HOME

TheInfoList




Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th
president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch, executive branch of the Federal gover ...

president of the United States
from 2009 to 2017. A member of the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
, Obama was the first African-American president of the United States. He previously served as a
U.S. senator The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Rep ...
from
Illinois Illinois ( ) is a in the region of the . Of the fifty U.S. states, it has the , population, and the . is the state's largest city and the fifth with the capital in , located in the center of the state; other major metropolitan areas in ...

Illinois
from 2005 to 2008 and as an
Illinois state senator The Illinois Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly, the legislative branch of the government of the U.S. state, State of Illinois in the United States. The body was created by the first state constitution adop ...
from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in
Honolulu Honolulu (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lo ...

Honolulu
,
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
. After graduating from
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
. In 1988, he enrolled in
Harvard Law School Harvard Law School (HLS) is the of in . Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the country. Each class in the three-year program has approximately 560 st ...
, where he was the first black person to be president of the ''
Harvard Law Review The ''Harvard Law Review'' is a law review A law review (or law journal) is a scholarly journal or publication that focuses on a wide array of legal issues. A law review is a type of legal periodical. Typically, the law students initiate the p ...
''. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the
University of Chicago Law School The University of Chicago Law School is the professional graduate of the . It is consistently ranked among the best and most prestigious law schools in the world, and has produced many in the judiciary, academia, government, politics and busi ...
from 1992 to 2004. Turning to elective politics, he represented the 13th district in the
Illinois Senate The Illinois Senate is the upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly The Illinois General Assembly is the bicameral state legislature (United States), legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois and comprises the Illinois House of Representat ...
from 1997 until 2004, when he ran for the U.S. Senate. Obama received national attention in 2004 with his March Senate primary win, his well-received July
Democratic National Convention The Democratic National Convention (DNC) is a series of presidential nominating conventions held every four years since 1832 by the United States Democratic Party The Democratic Party is one of the two 2 (two) is a number, numeral (lin ...
keynote address A keynote in public speaking Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is giving speech face to face to a live audience. However, due to the evolution of public speaking, it is modernly viewed as any form of speaking (formally and in ...
, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated by the Democratic Party for president a year after beginning his campaign, and after
a close primary campaign
a close primary campaign
against
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the from 2009 to 2013, as a from from 2001 to 2009, and as from 1993 to 2001 as the wife ...

Hillary Clinton
. Obama was elected over
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
nominee
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
in the
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
and was
inaugurated In government and politics, inauguration is the process of Oath of office, swearing a person into Public administration, office and thus making that person the incumbent. Such an inauguration commonly occurs through a formal ceremony or special ev ...
alongside his running mate,
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
, on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the
2009 Nobel Peace Prize The 2009 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to United States President Barack Obama for his "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between people". The Norwegian Nobel Committee announced the award on October 9, 2 ...
laureate. Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office. The main reforms that were passed include the
Affordable Care Act The Affordable Care Act (ACA), formally known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and colloquially known as Obamacare, is a United States U.S. federal law, federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed i ...
(commonly referred to as ACA or "Obamacare"), although without a
public health insurance option The public health insurance option, also known as the public insurance option or the public option, is a proposal to create a government-run health insurance agency that would compete with other private health insurance companies within the United S ...
, the
Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank) is a United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a co ...
, and the
Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 The Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 (, ) is a landmark United States federal statute enacted in December 2010 that established a process for ending the " don't ask, don't tell" (DADT) policy (), thus allowing gay, lesbian, and bisex ...
. The
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) (), nicknamed the Recovery Act, was a Stimulus (economics), stimulus package enacted by the 111th U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in February 2009. Developed i ...
and
Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 (), also known as the 2010 Tax Relief Act, was passed by the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislatu ...
served as economic stimuli amidst the
Great Recession The Great Recession was a period of marked general decline (recession In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution ( ...
. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...
, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia
New START New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) (Russian abbrev.: СНВ-III, ''SNV-III'' from ''сокращение стратегических наступательных вооружений'' "reduction of strategic offensive arms") is a nucl ...
treaty, and ended military involvement in the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
. He ordered military involvement in Libya for the implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 1973, contributing to the overthrow of
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Ling ...
. He also ordered the military operation that resulted in the killing of Osama bin Laden. After winning
re-election The incumbent is the current holder of an official, office or position, usually in relation to an election. For example, in an election for president, the incumbent is the person holding or acting in the office of president before the election, ...
by defeating Republican opponent
Mitt Romney Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American politician and businessman serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Utah since January 2019, succeeding Orrin Hatch ...

