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Barotseland ( Lozi: Mubuso Bulozi) is a Kingdom between
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Namibia
,
Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn, Lefatshe la Botswana, label=Setswana; Kalanga language, Kalanga: ''Hango yeBotswana''), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 ...

Botswana
,
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Zimbabwe
,
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" ...

Zambia
and
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Angola
. It is the homeland of the
Lozi people Lozi people, or Barotse, are a southern African Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries. The term ''southern Africa'' or ''Southern Afr ...
or ''Barotse'', or Malozi, who are a unified group of over 20 individual formerly diverse tribes related through kinship, whose original branch are the Luyi (Maluyi), and also assimilated Southern Sotho tribe of South Africa known as the
Makololo The Kololo or Makololo are a subgroup of the Sotho-Tswana people native to Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the ...
. The Barotse speak
Silozi Lozi, also known as siLozi and Rozi, is a Bantu language The Bantu languages (English: , Proto-Bantu: *bantʊ̀) are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, ge ...
, a language most closely related to
Sesotho Sotho () or Sesotho () is a Southern Bantu languages, Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana languages, Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily by the Basotho people, Basotho in Lesotho, where it is the national language, national a ...
. Barotseland covers an area of 126,386 square kilometres, but is estimated to have been twice as large at certain points in its history. Once an empire, the Kingdom stretched into Namibia and Angola and included other parts of Zambia, including its central
Copperbelt Province Copperbelt Province is a province in Zambia which covers the mineral-rich Copperbelt, and farming and bush areas to the south. It was the backbone of the Northern Rhodesian economy during United Kingdom, British colonial rule and fuelled the hop ...
, south-west of the Democratic Republic of Congo's
Katanga Province Katanga was one of the four large provinces created in the Belgian Congo The Belgian Congo (french: link=no, Congo belge, ; nl, Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colonial empire, Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence ...
. Under the British colonial administration, Barotseland was a Protectorate of the British Crown from the late 19th-century. The Litunga, the Lozi word for the king of Barotseland, had negotiated agreements, first with the
British South African Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was Chartered company, chartered in 1889 following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd, which had originally competed to capital ...
(BSAC), and then with the British government that ensured the kingdom maintained much of its traditional authority according to the Litunga. Barotseland was essentially a nation-state, a protectorate within the larger protectorate of Northern
Rhodesia Rhodesia (, ), officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was an unrecognised state in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is p ...

Rhodesia
. In return for this protectorate status, the
Litunga The Litunga of Barotseland (now in Zambia) is the king of the Barotse people. The ''Litunga'' resides near the Zambezi River and the town of Mongu, at Lealui on the floodplain in the dry season, and on higher ground at Limulunga on the edge of the ...

Litunga
gave the BSAC mineral exploration rights in Barotseland. In 1964, Barotseland became part of Zambia when that country achieved independence. However, some people claim that Zambia has violated the Barotseland Agreement 1964, and seek independence from Zambia. In 2012, a group of traditional Lozi leaders, calling itself the Barotseland National Council, called for independence; other tribal chieftains oppose secession, however.


Geography

Its heartland is the
Barotse Floodplain The Barotse Floodplain A floodplain or flood plain or bottomlands is an area of land adjacent to a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In som ...
on the upper
Zambezi River The Zambezi River (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into th ...

Zambezi River
, also known as Bulozi or Lyondo, but it includes the surrounding higher ground of the plateau comprising all of what was the Western Province of Zambia. In pre-colonial times, Barotseland included some neighbouring parts of what are now the Northwestern,
Central Central is an adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign languag ...
and Southern Province as well as Caprivi in northeastern
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east a ...

Namibia
and parts of southeastern
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Angola
beyond the Cuando or Mashi River.


History


Origins

Before the advent of European explorers such as
David Livingstone David Livingstone (; 19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish physician, Congregationalist, and pioneer Christian missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote thei ...

David Livingstone
the Barotse had no written history, so the history was passed down by word of mouth. It is believed that the Barotse state was founded by Queen Mbuywamwambwa, the Lozi matriarch, over 500 years ago. Its people were migrants from the
Congo Congo may refer to either of two countries that border the Congo River The Congo River ( kg, Nzâdi Kôngo, french: Fleuve Congo, pt, Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa Africa ...
. Other ethnic groupings that constitute the current Barotse kingdom migrated from
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
,
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Angola
,
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...

