the planned mines and coastal defensives were lacking and the cruiser started to leak. Montojo compounded his difficulties by placing his ships outside the range of Spanish
coastal artillery Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State ...
(which might have evened the odds) and choosing a relatively shallow anchorage. His intent seems to have been to spare Manila from bombardment and to allow any survivors of his fleet to swim to safety. The harbor was protected by six shore batteries and three
fort A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, g ...

fort
s whose fire during the battle proved to be ineffective. Only Fort San Antonio Abad had guns with enough range to reach the American fleet, but Dewey never came within their range during the battle.Battle of Manila Bay, 1 May 1898
Department of the Navy - Naval Historical Center. Retrieved on 10 October 2007
The Spanish squadron consisted of seven ships: the cruisers (flagship), ''Castilla'', , , , , and the
gunboat A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to shore bombardment, bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for troopship, ferrying troops or au ...
. The Spanish ships were of inferior quality to the American ships; the ''Castilla'' was unpowered and had to be towed by the transport ship ''Manila''. On April 25, the squadron left Manila Bay for the port of Subic, intending to mount a defense there. The squadron was relying on a shore battery which was to be installed on Isla Grande. On April 28, before that installation could be completed, a cablegram from the Spanish Consul in Hong Kong arrived with the information that the American squadron had left Hong Kong bound for Subic for the purpose of destroying the Spanish squadron and intending to proceed from there to Manila. The Spanish Council of Commanders, with the exception of the Commander of Subic, felt that no defense of Subic was possible with the state of things, and that the squadron should transfer back to Manila, positioning in shallow water so that the ships could be run aground to save the lives of the crews as a final resort. The squadron departed Subic at 10:30 a.m. on 29 April. ''Manila'', towing ''Castilla'', was last to arrive in Manila Bay, at midnight.


Battle

At 7 p.m. on 30 April, Montojo was informed that Dewey's ships had been seen in Subic Bay that afternoon. As
Manila Bay Manila Bay ( fil, Look ng Maynila) is a natural harbor A harbor (American English) or harbour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) (synonym: haven) is a sheltered body o ...

Manila Bay
was considered unnavigable at night by foreigners, Montojo expected an attack the following morning. However, Oscar F. Williams, the United States Consul in Manila, had provided Dewey with detailed information on the state of the Spanish defenses and the lack of preparedness of the Spanish fleet. Based in part upon this intelligence, Dewey—embarked aboard ''Olympia''—led his squadron into Manila Bay at midnight on 30 April. Passing the entrance, two Spanish mines exploded but were ineffective as they were well below the draft of any of the ships due to the depth of the water. Inside the bay, ships normally used the north channel between
Corregidor Island Corregidor Island ( tl, Pulo ng Corregidor ) is an island located at the entrance of Manila Bay in southwestern part of Luzon Island in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the ...

Corregidor Island
and the northern coast, and this was the only channel mined. Dewey instead used the unmined south channel between El Fraile and Islands. The El Fraile battery fired a few rounds but the range was too great. The , and were then detached from the line and took no further part in the fighting. At 5:15 a.m. on 1 May, the squadron was off Manila and the
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
battery fired ranging shots. The shore batteries and Spanish fleet then opened fire but all the shells fell short as the fleet was still out of range. At 5:41 with the now famous phrase, "You may fire when ready, Gridley", the ''Olympia''s captain was instructed to begin the destruction of the Spanish
flotilla Image:Four frigates capturing Spanish treasure ships (5 October 1804) by Francis Sartorius, National Maritime Museum, UK.jpg, 300px, José de Bustamante y Guerra's flotilla is intercepted by four British frigates A flotilla (from Spanish language ...