Mitt Romney
, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusion for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
to strike down
same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights and obli ...

same-sex marriage
bans as unconstitutional (''
United States v. Windsor ''United States v. Windsor'', 570 U.S. 744 (2013), is a landmark United States Supreme Court civil rights case concerning same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage of two people of the same sex or g ...
'' and '' Obergefell v. Hodges''); same-sex marriage was
legalized
legalized
nationwide in 2015 after the Court ruled so in ''Obergefell''. He advocated for
gun control Gun control (or firearms regulation) is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians. Overview of gun laws by nation, Most countries have a restrictive f ...
in response to the
Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting occurred on December 14, 2012, in Newtown, Connecticut, United States, when 20-year-old Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people, including 20 children between six and seven years old, and six adult staff m ...
, indicating support for a ban on
assault weapons The term assault weapon is used in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consist ...
, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been , but the current changes are more rapid than any known events in Earth's history. The main cau ...

global warming
and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by
ISIL {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st ...
after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015
Paris Agreement The Paris Agreement (french: l'accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), on climate change mitigation, Climate change adaptation, adaptation, and Climate finance, finance, signed i ...
on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after interference in the 2016 U.S. elections, brokered the JCPOA nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba. Obama nominated three justices to the Supreme Court:
Sonia Sotomayor Sonia Maria Sotomayor (; born June 25, 1954) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was Sonia Sotomayor Supreme Court nomination, nominated by Preside ...

Sonia Sotomayor
and
Elena Kagan Elena Kagan (; born April 28, 1960) is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was nominated by President Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorn ...
were confirmed as justices, while
Merrick Garland Merrick Brian Garland (born November 13, 1952) is an American attorney and jurist serving as the 86th United States Attorney General, United States attorney general since March 2021. He served as a United States federal judge, United States circ ...

Merrick Garland
faced partisan
obstruction Obstruction may refer to: Places * Obstruction Island, in Washington state * Obstruction Islands, east of New Guinea Medicine * Obstructive jaundice * Obstructive sleep apnea * Airway obstruction, a respiratory problem ** Recurrent airway obstru ...
from the
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
-led
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
led by
Mitch McConnell Addison Mitchell McConnell III (born February 20, 1942) is an American politician and retired attorney serving as Party leaders of the United States Senate, Senate Minority Leader since 2021 and as the Seniority in the United States Senate, sen ...

Mitch McConnell
, which never held hearings or a vote on the nomination. Obama left office in January 2017 and continues to reside in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
During Obama's terms in office, the United States' reputation abroad, as well as the American economy, significantly improved. Obama's presidency has generally been regarded favorably, and evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, and the general public frequently place him among the upper tier of American presidents.


Early life and career

Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in
Honolulu Honolulu (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lo ...

Honolulu
, Hawaii. He is the only president born outside the contiguous 48 states. He was born to an American mother of European descent and an African father. His mother,
Ann Dunham Stanley Ann Dunham (November 29, 1942 – November 7, 1995) was an American anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Societ ...
(1942–1995), was born in
Wichita, Kansas Wichita ( ) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Sedgwick County, Kansas, Sedgwick County. As of the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, the population of the city was 397,532. The Wichita metro area had ...
; she was mostly of English descent, with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry. In July 2012,
Ancestry.com Ancestry.com LLC is a privately held A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a corporation not owned by the government, non-governmental organizations and by a relatively small number of shareholders or company member ...
found a strong likelihood that Dunham was descended from John Punch, an enslaved African man who lived in the
Colony of Virginia , legislature = House of Burgesses (1619–1776) , today = , demonym = , area_km2=, area_rank=, GDP_PPP=, GDP_PPP_year=, HDI=, HDI_year= The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was ...
during the seventeenth century."Ancestry.com Discovers Ph Suggests"
, ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''. July 30, 2012.
Obama's father,
Barack Obama Sr. Barack Hussein Obama Sr. (; 18 June 1934 – 24 November 1982) was a Kenyan senior governmental economist and the father of Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who serve ...
(1936–1982), was a married Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a
Russian language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European lang ...
class at the
University of Hawaii at Manoa A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary Tertiary ( ) is a widely used, but obsolete term for the Period (geology), geologic period from 66 million to 2.6 million years ago. The period beg ...
, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship.Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. * Scott (2011), pp. 80–86. * Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118. * Maraniss (2012), pp. 154–160. The couple married in
Wailuku, Hawaii Wailuku is a (CDP) in and county seat of , , United States. The population was 17,697 at the . Wailuku is located just west of , at the mouth of the . In the early 20th century Wailuku was the main tourist destination on Maui, though it has sin ...
, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, a few weeks after he was born, Barack and his mother moved to the
University of Washington The University of Washington (UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of Washington
in
Seattle Seattle ( ) is a port, seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the county seat, seat of King County, Washington, King County, Washington (state), Washington. With a 2020 population of 737,015, it is the largest city in bo ...

