BackgroundThe was approaching the two-year point, and the British changed their plans. They decided to split the and isolate from what they believed to be the more middle and southern colonies. The British command devised a plan to divide the colonies with a three-way in 1777. Ketchum (1997), pp. 84–85 The western pincer under the command of was to progress from Ontario through western New York, following the Mohawk River, Ketchum (1997), p. 335 and the southern pincer was to progress up the Hudson River valley from New York City. Ketchum (1997), p. 82 The northern pincer was to proceed southward from Montreal, and the three forces were to meet in the vicinity of , severing New England from the other colonies. Ketchum (1997), p. 348
British situationBritish General moved south from the in June 1777 to gain control of the upper valley. His campaign had become bogged down in difficulties following a victory at Fort Ticonderoga. Elements of the army had reached the upper Hudson as early as the end of July, but logistical and supply difficulties delayed the main army at Fort Edward. One attempt to alleviate these difficulties failed when nearly 1,000 men were killed or captured at the August 16 . Ketchum (1997), p. 320 Furthermore, news reached Burgoyne on August 28 that St. Leger's expedition down the valley had turned back after the failed . Ketchum (1997), p. 332 General William Howe had taken his army from New York City by sea on a campaign to capture Philadelphia instead of moving north to meet Burgoyne. Nickerson (1967), p. 189 Most of Burgoyne's Indian support had fled following the loss at Bennington, and his situation was becoming difficult. Nickerson (1967), p. 265 He needed to reach defensible winter quarters, requiring either retreat back to Ticonderoga or advance to Albany, and he decided to advance. He then deliberately cut communications to the north so that he would not need to maintain a chain of heavily fortified outposts between his position and Ticonderoga, and he decided to cross the Hudson River while he was in a relatively strong position. Nickerson (1967), pp. 290–95 He ordered , who commanded the rear of the army, to abandon outposts from Skenesboro south, and then had the army cross the Hudson just north of Saratoga between September 13 and 15. Nickerson (1967), p. 296
American situationThe had been in a slow retreat since Burgoyne's capture of Ticonderoga early in July, under the command of Major General , and was encamped south of . On August 19, Major General assumed command from Schuyler, whose political fortunes had fallen over the loss of Ticonderoga and the ensuing retreat. Ketchum (1997), p. 337 Gates and Schuyler were from very different backgrounds and did not get along with each other; they had previously argued over command issues in the army's Northern Department. Ketchum (1997), pp. 52–53 The army was growing in size because of increased militia turnout following calls by state governors, the success at Bennington, and widespread outrage over the slaying of Jane McCrea, the fiancée of a Loyalist in Burgoyne's army by Indians under Burgoyne's command. Nickerson (1967), p. 288 General 's strategic decisions also improved the situation for Gates' army. Washington was most concerned about the movements of General Howe. He was aware that Burgoyne was also moving, and he took some risks in July. He sent aid north in the form of Major General , his most aggressive field commander, and Major General , a Massachusetts man noted for his influence with the New England militia. Nickerson (1967), p. 180 He ordered 750 men from 's forces defending the New York highlands to join Gates' army in August, before he was certain that Howe had indeed sailed south. He also sent some of the best forces from his own army: Colonel and the newly formed Provisional Rifle Corps, which comprised about 500 specially selected riflemen from , , and , chosen for their ability. Nickerson (1967), p. 216 This unit came to be known as . On September 7, Gates ordered his army to march north. A site was selected for its defensive potential that was known as Bemis Heights, just north of Stillwater and about south of Saratoga; the army spent about a week constructing defensive works designed by Polish engineer . The heights had a clear view of the area and commanded the only road to Albany, where it passed through a defile between the heights and the . To the west of the heights lay more heavily forested bluffs that would present a significant challenge to any heavily equipped army. Ketchum (1997), pp. 347–48