Zimbabwe
,
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east a ...

Namibia
and
Congo Congo may refer to either of two countries that border the Congo River The Congo River ( kg, Nzâdi Kôngo, french: Fleuve Congo, pt, Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa Africa ...
. The Barotse (the Lozi) reached the Zambezi River in the 17th century and their kingdom grew until it comprised some 25 peoples from
Southern Rhodesia The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a landlocked self-governing colony, self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa, established in 1923 and consisting of British South Africa Company (BSAC) territories lying south of the Zambezi R ...
to the Congo and from Angola to the
Kafue River The Kafue River is the longest river lying wholly within Zambia at about long. Its water is used for irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the ke ...
. At the time, Barotseland was already a monarchy, when
Lealui Lealui or Lialui is the dry season The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics The tropics are the region of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to ...
and
Limulunga Limulunga is one of the two compounds of the Litunga, king of the Lozi people of western Zambia. It lies on high ground at the edge of the Barotse Floodplain of the Zambezi river, about 15 km north of the town of Mongu and 21 km east of ...

Limulunga
were seasonal capitals of the Lozi kings. A detailed investigation into the history of the Barotse was carried out in 1939 in connection with the Balovale Dispute, see below. In 1845 Barotseland had been conquered by the Makalolo (Kololo) from Lesotho – which is why the Barotse language, Silozi, is a variant of
Sesotho Sotho () or Sesotho () is a Southern Bantu languages, Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana languages, Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily by the Basotho people, Basotho in Lesotho, where it is the national language, national a ...
. The Makololo were in power when Livingstone visited Barotseland, but after thirty years the Luyi successfully overthrew the Kololo king.


British colonisation

Barotseland's status at the onset of the colonial era differed from the other regions which became Zambia. It was the first territory north of the Zambezi to sign a minerals concession and
protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency (sometimes referred as an external territory) is a territory that does not ...
agreement with the
British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was charteredChartered may refer to: * Charter, a legal document conferring rights or privileges ** University charter ** Chartered company * Chartered (professional), a professional credential * ...
(BSAC) of
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or ...
. This was prompted by Lewanika's fears of an invasion by the Matebele under Lobengula. By 1880, the kingdom was stabilised and King Lewanika signed a treaty on 26 June 1889 to provide the kingdom international recognition as a State. After the discovery of diamonds, King Lewanika began trading with Europe. The first trade concession was signed on 27 June 1889 with Harry Ware, in return King Lewanika and his kingdom were to be protected. Ware transferred his concession to Cecil Rhodes of the British South Africa Company. Seeking the improvement of the military protection and with the intention to sign a treaty with the British Government, King Lewanika signed on 26 June 1890 the Lochner concession putting Barotseland under the protection of the British South Africa Company. At that time, there was European administration in Southern Rhodesia, in Nyasaland further East, and the beginnings of European administration in what was then called North-Eastern Rhodesia (centred on Fort Jameson, now Chipata) and also North-Western Rhodesia - basically Barotseland. Later, these two were administratively combined as simply "Northern Rhodesia", later divided up in five Provinces and Barotseland, which was treated slightly differently from the rest. Later Lewanika protested to
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...
and to
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
that the BSAC agents had misrepresented the terms of the concession, but his protests fell on deaf ears, and in 1899 the United Kingdom proclaimed a protectorate and governed it as part of
Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia was a United Kingdom, British protectorate in southern Africa, south central Africa formed in 1899. It encompassed North-Western Rhodesia and Barotseland. The protectorate was Company rule in Rhodesia, administ ...
.Camerapix: "Spectrum Guide to Zambia." Camerapix International Publishing, Nairobi, 1996.


Balovale Dispute

In the 1930s, there was trouble between the Barotse and the
Balovale Zambezi is a town in the North-Western Province, Zambia, North-Western Province of Zambia, lying on the Zambezi River and the M8 road (Zambia), M8 road, west of Kabompo. It is known for the palaces of the chiefs of the Lunda people, Lunda and L ...
and
Balunda The Lunda (''Balunda'', ''Luunda'', ''Ruund'') are a Bantu peoples, Bantu ethnic group that originated in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo along the Kalanyi River and formed the Kingdom of Lunda in the 17th century under their rule ...
tribes who occupied the land to the north of the land occupied by the Barotse. The Barotse claimed that these were vassal tribes, while they claimed that they were not. Eventually, the Government set up a Commission to adjudicate, and the Barotse lost.