Seattle
, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bran ...

economics
in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962. He left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
, where he earned an
M.A. A Master of Arts ( la, Magister Artium or ''Artium Magister''; abbreviated MA or AM) is the holder of a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch ...
in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me—that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk—barely registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage. In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro at the
University of Hawaii A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavio ...

University of Hawaii
; he was an
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian w ...
East–West Center The East–West Center (EWC), or the Center for Cultural and Technical Interchange Between East and West, is an education and research organization established by the U.S. Congress in 1960 to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples ...
graduate student Student receives degree from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City, 2013 A graduate school (sometimes shortened to grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (e.g., master's degree, master's ...
in
geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...

geography
. The couple married on
Molokai Molokai , or Molokai (), is the fifth most populated of the eight major islands that make up the Hawaiian Islands archipelago in the middle of the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divis ...

Molokai
on March 15, 1965. After two one-year extensions of his
J-1 visa A J-1 visa is a non-immigrant visa issued by the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It ...
, Lolo returned to
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
in 1966. His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in 1967. The family initially lived in the Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet sub district of
south Jakarta South Jakarta ( id, Jakarta Selatan, or Jaksel) is one of the five Cities of Indonesia, administrative cities (''kota administrasi'') which form the Jakarta, Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Indonesia. South Jakarta is not Self-governance, self-g ...
. From 1970, they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the
Menteng Menteng is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipa ...
sub district of
central Jakarta Central Jakarta ( id, Jakarta Pusat) is one of the five administrative cities (''kota administrasi'') which form the Special Capital Region of Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibuk ...
.


Education

When he was six years old, Obama and his mother moved to Indonesia to join his step-father; from age six to ten, he attended local schools: ''Sekolah Dasar Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi'' (St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Elementary School) for two years and ''Sekolah Dasar Negeri Menteng 01'' (State Elementary School Menteng 01) for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language
Calvert School Calvert School, founded in 1897, is an Independent school, independent, non-sectarian, co-educational lower and middle school located in Baltimore, Maryland. Calvert School is a member of the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) ...
homeschooling by his mother. As a result of those four years in
Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the lette ...

Jakarta
, he was able to speak
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian w ...

Indonesian
fluently as a child. During his time in Indonesia, Obama's step-father taught him to be resilient and gave him "a pretty hardheaded assessment of how the world works". In 1971, Obama returned to
Honolulu Honolulu (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lo ...

Honolulu
to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham. He attended
Punahou School Punahou School (known as Oahu College until 1934) is a private, co-educational Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education, or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education Educa ...
—a private
college preparatory school A college-preparatory school (usually shortened to preparatory school or prep school) is a type of secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this ...
—with the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in 1979. In his youth, Obama went by the nickname "Barry". Obama lived with his mother and half-sister, , in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
at the
University of Hawaii A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavio ...

University of Hawaii
. Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at
Punahou Punahou School (known as Oahu College until 1934) is a private, co-educational, college preparatory school in Honolulu, Hawaii. More than 3,700 students attend the school from kindergarten through twelfth grade, 12th grade. Protestant missionary, ...
when his mother and half-sister returned to Indonesia in 1975, so his mother could begin anthropology field work. His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
degree in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following unsuccessful treatment for
ovarian The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilized by a sperm. There is an ovary () found on each side of the bo ...
and
uterine cancer Uterine cancer, also known as womb cancer, are two types of cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or Metastasis, spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors ...
. Obama later reflected on his years in Honolulu and wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered—to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect—became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear." Obama has also written and talked about using
alcohol In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethan ...
,
marijuana Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), ...

marijuana
, and
cocaine Cocaine (from , from , ultimately from Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''kúka'') is a tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug obtained primarily from the leaves of two coca species native to South America, ''Erythroxylum coca'' and ''Erythroxylu ...