First Saratoga: Battle of Freeman's Farm (September 19)
PreludeMoving cautiously, since the departure of his Native American support had deprived him of reliable reports on the American position, Burgoyne advanced to the south after crossing the Hudson. Nickerson (1967), p. 299 On September 18 the vanguard of his army had reached a position just north of Saratoga, about from the American defensive line, and skirmishes occurred between American scouting parties and the leading elements of his army. Nickerson (1967), p. 300 The American camp had become a bed of festering intrigue ever since Arnold's return from Fort Stanwix. While he and Gates had previously been on reasonably good terms in spite of their prickly egos, Arnold managed to turn Gates against him by taking on officers friendly to Schuyler as staff, dragging him into the ongoing feud between the two. Ketchum (1997), pp. 351–52 These conditions had not yet reached a boil on September 19, but the day's events contributed to the situation. Gates had assigned the left wing of the defenses to Arnold, and assumed command himself of the right, which was nominally assigned to General Lincoln, whom Gates had detached in August with some troops to harass the British positions behind Burgoyne's army. Ketchum (1997), pp. 352, 355 Both Burgoyne and Arnold understood the importance of the American left, and the need to control the heights there. After the morning fog lifted around 10 am, Burgoyne ordered the army to advance in three columns. Baron Riedesel led the left column, consisting of the German troops and the 47th Foot, on the river road, bringing the main artillery and guarding supplies and the boats on the river. General commanded the center column, consisting of the 9th, , 21st, and 62nd regiments, which would attack the heights, and General Simon Fraser led the right wing with the 24th Regiment and the and companies, to turn the American left by negotiating the heavily wooded high ground north and west of Bemis Heights. Ketchum (1997), p. 357 Arnold also realized such a flanking maneuver was likely, and petitioned Gates for permission to move his forces from the heights to meet potential movements, where the American skill at woodlands combat would be at an advantage. Ketchum (1997), p. 356 Gates, whose preferred strategy was to sit and wait for the expected frontal assault, grudgingly permitted a consisting of Daniel Morgan's men and 's light infantry. Nickerson (1967), pp. 307–08 When Morgan's men reached an open field northwest of Bemis Heights belonging to Loyalist John Freeman, they spotted British advance troops in the field. Fraser's column was slightly delayed and had not yet reached the field, while Hamilton's column had also made its way across a ravine and was approaching the field from the east through dense forest and difficult terrain. Riedesel's force, while it was on the road, was delayed by obstacles thrown down by the Americans. The sound of gunfire to the west prompted Riedesel to send some of his artillery down a track in that direction. The troops Morgan's men saw were an advance company from Hamilton's column. Ketchum (1997), pp. 358–60
BattleMorgan placed marksmen at strategic positions, who then picked off virtually every officer in the advance company. Morgan and his men then charged, unaware that they were headed directly for Burgoyne's main army. While they succeeded in driving back the advance company, Fraser's leading edge arrived just in time to attack Morgan's left, scattering his men back into the woods. Ketchum (1997), p. 360 , who had ridden forward to observe the fire, returned to the American camp for reinforcements. As the British company fell back toward the main column, the leading edge of that column opened fire, killing a number of their own men. Nickerson (1967), p. 309 There was then a lull in the fighting around 1:00 pm as Hamilton's men began to form up on the north side of the field, and American reinforcements began to arrive from the south. Learning that Morgan was in trouble, Gates ordered out two more regiments ( and 3rd New Hampshire) to support him, Ketchum (1997), p. 362 with additional regiments ( 2nd New York, 4th New York, the 1st Canadian, and Connecticut militia) from the brigade of to follow. Luzader (2008), p. 240 Burgoyne arrayed Hamilton's men with