flotilla
."The Battle of Manila Bay" by Admiral George Dewey
''The War Times Journal''. Retrieved on 10 October 2007
The U.S. squadron swung in front of the Spanish ships and forts in line ahead, firing their
port A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...
guns. They then turned and passed back, firing their
starboard Port and starboard are nautical Seamanship is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, oppos ...
guns. This process was repeated five times, each time closing the range from 5,000 yards to 2,000 yards. The Spanish forces had been alerted, and most were ready for action, but they were heavily outgunned. Eight Spanish ships, the land batteries, and the forts returned fire for two and a half hours although the range was too great for the guns on shore. Five other small Spanish ships were not engaged. Montojo accepted that his cause was hopeless and ordered his ships to ram the enemy if possible. He then slipped the ''Cristina's'' cables and charged. Much of the American fleet's fire was then directed at her and she was shot to pieces. Of the crew of 400, more than 200, including Montojo, were casualties and only two men remained who were able to man her guns. The ship managed to return to shore and Montojo ordered it to be scuttled. The ''Castilla'', which only had guns on the port side, had her forward cable shot away, causing her to swing about, presenting her weaponless starboard side. The captain then ordered her sunk and abandoned. The ''Ulloa'' was hit by a shell at the waterline that killed her captain and disabled half the crew. The ''Luzon'' had three guns out of action but was otherwise unharmed. The ''Duero'' lost an engine and had only one gun left able to fire. At 7:45 a.m., after Captain Gridley messaged Dewey that only 15 rounds of 5" ammunition remained per gun, Dewey ordered an immediate withdrawal. To preserve morale, he informed the crews that the halt in the battle was to allow the crews to have breakfast. According to an observer on the ''Olympia'', "At least three of his (Spanish) ships had broken into flames but so had one of ours. These fires had all been put out without apparent injury to the ships. Generally speaking, nothing of great importance had occurred to show that we had seriously injured any Spanish vessel." Montojo took the opportunity to now move his remaining ships into
Bacoor Bay Bacoor Bay is a large inlet of southeastern Manila Bay, situated within the province of Cavite in the Philippines. Geography Bacoor Bay lies along the shoreline of southeastern Cavite Peninsula. Cavite City and Bacoor, Bacoor City are along secti ...
where they were ordered to resist for as long as possible. A captains' conference on the ''Olympia'' revealed little damage and no men killed. It was discovered that the original ammunition message had been garbled—instead of only 15 rounds of ammunition per gun remaining, the message had meant to say only 15 rounds of ammunition per gun had been expended. Reports arrived during the conference that sounds of exploding ammunition had been heard and fires sighted on the ''Cristina'' and ''Castilla''. At 10:40 a.m. action was resumed but the Spanish offered little resistance, and Montojo issued orders for the remaining ships to be scuttled and the
breechblock A breechblock (or breech block) is the part of the firearm action of a typical double-barreled shotgun, with the action open and the extractor visible. The opening lever and the safety catch can also be clearly seen. In firearms A firearm is ...
s of their guns taken ashore. The ''Olympia'', ''Baltimore'' and ''Boston'' then fired on the
Sangley Point Sangley (Sangley mestizo, ''mestisong Sangley'', ''mestizo de Sangley'' or Chinese mestizo; plural: ''Sangleys'' or ''Sangleyes'') is an archaic term used in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially ...
battery putting it out of action and followed up by sinking the ''Ulloa''. The ''Concord'' fired on the transport ''Mindanao'', whose crew immediately abandoned ship. The fired on the government offices next to the arsenal and a white flag was raised over the building after which all firing ceased. The Spanish colors were
struckStruck is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Adolf Struck (1877–1911), German author *Hermann Struck (1876–1944), German artist *Karin Struck (1947–2006), German author *Paul Struck (1776-1820), German composer *Peter Struck ...

struck
at 12:40 p.m. According to American sources, Dewey won the battle with seven men very slightly wounded, a total of nine injured, and only a single fatality among his crew: Francis B. Randall, Chief Engineer on the ''McCulloch'', from a heart attack.Patrick McSherry
"The Battle of Manila Bay" (Cavite), May 1, 1898spanamwar.com
Retrieved on 9 February 2011.
On the other hand, the Spanish naval historian Agustín Ramón Rodríguez González suggests that Dewey suffered heavier losses, though still much lower than those of the Spanish squadron.Rodríguez González, Agustín R. (1998)
El combate de Cavite: un hito decisivo en la pérdida de Filipinas en 1898
''Revista de Indias'', vol. LVIII, No. 213. ISSN 0034-8341
Rodríguez notes that Spanish officials estimated the American casualties at 13 crewmen killed and more than 30 wounded based on reliable information collected by the Spanish consulate in
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
. According to Rodríguez, Dewey may have concealed the deaths and injuries by including the numbers among the 155 men who reportedly deserted during the campaign.