cocaine
during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind". Obama was also a member of the "choom gang", a self-named group of friends who spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana. After graduating from high school in 1979, Obama moved to
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
to attend
Occidental College Occidental College (informally Oxy) is a Private university, private liberal arts college in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1887 as a coeducational college by clergy and members of the Presbyterian Church, it became non-sectarian in 1910. It ...
on a full scholarship. In February 1981, Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the
disinvestment from South Africa Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest against South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid-1980s. The disinvestment campaign, after being ...
in response to that nation's policy of
apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

apartheid
. In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
for three weeks. Later in 1981, he transferred to
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
as a
junior Junior or Juniors may refer to: Sport * Junior athletics, age-based athletic training and completion category * Instances of junior athletic competition: ** Junior football (disambiguation) ** Atlético Junior, Colombian football team ** Argentin ...
, where he majored in
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
with a specialty in
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
and in
English literature Literature written in the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by ...

English literature
and lived off-campus on West 109th Street. He graduated with a
Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to ...
degree in 1983 and a 3.7
GPA The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit SI derived units are units of measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, ...

GPA
. After graduating, Obama worked for about a year at the
Business International Corporation Business International Corporation (BI) was a publishing and advisory firm dedicated to assisting American companies in operating abroad. It was founded in 1953. It organized conferences, and worked with major corporations. It has ties to the Centra ...
, where he was a financial researcher and writer, then as a project coordinator for the New York Public Interest Research Group on the City College of New York campus for three months in 1985.


Family and personal life

In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of family of Barack Obama, his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations," he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher." Obama has a half-sister with whom he was raised (Maya Soetoro-Ng) and seven other half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family—six of them living. Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham, until her death on November 2, 2008, two days before his election to the Presidency. Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall in May 2011. In ''Dreams from My Father'', Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also shares distant ancestors in common with George W. Bush and Dick Cheney, among others. Obama lived with anthropologist Sheila Miyoshi Jager while he was a community organizer in Chicago in the 1980s. He proposed to her twice, but both Jager and her parents turned him down. The relationship was not made public until May 2017, several months after his presidency had ended. In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Obama, Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin. Robinson was assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, and she joined him at several group social functions but declined his initial requests to date. They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992. After suffering a miscarriage, Michelle underwent in vitro fertilization to conceive their children. The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998, followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001. The Obama daughters attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the Sidwell Friends School. The Obamas have two Portuguese Water Dogs; the first, a male named Bo (dog), Bo, was a gift from Senator Ted Kennedy. In 2013, Bo was joined by Sunny (dog), Sunny, a female. Obama is a supporter of the Chicago White Sox, and he threw out the first pitch at the 2005 American League Championship Series, 2005 ALCS when he was still a senator. In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the 2009 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, All-Star Game while wearing a White Sox jacket. He is also primarily a Chicago Bears football fan in the National Football League, NFL, but in his childhood and adolescence was a Steeler Nation, fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers, and rooted for them ahead of their victory in Super Bowl XLIII 12 days after he took office as president. In 2011, Obama invited the 1985 Chicago Bears season, 1985 Chicago Bears to the White House; the team had not visited the White House after their Super Bowl XX, Super Bowl win in 1986 due to the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team, and he is left-handed. In 2005, the Obama family applied the proceeds of a book deal and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6million house (equivalent to $million in ) in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago. The purchase of an adjacent lot—and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezko—attracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama. In December 2007, ''Money (magazine), Money Magazine'' estimated Obama's net worth at $1.3million (equivalent to $million in ) . Their 2009 tax return showed a household income of $5.5million—up from about $4.2million in 2007 and $1.6million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books. On his 2010 income of $1.7million, he gave 14 percent to non-profit organizations, including $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation, a charity assisting wounded veterans' families, allowing them to reside near where the veteran is receiving medical treatments. Per his 2012 financial disclosure, Obama may be worth as much as $10million. In early 2010, Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said Barack had quit smoking. On his 55th birthday, August 4, 2016, Obama penned an essay in Glamour (magazine), ''Glamour'', in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a feminist.