Barotseland Agreement 1964

On 18 May 1964, the Litunga and
Kenneth Kaunda Kenneth David Kaunda (28 April 1924 – 17 June 2021), also known as KK, Africa's Gandhi, was a Zambian politician who served as the first president of Zambia The president of Zambia is the head of state and the head of government of Zambi ...
Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia signed the "Barotseland Agreement 1964" which established Barotseland's position within Zambia in place of the earlier agreement between Barotseland and the British Government. The agreement was based on a long history of close social, economic and political interactions, but granted significant continued autonomy to Barotseland. The Barotseland Agreement granted Barotse authorities local self-governance rights and rights to be consulted on specified matters, including over land, natural resources and local government. It also established the Litunga of Barotseland as "the principal local authority for the government and administration of Barotseland", that he would remain in control of the "Barotse Native Government", the "Barotse Native Authorities", the courts known as the "Barotse Native Courts", "matters relating to local government", "land", "forests", "fishing", "control of hunting", "game preservation", the "Barotse native treasury", the supply of beer and "local taxation". There was also to be no appeal from Barotseland's courts to the courts of Zambia. Within a year of taking office as president of the newly independent Zambia on 24 October 1964, President Kenneth Kaunda began to introduce various acts that abrogated most of the powers allotted to Barotseland under the agreement. Notably, the Local Government Act of 1965 abolished the traditional institutions that had governed Barotseland and brought the kingdom under the administration of a uniform local government system. Then in 1969, the Zambian Parliament passed the Constitutional Amendment Act, annulling the Barotseland Agreement of 1964. Later that year the government changed Barotseland's name to Western Province and announced that all provinces would be treated "equally". The agreement's dissolution and the stubbornness of successive governments in ignoring repeated calls to restore it have fuelled the region's ongoing tension. One of the reasons why Kenneth Kaunda "revoked" the United Kingdom's Zambia Independence Act is reported to be that it called for the continuation of Barotseland. Barotseland independentists continued to lobby to be treated as a separate state and was given substantial
autonomy In developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions ...

autonomy
within the later states,
Northern Rhodesia Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in southern Africa, south central Africa, formed in 1911 by Amalgamation (politics), amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia.''Commonwealth ...
and independent Zambia. At the pre-Independence talks, the Barotse simply asked for a continuation of "Queen Victoria's protection".


Post-colonial era

A desire to secede was expressed from time to time, causing some friction with the government of
Kenneth Kaunda Kenneth David Kaunda (28 April 1924 – 17 June 2021), also known as KK, Africa's Gandhi, was a Zambian politician who served as the first president of Zambia The president of Zambia is the head of state and the head of government of Zambi ...
, reflected in Kaunda changing the name from Barotseland Province to Western Province, and subsequently tearing up the 1964 Agreement. According to Barotse activists' views, the government in
Lusaka Lusaka ( ) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Zambia. It is one of the fastest developing cities in southern Africa. Lusaka is in the southern part of the central plateau at an elevation of about . , the city's population was abou ...

Lusaka
also starved Barotseland of development – it has only one tarred road into the centre, from
Lusaka Lusaka ( ) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Zambia. It is one of the fastest developing cities in southern Africa. Lusaka is in the southern part of the central plateau at an elevation of about . , the city's population was abou ...

Lusaka
to the provincial capital of
Mongu Mongu is the capital of Western Province, Zambia, Western Province in Zambia and was the capital of the formerly-named province and historic state of Barotseland. Its population is 179,585 (2010 census), and it is also the headquarters of Mongu ...
, and lacks the kind of state infrastructure projects found in other provinces. Electricity supplies are erratic, relying on an ageing connection to the
hydroelectric Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from hydropower Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water Water (chemical formula H2O) is a ...
plant at Kariba. Consequently, secessionist views are still aired from time to time.