Subsequent action

A Spanish attempt to attack Dewey with the naval task force known as Camara's Flying Relief Column came to naught, and the naval war in the Philippines devolved into a series of
torpedo boat A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle. The first designs were steam-powered craft dedicated to ramming enemy ships with explosive spar torpedoes. Later evolutions launched variants of se ...
hit-and-run attacks for the rest of the
campaign Campaign or The Campaign may refer to: Types of campaigns * Campaign, in agriculture, the period during which sugar beets are harvested and processed *Advertising campaign, a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme *Blit ...
. While the Spanish scored several hits, there were no American fatalities directly attributable to Spanish gunfire. On 2 May, Dewey landed a force of
Marines Marines, or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate in littoral zones The littoral zone or nearshore is the part of a sea, lake, or river that is close to the shore. In coastal environments, the littoral zone exten ...
at Cavite. They completed the destruction of the Spanish fleet and batteries and established a guard for the protection of the Spanish hospitals. The resistance of the forts was weak. The ''Olympia'' turned a few guns on the Cavite arsenal, detonating its
magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential ...
, and ending the fire from the Spanish batteries.


Aftermath

In recognition of George Dewey's leadership during the Battle of Manila Bay, a special medal known as the
Dewey Medal The Dewey Medal was a Awards and decorations of the United States military, military decoration of the United States Navy which was established by the United States Congress on June 3, 1898. The medal recognizes the leadership of Admiral of the Navy ...
was presented to the officers and sailors under Admiral Dewey's command. Dewey was later honored with promotion to the special rank of
Admiral of the Navy Admiral of the Navy was the highest possible rank in the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = " ...
. Building on his popularity, Dewey briefly ran for president in 1900, but withdrew and endorsed
William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...
, the incumbent, who won. The same year Dewey was appointed President of the
General Board of the United States Navy thumbnail, 350px, The General Board of the U.S. Navy in November, 1947. From left to right: Colonel Randolph M. Pate; Admiral Walter F. Boone; Admiral Charles H. McMorris; Admiral John H. Towers; Rear Admiral Charles B. Momsen; Captain Leon J. Huff ...
, where he would play a key role in the growth of the U.S. Navy until his death in January 1917.
Dewey Square Dewey Square is a square In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerne ...
in Boston is named after Commodore Dewey, as is Dewey Beach, Delaware.
Union Square, San Francisco Union Square is a public plaza bordered by Geary Street, Geary, Powell Street (San Francisco), Powell, Post and Stockton Street (San Francisco), Stockton Streets in downtown San Francisco, California. "Union Square" also refers to the central sh ...

Union Square, San Francisco
features a tall
monument A monument is a type of structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to ...

monument
to Admiral George Dewey's victory at the Battle of Manila Bay.


Order of battle

Vessels engaged in actual combat during the Battle of Manila Bay ranged in size from 5,870 tons (''Olympia'') to 492 tons (''Marques del Duero'')."The Battle of Manila Bay" by Patrick McSherry
from spanamwar.com. Retrieved on 10 October 2007


United States

Engaged Vessels: * , flagship,
protected cruiser Protected cruisers, a type of naval cruiser A cruiser is a type of warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces A militar ...