Religious views

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life. He wrote in ''The Audacity of Hope'' that he "was not raised in a religious household". He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person... I have ever known", and "a lonely witness for secular humanism". He described his father as a "confirmed Atheism, atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful". Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a Community organizing, community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change". In January 2008, Obama told ''Christianity Today'': "I am a Christian, and I am a devout Christian. I believe in the Redeemer (Christianity), redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life." On September 27, 2010, Obama released a statement commenting on his religious views, saying:
I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't—frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead—being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, Golden Rule, treating others as they would treat me.
Obama met Trinity United Church of Christ pastor Jeremiah Wright in October 1987 and became a member of Trinity in 1992. During Obama's first presidential campaign in May 2008, he resigned from Trinity after Jeremiah Wright controversy, some of Wright's statements were criticized. Since moving to Washington, D.C., in 2009, the Obama family has attended several Protestant churches, including Shiloh Baptist Church (Washington, D.C.), Shiloh Baptist Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, Lafayette Square, St. John's Episcopal Church, as well as Evergreen Chapel at Camp David, but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis. In 2016 he said that he gets inspiration from a few items that remind him "of all the different people I've met along the way". He said that "I carry these around all the time. I'm not that superstitious, so it's not like I think I necessarily have to have them on me at all times". The items, "a whole bowl full", include rosary beads given to him by Pope Francis, a figurine of the Hindu deity Hanuman, a Coptic cross from Ethiopia, a small Buddha statue given by a monk, and a silver poker chip that used to be the lucky charm of a biker in Iowa.


Law career


Community organizer and Harvard Law School

Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama moved from New York to Chicago when he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project, a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland, Chicago, Roseland, West Pullman, Chicago, West Pullman, and Riverdale, Chicago, Riverdale on Chicago's South Side, Chicago, South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988. He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens Homes (Chicago, Illinois), Altgeld Gardens. * Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute. In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his Family of Barack Obama#Paternal relations, paternal relatives for the first time. Despite being offered a full scholarship to Northwestern University School of Law, Obama enrolled at
Harvard Law School Harvard Law School (HLS) is the of in . Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the country. Each class in the three-year program has approximately 560 st ...
in the fall of 1988, living in nearby Somerville, Massachusetts. He was selected as an editor of the ''
Harvard Law Review The ''Harvard Law Review'' is a law review A law review (or law journal) is a scholarly journal or publication that focuses on a wide array of legal issues. A law review is a type of legal periodical. Typically, the law students initiate the p ...
'' at the end of his first year, * * * Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92. president of the journal in his second year, * * * * and research assistant to the constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe while at Harvard for two years. During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as a Associate attorney#Summer associates, summer associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990. After graduating with a Juris Doctor, JD degree ''magna cum laude'' from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago. Obama's election as the List of African-American firsts, first black president of the ''Harvard Law Review'' gained national media attention and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations, * Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii. which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as ''Dreams from My Father''.


University of Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney

In 1991, Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the
University of Chicago Law School The University of Chicago Law School is the professional graduate of the . It is consistently ranked among the best and most prestigious law schools in the world, and has produced many in the judiciary, academia, government, politics and busi ...
to work on his first book. He then taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years, first as a lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and then as a senior lecturer from 1996 to 2004. From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading ''Crain's Chicago Business'' to name Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be. He joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate attorney, associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004. In 1994, he was listed as one of the lawyers in ''Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank'', 94 C 4094 (N.D. Ill.). This Class-action lawsuit, class action lawsuit was filed in 1994 with Selma Buycks-Roberson as lead plaintiff and alleged that Citibank Federal Savings Bank had engaged in practices forbidden under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act. The case was settled out of court. Final judgment was issued on May 13, 1998, with Citibank Federal Savings Bank agreeing to pay attorney fees. His law license became inactive in 2007. From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago—which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project—and of the Joyce Foundation. He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.


Legislative career


Illinois Senate (1997–2004)

Obama was elected to the
Illinois Senate The Illinois Senate is the upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly The Illinois General Assembly is the bicameral state legislature (United States), legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois and comprises the Illinois House of Representat ...
in 1996, succeeding Democratic State Senator Alice Palmer (politician), Alice Palmer from Illinois's 13th District, which, at that time, spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park, Chicago, Hyde Park–Kenwood, Chicago, Kenwood south to South Shore, Chicago, South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn, Chicago, Chicago Lawn. Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws. He sponsored a law that increased tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare. In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and Predatory lending, predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures. He was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in 2002. In 2000, he lost a 2000 Illinois's 1st congressional district election, Democratic primary race for Illinois's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one. In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority. He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations. During his 2004 general election campaign for the U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting Capital punishment in the United States, death penalty reforms. Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.