the 21st on the right, the 20th on the left, and the 62nd in the center, with the 9th held in reserve. Nickerson (1967), p. 310 The battle then went through phases alternating between intense fighting and breaks in the action. Morgan's men had regrouped in the woods, and picked off officers and artillerymen. They were so effective at reducing the latter that the Americans several times gained brief control of British field pieces, only to lose them in the next British charge. At one point it was believed that Burgoyne himself had been taken down by a sharpshooter; it was instead one of Burgoyne's aides, riding a richly dressed horse, who was the victim. The center of the British line was very nearly broken at one point, and only the intervention of General Phillips, leading the 20th, made it possible for the 62nd to reform. Nickerson (1967), pp. 310–12 In the memoir of Roger Lamb, a British soldier present at the battle, he wrote
InterludeBurgoyne's council discussed whether to attack the next day, and a decision was reached to delay further action at least one day, to September 21. The army moved to consolidate the position closer to the American line while some men collected their dead. The attack on the 21st was called off when Burgoyne received a letter dated September 12 from Henry Clinton, who was commanding the British garrison in New York City. Clinton suggested that he could "make a push at Montgomery">ortMontgomery in about ten days." (Fort Montgomery was an American post on the Hudson River, in the New York Highlands south of ). If Clinton left New York on September 22, "about ten days" after he wrote the letter, he still could not hope to arrive in the vicinity of Saratoga before the end of the month. Burgoyne, running low on men and food, was still in a very difficult position, but he decided to wait in the hope that Clinton would arrive to save his army. Ketchum (1997), pp. 375–76 Burgoyne wrote to Clinton on September 23, requesting some sort of assistance or diversion to draw Gates' army away. Nickerson (1967), p. 343 Clinton sailed from New York on October 3, and captured Forts Montgomery and Clinton on October 6. Nickerson (1967), pp. 345–51 The furthest north any of his troops reached was Clermont, where they raided the of the prominent Patriot on October 16. Nickerson (1967), p. 405 Unknown to either side at Saratoga, General Lincoln and Colonel John Brown had staged an attack against the British position at Fort Ticonderoga. Lincoln had collected 2,000 men at Bennington by early September. Ketchum (1997), p. 376 Brown and a detachment of 500 men captured poorly defended positions between Ticonderoga and Lake George, and then spent several days ineffectually bombarding the fort. These men, and some of the prisoners they freed along the way, were back in the American camp by September 29. Ketchum (1997), pp. 377–79 Nickerson (1967), pp. 324–26 In the American camp, the mutual resentment between Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold finally exploded into open hostility. Gates quickly reported the action of September 19 to the and Governor George Clinton of New York, but he failed to mention Arnold at all. The field commanders and men universally credited Arnold for their success. Almost all the troops involved were from Arnold's command and Arnold was the one directing the battle while Gates sat in his tent. Arnold protested, and the dispute escalated into a shouting match that ended with Gates relieving Arnold of his command and giving it to Benjamin Lincoln. Arnold asked for a transfer to Washington's command, which Gates granted, but instead of leaving he remained in his tent. Ketchum (1997), pp. 385–88 There is no documentary evidence for a commonly recounted anecdote that a petition signed by line officers convinced Arnold to stay in camp. Luzader (2008), p. 271 During this period there were almost daily clashes between pickets and patrols of the two armies. Morgan's sharpshooters, familiar with the strategy and tactics of woodland warfare, constantly harassed British patrols on the western flank. As September passed into October it became clear that Clinton was not coming to help Burgoyne, who put the army on short rations on October 3. Nickerson (1967), p. 333 The next day, Burgoyne called a war council in which several options were discussed, but no conclusive decisions were made. When the council resumed the next day, Riedesel proposed retreat, in