protected cruiser
of 5,870 tons, with four 8-inch guns mounted in pairs on two turrets, plus ten 5-inch guns and six torpedo tubes. Top speed 20 knots. She is now a museum ship at the
Independence Seaport Museum The Independence Seaport Museum (formerly the Philadelphia Maritime Museum) was founded in 1961 and is located in the Penn's Landing complex along the Delaware River in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state ...
, in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...
. * , protected cruiser of 4,600 tons, with four 8-inch guns on single mounts, plus six 6-inch guns. Top speed 20 knots. * , protected cruiser of 3,200 tons, with one 6-inch and ten 5-inch guns. Top speed 19 knots. * , protected cruiser of 3,200 tons, with two 8-inch and six 6-inch guns. Top speed 13 knots. * ,
gunboat A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to shore bombardment, bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for troopship, ferrying troops or au ...
of 1,710 tons with six 6-inch guns. Top speed 17 knots. * , gunboat of 867 tons with four 6-inch guns. Top speed 12 knots. Despite the superiority of the American artillery, the success rate of their guns was minimal, a total of 5,859 shells were expended during the battle. Excluding shells fired at land targets and the unengaged vessels, only 145 hit the seven Spanish engaged vessels. The ''Reina Cristina'' and ''Castilla'' suffered 81 hits between them, the ''Don Antonio de Ulloa'' was hit 33 times, the ''Don Juan de Austria'' 13, the ''Marques del Duero'' 10, the ''Isla de Cuba'' five and the ''Isla de Luzón'' was hit three times. Unengaged vessels: * The
Revenue Cutter A cutter is a type of watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properti ...
, the
collier Collier or colliers may refer to: Coal industry * Collier, coal miner or coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of o ...
and the (a supply vessel) were directed to keep out of the main action because of their light armament and lack of armor. The ''McCulloch''s chief engineer, Francis B. Randall, died of a heart attack.


Spain

Engaged Vessels: * , flagship,
unprotected cruiser An Unprotected Cruiser was a type of naval warship in use during the late Victorian or pre-dreadnought Pre-dreadnought battleships were sea-going battleship A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of la ...
of 3,042 tons, with six 6.4-inch guns. The fastest Spanish vessel with a top speed of 16 knots. * , unprotected cruiser of 3,289 tons, with four 5.9-inch and two 4.7-inch guns. The vessel's 8-inch guns had been removed to equip the shore batteries. The ship was used as a floating battery as the temporary repair of the leaks had immobilized her propeller shaft. * , unprotected cruiser of 1,152 tons, with two 4.7-inch guns on the starboard side. Under repair with her engines ashore. Her entire port side armament had been removed to equip the shore batteries. * , unprotected cruiser of 1,152 tons, with four 4.7-inch guns. Top speed 13 knots. * , protected cruiser of 1,030 tons, with six 4.7-inch guns. Top speed 14 knots. * , protected cruiser of 1,030 tons, with six 4.7-inch guns. Top speed 14 knots. * , gunboat of 492 tons, with one 6.4-inch and two 4.7-inch guns. Top speed 10 knots. Unengaged Vessels: * ''Mindanao'',
transport ship on 14 June 1943, rehearsing for landings on New Georgia Image:USSHamblenAPA114.jpg, 300px, , a underway with its complement of landing craft A troopship (also troop ship or troop transport or trooper) is a ship used to carry soldiers, either i ...
of 1,900 tons, with 2 secondary rapid fire guns. 77 men. * , unprotected cruiser of 1,152 tons. Her boilers were ashore being repaired. All her guns were apparently removed to the Caballo Island Battery. 145 men. * ''El Coreo'', gunboat of 560 tons, with three 4.7-inch guns, three secondary rapid-fire guns, and 1 torpedo tube. 115 men. * ''General Lezo'', gunboat of 520 tons, with two 4.7-inch guns which were apparently removed to El Fraile Island, 2 secondary rapid-fire guns, and 1 torpedo tube. 115 men. * ''Argos'', gunboat of 508 tons, with one 3.5-inch gun. 87 men. The Spanish vessels had 19 torpedo tubes between them but no serviceable torpedoes. Shore Defenses * Fort San Antonio Abad: Built 1584. Located in
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are ...

Manila
. Various guns with only the 9.4-inch having enough range to reach Dewey's ships at their closest approach. * Fort San Felipe: Built 1609. A small castle built on a
sandbar In oceanography, geomorphology, and Earth science, geoscience, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank (geography), bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material and rises from the bed of a body of ...
protected by a breakwater and separated from
Cavite City , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng Kabite, cbk, Ciudad de Cavite), is a Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, in the Philippines. According to the , it has a population of people. The city was the capital of Cavite province from the ...