2004 U.S. Senate campaign

In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race. He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod (political consultant), David Axelrod by August 2002. Obama formally announced his candidacy in January 2003. Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq. On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the Iraq Resolution, joint resolution authorizing the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
, Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago Protests against the Iraq War, anti-Iraq War rally, and spoke out against the war. He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd "it's not too late" to stop the war. Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald (politician), Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving 15 candidates. In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an unexpected landslide—which overnight made him a rising star within the Democratic National Committee, national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, ''Dreams from My Father''. In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, seen by nine million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party. Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan (politician), Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004. Six weeks later, Alan Keyes accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan. In the 2004 United States Senate election in Illinois, November 2004 general election, Obama won with 70 percent of the vote, the largest margin of victory for a Senate candidate in Illinois history. He took 92 of the state's 102 counties, including several where Democrats traditionally do not do well.


U.S. Senate (2005–2008)

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, 2005, becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus. ''Congressional Quarterly, CQ Weekly'' characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes from 2005 to 2007. Obama announced on November 13, 2008, that he would resignation from the United States Senate, resign his Senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame duck (politics), lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.


=Legislation

= Obama Sponsor (legislative), cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act. He introduced two initiatives that bore his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction concept to conventional weapons; and the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending. On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama—along with Senators Tom Carper, Tom Coburn, and
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
—introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008. Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee. Regarding tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008, FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07), NSA warrantless wiretapping operations. In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor. In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007. Obama also introduced two unsuccessful bills: the Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections, and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007. Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges. This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008. He sponsored the Disinvestment from Iran, Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which was never enacted but later incorporated in the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010; and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism. Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program, providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.


=Committees

= Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Foreign Relations, United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Environment and Public Works and United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs, Veterans' Affairs through December 2006. In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on United States Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Europe and Regional Security Cooperation, European Affairs. As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.


Presidential campaigns


2008

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol State Historic Site (Illinois), Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois. The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic Lincoln's House Divided Speech, "House Divided" speech in 1858. Obama emphasized issues of rapidly ending the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
, increasing Energy policy of the United States, energy independence, and Health care reform in the United States, reforming the health care system, in a campaign that projected themes of hope and change. Numerous candidates entered the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries, Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the from 2009 to 2013, as a from from 2001 to 2009, and as from 1993 to 2001 as the wife ...

Hillary Clinton
after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged Delegate (American politics), delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules. On June 7, 2008, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama. On August 23, 2008, Obama announced his 2008 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection, selection of Delaware Senator
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
as his vice presidential running mate. Obama selected Biden from a field speculated to include former Indiana Governor and Senator Evan Bayh and Virginia Governor Tim Kaine. At the 2008 Democratic National Convention, Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in his support. Obama delivered his acceptance speech, not at the center where the Democratic National Convention was held, but at Invesco Field at Mile High to a crowd of about eighty-four thousand; the speech was viewed by over three million people worldwide. During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations. On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down Campaign finance in the United States#Public financing of campaigns, public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected Sarah Palin as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three United States presidential election debates, presidential debates in September and October 2008. On November 4, Obama won the presidency with 365 Electoral College (United States), electoral votes to 173 received by McCain. Obama won 52.9 percent of the Election, popular vote to McCain's 45.7 percent. He became the first African American to be elected president. Obama delivered Barack Obama election victory speech, 2008, his victory speech before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's Grant Park (Chicago), Grant Park.


2012

On April 4, 2011, Obama announced his reelection campaign for 2012 in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the Federal Election Commission. As the incumbent president, he ran virtually unopposed in the Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2012, Democratic Party presidential primaries, and on April 3, 2012, Obama had secured the 2778 2012 Democratic National Convention, convention delegates needed to win the Democratic nomination. At the 2012 Democratic National Convention, Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, Obama and
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
were formally nominated by former President Bill Clinton as the Democratic Party candidates for president and vice president in the general election. Their main opponents were Republicans
Mitt Romney Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American politician and businessman serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Utah since January 2019, succeeding Orrin Hatch ...

Mitt Romney
, the former governor of Massachusetts, and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin. On November 6, 2012, Obama won 332 Electoral College (United States), electoral votes, exceeding the 270 required for him to be reelected as president. With 51.1 percent of the popular vote, Obama became the first Democratic president since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win the List of United States presidential elections by popular vote margin, majority of the popular vote twice. Obama addressed supporters and volunteers at Chicago's McCormick Place after his reelection and said: "Tonight you voted for action, not politics as usual. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties."


Presidency (2009–2017)


First 100 days

The First inauguration of Barack Obama, inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th president took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and Presidential memorandum, presidential memoranda directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq. He ordered the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, but Congress prevented the closure by refusing to appropriate the required funds and preventing moving any Guantanamo detainee into the U.S. or to other countries. Obama reduced the secrecy given to presidential records. He also revoked President George W. Bush's restoration of President Ronald Reagan's Mexico City policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.