1993 Zambian High Court judgment

In an effort to solve the Barotseland issue within the legal framework the Republic of Zambia, His Majesty King Ilute Yeta III, took the matter to the High Court of Zambia, in which he sought for an interpretation of Article 4 and 8 of the Barotseland Agreement. On behalf of the Republic of Zambia, by then Attorney General, Mwelwa Chibesakunda, in the High Court clearly stated that the Barotseland Agreement was abrogated and terminated. On 4 December 1991, in a landmark Ruling, the High Court of Zambia ruled that the Barotseland Agreement 1964 was abrogated, and no longer exists. According to Bartose independentists, the judgment showed that the Zambian Government violated and rendered the Barotseland Agreement null and void. This clearly meant that there is no relationship between the two nations and there is nothing people can do to mend the broken relationship between Zambia and Barotseland, because the High Court had clearly stated that the Barotseland Agreement was terminated by introducing amendments to the laws. What remains now is an act of illegal occupation; Zambia has terminated the agreement and yet continues to enjoy the privileges and rights contained in the Barotseland Agreement. Pro-independence news website ''The Barotseland Post'' claimed that dissatisfaction grew.


2012 call for independence

In 2012, a Barotseland National Council accepted Zambia's abrogation of the Barotseland Agreement 1964, alleging to terminate the treaty by which Barotseland initially joined Zambia. In 2013, Barotseland became a member of the UNPO, the
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is an international organization established to facilitate the voices of unrepresented and marginalised nations and peoples worldwide. It was formed on 11 February 1991 in The Hague, Neth ...
, joining
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang people, Tamang, Qia ...

Tibet
and
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
at this international organisation dedicated to giving a voice to peoples who are currently unrepresented at the United Nations. Many modern States, including
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
,
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
and
East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt, República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country An island country o ...

East Timor
, were former members of the UNPO. Due to continuing human rights violations on the part of Zambia, in 2013 the Barotseland National Freedom Alliance also petitioned the
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR) is a quasi-judicial body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights and collective rights, collective (peoples') rights throughout the Africa, African continent as well as interpr ...
in
Banjul Banjul (,"Banjul"
(US) and
), officially the City of Ba ...
to examine Zambia's violations. This matter is currently being examined by the commission.


Politics


Institutions

The national flag of Barotseland has a red field and a white stripe The traditional constitutional monarchy of Barotseland has Nilotic origins with the kingdom originally divided into north and south. The north being ruled by a man, the King, called the
Litunga The Litunga of Barotseland (now in Zambia) is the king of the Barotse people. The ''Litunga'' resides near the Zambezi River and the town of Mongu, at Lealui on the floodplain in the dry season, and on higher ground at Limulunga on the edge of the ...

Litunga
meaning "keeper" or "guardian of the earth", and the south is ruled by a woman, Litunga la Mboela or Mulena Makwai, "Queen of the south". Both are allegedly directly descended from the ancient Litunga Mulambwa who ruled at the turn of the nineteenth century and through his grandson, Litunga
Lewanika Lewanika (1842–1916) (also known as Lubosi, Lubosi Lewanika or Lewanika I) was the Lozi Litunga The Litunga of Barotseland (now in Zambia) is the king of the Barotse people. The ''Litunga'' resides near the Zambezi River and the town of Mongu ...
who ruled from 1878–1916, with one break in 1884–1885, who restored the traditions of the Lozi political economy in the arena of the invasion by the
Makololo The Kololo or Makololo are a subgroup of the Sotho-Tswana people native to Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the ...
, internal competition, external threats such as that posed by the Matabele and the spread of
European colonialism European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convent ...
. The government of Barotseland is the Kuta, presided over by the Ngambela (Prime Minister).


Current situation

Activists claim Barotseland is now theoretically independent from Zambia, on the basis of the Zambian High Court ruling (see below) that the 1964 Agreement was unilaterally abrogated by Zambia as being null and void (see above) – i.e., Zambia washed its hands of Barotseland, which therefore reverted to the situation that existed before Zambian Independence; i.e. that Barotseland remains a Protectorate of Great Britain. However, Britain does not want to get involved.