which he was supported by Fraser. Burgoyne refused to consider it, insisting that retreat would be disgraceful. They finally agreed to conduct an assault on the American left flank with two thousand men, more than one-third of the army, on October 7. Nickerson (1967), pp. 356–57 The army he was attacking, however, had grown in the interval. In addition to the return of Lincoln's detachment, militiamen and supplies continued to pour into the American camp, including critical increases in ammunition, which had been severely depleted in the first battle. Nickerson (1967), p. 326–27 The army Burgoyne faced on October 7 was more than 12,000 men strong and was led by a man who knew how much trouble Burgoyne was in. Gates had received consistent intelligence from the stream of deserters leaving the British lines and had also intercepted Clinton's response to Burgoyne's plea for help. Nickerson (1967), p. 353
Second Saratoga: Battle of Bemis Heights (October 7)
British forayWhile Burgoyne's troop strength was nominally higher, he likely had only about 5,000 effective, battle-ready troops on October 7, as losses from the earlier battles in the campaign and desertions following the September 19 battle had reduced his forces. Nickerson (1967), p. 358 General Riedesel advised that the army retreat. Burgoyne decided to reconnoiter the American left flank to see if an attack was possible. As an escort, the generals took Fraser's Advanced Corps, with light troops and the 24th Foot on the right and the combined British grenadiers on the left, and a force drawn from all the German regiments in the army in the center. There were eight British cannon under Major Williams and two Hesse-Hanau cannon under Captain Pausch. Leaving their camp between 10 and 11 am, they advanced about three-quarters of a mile (1 km) to Barber's wheat field on a rise above Mill Brook, where they stopped to observe the American position. While the field afforded some room for artillery to work, the flanks were dangerously close to the surrounding woods. Nickerson (1967), pp. 359–60 Gates, following the removal of Arnold from the field command, assumed command of the American left and gave the right to General Lincoln. When American scouts brought news of Burgoyne's movement to Gates, he ordered Morgan's riflemen out to the far left, with Poor's men ( , 2nd, and 3rd ) on the left; the 2nd and 4th New York Regiments on the right, and Learned's 1st New York, 1st Canadian, 2nd, 8th and Regiments, plus militia companies, in the center. A force of 1,200 New York militia under Brigadier General was held in reserve behind Learned's line. Nickerson (1967), p. 360 In all, more than 8,000 Americans took the field that day, Luzader (2008), pp. 284–85 including about 1,400 men from Lincolns command that were deployed when the action became particularly fierce. Luzader (2008), p. 286 The opening fire came between 2 and 2:30 pm from the British grenadiers. Poor's men held their fire, and the terrain made the British shooting largely ineffective. When Major Acland led the British grenadiers in a bayonet charge, the Americans finally began shooting at close range. Acland fell, shot in both legs, and many of the grenadiers also went down. Their column was a total rout, and Poor's men advanced to take Acland and Williams prisoner and capture their artillery. Nickerson (1967), p. 361 On the American left, things were also not going well for the British. Morgan's men swept aside the Canadians and Native Americans to engage Fraser's regulars. Although slightly outnumbered, Morgan managed to break up several British attempts to move west. While General Fraser was mortally wounded in this phase of the battle, Ketchum (1997), p. 400 a frequently told story claiming it to be the work of Timothy Murphy, one of Morgan's men, appears to be a 19th-century fabrication. Luzader (2008), p. xxii The fall of Fraser and the arrival of Ten Broeck's large militia brigade (which roughly equaled the entire British reconnaissance force in size), broke the British will, and they began a disorganized retreat toward their entrenchments. Burgoyne was also very nearly killed by one of Morgan's marksmen; three shots hit his horse, hat, and waistcoat. Nickerson (1967), p. 364 The first phase of the battle lasted about one hour and cost Burgoyne nearly 400 men, including the capture of most of the grenadiers' command, and six of the ten field pieces brought to the action.