Domestic policy

The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits. Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover an additional four million uninsured children. In March 2009, Obama reversed a Bush-era policy that had limited funding of embryonic stem cell research and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research. Obama appointed two women to serve on the Supreme Court in the first two years of his presidency. He nominated
Sonia Sotomayor Sonia Maria Sotomayor (; born June 25, 1954) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was Sonia Sotomayor Supreme Court nomination, nominated by Preside ...

Sonia Sotomayor
on May 26, 2009 to replace retiring Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Associate Justice David Souter; she was confirmed on August 6, 2009, becoming the first Supreme Court Justice of Hispanic descent. Obama nominated
Elena Kagan Elena Kagan (; born April 28, 1960) is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was nominated by President Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorn ...
on May 10, 2010 to replace retiring Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. She was confirmed on August 5, 2010, bringing the number of women sitting simultaneously on the Court to three justices for the first time in American history. On March 30, 2010, Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, a Reconciliation (United States Congress), reconciliation bill that ended the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increased the Pell Grant scholarship award, and made changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In a Space policy of the Barack Obama administration, major space policy speech in April 2010, Obama announced a planned change in direction at NASA, the U.S. space agency. He ended plans for a return of human spaceflight to the moon and development of the Ares I rocket, Ares V rocket and Constellation program, in favor of funding Earth science projects, a new rocket type, and research and development for an eventual crewed mission to Mars, and ongoing missions to the International Space Station. President Obama's 2011 State of the Union Address focused on themes of education and innovation, stressing the importance of innovation economics to make the United States more competitive globally. He spoke of a five-year freeze in domestic spending, eliminating tax breaks for oil companies and reversing tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, banning congressional Earmark (politics), earmarks, and reducing healthcare costs. He promised the United States would have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 and set a goal for 80 percent reliance on "Sustainable energy, clean" electricity by 2035.


LGBT rights

On October 8, 2009, Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, a measure that expanded the Hate crime laws in the United States#Federal prosecution of hate crimes, 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability. On October 30, 2009, Obama lifted the ban on travel to the United States by those infected with HIV, which was celebrated by Immigration Equality. On December 22, 2010, Obama signed the
Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 The Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 (, ) is a landmark United States federal statute enacted in December 2010 that established a process for ending the " don't ask, don't tell" (DADT) policy (), thus allowing gay, lesbian, and bisex ...
, which fulfilled a key promise made in the 2008 presidential campaign to end the don't ask, don't tell policy of 1993 that had prevented gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the United States Armed Forces. In 2016, the Pentagon also ended the policy that barred Transgender personnel in the United States military, transgender people from serving openly in the military. As a candidate for the Illinois state senate in 1996, Obama had said he favored legalizing
same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights and obli ...

same-sex marriage
. By the time of his Senate run in 2004, he said he supported civil unions and domestic partnerships for same-sex partners but opposed same-sex marriages. In 2008, he reaffirmed this position by stating "I believe marriage is between a man and a woman. I am not in favor of gay marriage." On May 9, 2012, shortly after the official launch of his campaign for re-election as president, Obama said his views had evolved, and he publicly affirmed his personal support for the legalization of same-sex marriage, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to do so. During his second Second inauguration of Barack Obama, inaugural address on January 21, 2013, Obama became the first U.S. president in office to call for full equality for gay Americans: "Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law—for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well." This was the first time that a president mentioned LGBT rights in the United States, gay rights or the word "gay" in an inaugural address. In 2013, the Obama Administration filed briefs that urged the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
to rule in favor of same-sex couples in the cases of ''Hollingsworth v. Perry'' (regarding
same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights and obli ...

same-sex marriage
) and ''
United States v. Windsor ''United States v. Windsor'', 570 U.S. 744 (2013), is a landmark United States Supreme Court civil rights case concerning same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage of two people of the same sex or g ...
'' (regarding the Defense of Marriage Act). Then, following the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in '' Obergefell v. Hodges'' (ruling same-sex marriage to be a fundamental right), Obama asserted that, "This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free." On July 30, 2015, the White House Office of National AIDS Policy revised its strategy for addressing the disease, which included widespread testing and linkage to healthcare, which was celebrated by the Human Rights Campaign.