Political parties

In the 1962 elections, the Barotse National Party was established to contest the two Barotseland districts, as part of an electoral alliance with the
United Federal Party The United Federal Party (UFP) was a political party in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. History The UFP was formed in November 1957 by a merger of the Federal Party (Rhodesia and Nyasaland), Federal Party, which had operated at the fede ...
. In both districts, the BNP candidate heavily lost to the UNIP candidate. Currently, there are three groups who claim to represent Barotseland. In January 2012, The president of Zambia, Mr.
Michael Sata Michael Charles Chilufya Sata (6 July 1937 – 28 October 2014) was a Zambian politician who was the fifth president of Zambia, from 23 September 2011 until his death on 28 October 2014. A social democrat, he led the Patriotic Front (Zambia), Pa ...

Michael Sata
met the representatives of the three groups at the Zambian State House in
Lusaka Lusaka ( ) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Zambia. It is one of the fastest developing cities in southern Africa. Lusaka is in the southern part of the central plateau at an elevation of about . , the city's population was abou ...

Lusaka
. The groups are Linyungandambo, Barotse Freedom Movement (BFM) and the Movement for the Restoration of Barotseland. Experts have said that these three groups may become political parties should Barotseland gain independence. Fighting between the three groups has already surfaced. An article which appeared on the Zambian Watchdog purported to be authored by a BFM representative condemned the activities of Linyungandambo group. The BFM accused the Linyungandambo of having set up Barotseland Government portal website without consultations, and included BFM members in the purported Barotseland Government without their consents, and in disregard of the effort being made by Mr. Sata to find a lasting solution. The author, Mr. Shuwanga Shuwanga went on to also reveal how the Linyungandambo had refused to work with the BFM back in 2011. The various activist groups championing the self-determination of Barotseland have since formed one umbrella organisation called the Barotse National Freedom Alliance (BNFA) which is headed by the former Ngambela of Barotseland Clement W. Sinyinda.


Public protests and demonstrations


2010

Two protesters were shot and killed when police opened fire on a crowd in Mongu, Western Province. A previously unknown group the Barotse Freedom Movement (BFM) organised the protest to raise awareness about the need to restore the 1964 Barotse Agreement. Police immediately moved in as protesters gathered in the morning for the protest and dispersed the gathering saying it is illegal.


2011

On 14 January 2011, thousands of
Mongu Mongu is the capital of Western Province, Zambia, Western Province in Zambia and was the capital of the formerly-named province and historic state of Barotseland. Its population is 179,585 (2010 census), and it is also the headquarters of Mongu ...
residents in Western Province most of them youths rioted demanding the restoration of the Barotseland Agreement of 1964. During the riot at least two people were left dead while about 120 were arrested, charged with treason and detained Mumbwa Prisons for nine months. Ngambela of Barotseland Maxwell Mututwa, Ex Prime Minister of Barotseland was sent in 2011 to prison at the age of 92 by the State of Zambia following the riots in
Mongu Mongu is the capital of Western Province, Zambia, Western Province in Zambia and was the capital of the formerly-named province and historic state of Barotseland. Its population is 179,585 (2010 census), and it is also the headquarters of Mongu ...
, Barotseland.


2012

Hundreds of people were arrested and prosecuted over 14 January 2011 riots that left at least two dead and several others injured.


2014

Barotseland Administrator General, Hon. Afumba Mombotwa and three other members of the Barotseland Provisional Government were arrested by Zambian police and spirited away to Mumbwa Prison, and then to Kabwe Prison, and charged that on unknown date but between 1 March 2012 and 20 August 2013 while in
Sioma district Sioma District is a Districts of Zambia, district of Zambia, located in Western Province, Zambia, Western Province on the west bank of the Zambezi River. The capital lies at Sioma. The district was created in 2012 by the then president Michael Sa ...
the four, Hon. Afumba Mombotwa, Hon. Kalima Inambao, Hon. Pelekelo Kalima and Hon. Paul Masiye jointly acting together with unknown people conspired to secede "Western Province" (Barotseland) from the rest of Zambia. On 26 January 2015, the Mwembeshi magistrate court ruled that their case be committed to Kabwe High court for commencement of trial, the prisoners having been in maximum incarceration since 5 December 2014.


References


External links

{{Litungas of Barotseland Geography of Zambia Zambezi River Former monarchies of Africa Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization Former countries in Africa