American attackAt this point, the Americans were joined by an unexpected participant. General Arnold, who was "betraying great agitation and wrath" in the American camp, and may have been drinking, rode out to join the action. Luzader (2008), p. 285 Nickerson (1967), p. 362 Gates immediately sent Major Armstrong after him with orders to return; Armstrong did not catch up with Arnold until the action was effectively over. (A letter, written by a witness to proceedings in the camp, suggests that Arnold did in fact have authorization from Gates to engage in this action.) The defenses on the right side of the British camp were anchored by two redoubts. The outermost one was defended by about 300 men under the command of the Hessian Heinrich von Breymann, while the other was under the command of . A small contingent of Canadians occupied the ground between these two fortifications. Most of the retreating force headed for Balcarres' position, as Breymann's was slightly north and further away from the early action. Nickerson (1967), p. 365 Arnold led the American chase, and then led Poor's men in an attack on the Balcarres redoubt. Balcarres had set up his defenses well, and the redoubt was held, in action so fierce that Burgoyne afterwards wrote, "A more determined perseverance than they showed … is not in any officer's experience". Luzader (2008), p. 287 Seeing that the advance was checked, and that Learned was preparing to attack the Breymann redoubt, Arnold moved toward that action, recklessly riding between the lines and remarkably emerging unhurt. He led the charge of Learned's men through the gap between the redoubts, which exposed the rear of Breymann's position, where Morgan's men had circled around from the far side. Luzader (2008), pp. 291–95 In furious battle, the redoubt was taken and Breymann was killed. Nickerson (1967), p. 366 Arnold's horse was hit in one of the final volleys, and Arnold's leg was broken by both shot and the falling horse. Major Armstrong finally caught up with Arnold to officially order him back to headquarters; he was carried back in a litter. Nickerson (1967), p. 367 The capture of Breymann's redoubt exposed the British camp, but darkness was setting in. An attempt by some Germans to retake the redoubt ended in capture as darkness fell and an unreliable guide led them to the American line. Nickerson (1967), p. 368
SurrenderBurgoyne had lost 1,000 men in the two battles, leaving him outnumbered by roughly 3 to 1; American losses came to about 500 killed and wounded. Burgoyne had also lost several of his most effective leaders, his attempts to capture the American position had failed, and his forward line was now breached. After the second battle, Burgoyne lit fires at his remaining forward positions and withdrew under the cover of darkness. He withdrew his men 10–15 miles north, near present-day . By the morning of October 8, he was back in the fortified positions he had held on September 16. On October 13, with his army surrounded, Burgoyne held a council of war to propose terms of surrender. Riedesel suggested that they be and allowed to march back to Canada without their weapons. Burgoyne felt that Gates would not even consider such terms, asking instead to be conveyed to Boston, where they would sail back to Europe. After several days of negotiations, the two sides signed the capitulation. On October 17, Burgoyne surrendered his army to Gates. The British and German troops were accorded the traditional honors of war as they marched out to surrender. The troops formed the , named after the convention that granted them safe passage back to Europe. However, the Continental Congress revoked the convention, and the Convention Army was kept in captivity until the end of the war.
AftermathBurgoyne's failed campaign marked a major turning point in the war. General Burgoyne returned to England and was never given another commanding position in the . The British learned that the Americans would fight bravely and effectively. Said one British officer: In recognition of his contribution to the battles at Saratoga, General Arnold had his seniority restored (he had lost it after being passed over for promotion earlier in 1777). Randall (1990), p. 372 However, Arnold's leg wound left him bedridden for five months. Murphy (2007), p. 168 Later, while still unfit for field service but serving as military governor of Philadelphia, Arnold entered into treasonous correspondence with the British. He received command of the fort at West Point and plotted to hand it over to the British, only to flee into the British lines when the capture of his contact John Andre led to the exposure of the plot. Arnold went on to serve under William Phillips, the commander of Burgoyne's right wing, in a 1781 expedition into Virginia.#Pancake, Pancake (1985), pp. 147–51 Although he left the direction of the battle to subordinates, General Gates received a great deal of credit as the commanding general for the greatest American victory of the war to date. He may have Conway Cabal, conspired with others to replace as the commander-in-chief.#PA1896, Historic Society of Pennsylvania (1896), p. 90 Instead, he received the command of the main American army in the South. He led it to a disastrous defeat at the 1780 Battle of Camden, where he was at the forefront of a panicked retreat. Luzader (2008), p. xxiii#Pancake, Pancake (1985), pp. 106–07 Gates never commanded troops in the field thereafter. In response to Burgoyne's surrender, Congress declared December 18, 1777, as a national day "for solemn Thanksgiving (United States), Thanksgiving and praise"; it was the nation's first official observance of a holiday with that name.