Cavite City
by a
moat A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle A castle is a type of fortification, fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility or royalty and by Mili ...

moat
. * Cavite Fort: Fortified naval base and shipyard in Cavite City located adjacent to Fort San Felipe. *
Corregidor Corregidor Island ( tl, Pulo ng Corregidor ) is an island located at the entrance of Manila Bay in the southwestern part of Luzon in the Philippines. Due to this location, Corregidor has historically been fortification, fortified with coastal ar ...

Corregidor
battery: Entrance to
Manila Bay Manila Bay ( fil, Look ng Maynila) is a natural harbor A harbor (American English) or harbour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) (synonym: haven) is a sheltered body o ...

Manila Bay
. Did not fire. * battery: Entrance to Manila Bay. Did not fire. * El Fraile battery: Entrance to Manila Bay. Fired three rounds before ''Raleigh'' silenced it after hitting the battery with a single shell. * Cañacao battery: Located in the town of Cañacao. Armed with a single 4.7-inch gun. Did not fire. * Sangley Point battery: Located at the Sangley Point Naval Base. Armed with three 64-lb and two 5.9-inch guns (which were the only ones to fire.) * Malate battery: Located in the Manila district of
Malate Malic acid is an organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavi ...
. Did not fire. The batteries were supplemented with the guns removed from Montojo's fleet. The Corregidor, Caballo and El Fraile batteries had a combined total of 17 guns.


Gallery

The United States Navy ships: File:Baltimore (Cruiser 3). Starboard bow, 1891 - NARA - 512896.tif, , 1891 File:Raleigh (Cruiser 8). Starboard bow, ca. 1900 - NARA - 512958.tif, , 1900 File:Boston (protected). Port bow, 1891 - NARA - 512892.tif, , 1891 File:Concord.jpg, , circa 1890s File:Petrel1.jpg, File:USRC McCulloch, circa 1900.jpg, USRC ''McCulloch'', circa 1900 The destroyed Spanish ships after the battle: File:Sunken Reina Cristina 3.jpg,
Wreck of the ''Reina Cristina''
File:Castilla wreck.jpg,
Wreck of the ''Castilla''
File:Wreck of Don Antonio de Ulloa.jpg,
Wreck of the ''Don Antonio de Ulloa''
File:Wreck of protected cruiser Isla de Cuba.jpg,
Wreck of the ''Isla de Cuba''
File:Wreck of protected cruiser Isla de Luzón.jpg,
Wreck of the ''Isla de Luzon''
File:Wreck of Velasco (2).jpg,
Wreck of the ''Velasco''


See also

*
Battle of Manila (disambiguation)Battle of Manila may refer to: Land battles * Battle of Manila (1570), Spanish forces from Mexico vs. Muslims from Brunei * Battle of Manila (1574), Chinese Pirate Warlord "Limahong" vs. the Spanish * Battle of Manila (1762), British take Manila d ...
*
Battles of the Spanish–American War A battle is an occurrence of combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or devic ...
* Philippine–American War * List of naval battles


Notes


References


Additional References

* Nofi, Albert A., ''The Spanish American War, 1898'', 1997. * Carrasco García, Antonio, ''En Guerra con Los Estados Unidos: Cuba, 1898'', Madrid: 1998. * Freidel, Frank Burt. ''The Splendid Little War''. Boston: Little, Brown, 1958. * Blow, Michael. ''A Ship to Remember: The Maine and the Spanish–American War''. New York : Morrow, 1992. . *


External links


Spanish–American War Centennial Website


(archived fro

on 2009-10-26) * {{DEFAULTSORT:Manila Bay Naval battles of the Spanish–American War Conflicts in 1898 Philippine–American War
Battle of Manila Bay The Battle of Manila Bay ( fil, Labanan sa Look ng Maynila; es, Batalla de Bahía de Manila), also known as the Battle of Cavite, took place on 1 May 1898, during the Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – ...
United States Marine Corps in the 18th and 19th centuries Manila Bay May 1898 events