French aidOnce news of Burgoyne's surrender reached France, Louis XVI of France, King Louis XVI decided to enter into negotiations with the Americans that resulted in a formal Franco-American alliance and French entry into the war.Hubbard, Robert Ernest. ''General Rufus Putnam: George Washington's Chief Military Engineer and the "Father of Ohio,"'' p. 62, McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina. . This moved the conflict onto a global stage. Ketchum (1997), pp. 405–48 As a consequence, Britain was forced to divert resources used to fight the war in North America to theaters in the West Indies and Europe, and rely on what turned out to be the chimera of Loyalist support in its North American operations. Ketchum (1997), p. 447 Being defeated by the British in the French and Indian War more than a decade earlier, France found an opportunity to undercut British power and ultimately of revenge by aiding the colonists throughout the American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War. Prior to the Battle of Saratoga, France did not fully aid the colonists. However, after the Battles of Saratoga were conclusively won by the colonists, France realized that the Americans had the hope of winning the war, and began fully aiding the colonists by sending soldiers, donations, loans, military arms, and supplies.
LegacyThe battlefield and the site of Burgoyne's surrender have been preserved, and are now administered by the National Park Service as the , which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The park preserves a number of the buildings in the area and contains a variety of monuments.#NPS, Saratoga National Historical Park The Saratoga Monument obelisk has four niches, three of which hold statues of American commanders: Gates and Schuyler and of Colonel Daniel Morgan. The fourth niche, where Arnold's statue would go, is empty. A more dramatic memorial to Arnold's heroism, that does not name him, is the Boot Monument. Donated by American Civil War, Civil War General John Watts de Peyster, it shows a boot with spurs and the stars of a major general. It stands at the spot where Arnold was shot on October 7 charging Breymann's redoubt and is dedicated to "the most brilliant soldier of the Continental Army".#NPSBoot, Saratoga National Historical Park Tour Stop 7 Six Army National Guard units (101st Eng Bn, 102nd Inf, 125th QM Co, 181st Inf, 182nd Inf and 192nd MP Bn) are derived from American units that participated in the Battle of Saratoga. There are now only thirty units in the U.S. Army with Army National Guard and Active Regular Army Units with Colonial Roots, lineages that go back to the colonial era. There are a number of ships named after the battles including USS Saratoga (1842), USS ''Saratoga'' (1842), USS Saratoga (CV-3), USS ''Saratoga'' (CV-3), and USS Saratoga (CV-60), USS ''Saratoga'' (CV-60)
References in popular culture* In an episode of ''The Brady Bunch'' titled "Everyone Can't be George Washington", which originally aired on December 22, 1972, Peter (Christopher Knight (actor), Christopher Knight) is assigned the part of in a school play about the American Revolution. His teacher Miss Bailey incorrectly states that Benedict Arnold was wounded at the Battle of Saratoga when there was, in fact no single Battle of Saratoga. * In an episode of ''Designated Survivor (TV series), Designated Survivor'', the president faces a chemical terrorism, chemical terror threat, but his aides convince him to act normal while the threat is being investigated, by reminding him that George Washington held a ball during the battle of Saratoga. * The battles are described in Diana Gabaldon's "An Echo in the Bone" of the Outlander series.
See also* List of American Revolutionary War battles * American Revolutionary War#British northern strategy fails, American Revolutionary War § British northern strategy fails. Places 'Battles of Saratoga' in overall sequence and strategic context. *
Bibliography* * * Corbett, Theodore. (2012) ''No Turning Point: The Saratoga Campaign in Perspective.'' Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press. * (Paperback ) * * * * * * * * * *
Further reading* * * * * *