White House advisory and oversight groups

On March 11, 2009, Obama created the White House Council on Women and Girls, which formed part of the White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, having been established by with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to the welfare of American women and girls.''Executive Order 13506'', Washington, DC: President Barack Obama, The White House, March 11, 2009, Obama, B. Retrieved January 27, 2014. The council was chaired by Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett. Obama also established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault through a government memorandum on January 22, 2014, with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to sexual assault on college and university campuses throughout the United States. The co-chairs of the Task Force were Vice President
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
and Jarrett. The Task Force was a development out of the White House Council on Women and Girls and Office of the Vice President of the United States, and prior to that the 1994 Violence Against Women Act first drafted by Biden.


Economic policy

On February 17, 2009, Obama signed the
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) (), nicknamed the Recovery Act, was a Stimulus (economics), stimulus package enacted by the 111th U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in February 2009. Developed i ...
, a $787billion stimulus (economics), economic stimulus package aimed at helping the economy recover from the Great Recession, deepening worldwide recession. The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and tax incentive, incentives, and direct assistance to individuals. In March 2009, Obama's Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, took further steps to manage the financial crisis of 2007–08, financial crisis, including introducing the Public–Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets, which contains provisions for buying up to twotrillion dollars in depreciated real estate assets. Obama intervened in the automotive industry crisis of 2008–10, troubled automotive industry in March 2009, renewing loans for General Motors and Chrysler to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the Chrysler Chapter 11 reorganization, sale of Chrysler to Italian automaker Fiat and a General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization, reorganization of GM giving the U.S. government a temporary 60 percent equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government taking a 12 percent stake. In June 2009, dissatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus, Obama called on his cabinet to accelerate the investment. He signed into law the Car Allowance Rebate System, known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers", which temporarily boosted the economy. The Bush and Obama administrations authorized spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve System, Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department. These guarantees totaled about $11.5trillion, but only $3trillion had been spent by the end of November 2009. Obama and the Congressional Budget Office predicted the 2010 2010 United States federal budget, budget deficit would be $1.5trillion or 10.6 percent of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) compared to the 2009 deficit of $1.4trillion or 9.9 percent of GDP. For 2011, the administration predicted the deficit would shrink to $1.34trillion, and the 10-year deficit would increase to $8.53trillion or 90 percent of GDP. The most recent increase in the U.S. United States debt ceiling, debt ceiling to $17.2trillion took effect in February 2014. On August 2, 2011, after a lengthy congressional debate over whether to raise the nation's debt limit, Obama signed the bipartisan Budget Control Act of 2011. The legislation enforces limits on discretionary spending until 2021, establishes a procedure to increase the debt limit, creates a Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose further deficit reduction with a stated goal of achieving at least $1.5trillion in budgetary savings over 10 years, and establishes automatic procedures for reducing spending by as much as $1.2trillion if legislation originating with the new joint select committee does not achieve such savings. By passing the legislation, Congress was able to prevent a Federal government of the United States, U.S. government Default (finance), default on its obligations. As it did throughout 2008, the unemployment rate rose in 2009, reaching a peak in October at 10.0 percent and averaging 10.0 percent in the fourth quarter. Following a decrease to 9.7 percent in the first quarter of 2010, the unemployment rate fell to 9.6 percent in the second quarter, where it remained for the rest of the year. Between February and December 2010, employment rose by 0.8 percent, which was less than the average of 1.9 percent experienced during comparable periods in the past four employment recoveries. By November 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 7.7 percent, decreasing to 6.7 percent in the last month of 2013. During 2014, the unemployment rate continued to decline, falling to 6.3 percent in the first quarter. GDP growth returned in the third quarter of 2009, expanding at a rate of 1.6 percent, followed by a 5.0 percent increase in the fourth quarter. Growth continued in 2010, posting an increase of 3.7 percent in the first quarter, with lesser gains throughout the rest of the year. In July 2010, the Federal Reserve System, Federal Reserve noted that economic activity continued to increase, but its pace had slowed, and chairman Ben Bernanke said the economic outlook was "unusually uncertain". Overall, the economy expanded at a rate of 2.9 percent in 2010. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and a broad range of economists credit Obama's stimulus plan for economic growth. The CBO released a report stating that the stimulus bill increased employment by 1–2.1million, while conceding that "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package." Although an April 2010, survey of members of the National Association for Business Economics showed an increase in job creation (over a similar January survey) for the first time in two years, 73 percent of 68 respondents believed the stimulus bill has had no impact on employment. The economy of the United States has grown faster than the other original NATO members by a wider margin under President Obama than it has anytime since the end of World War II. The OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development credits the much faster growth in the United States to the stimulus plan of the U.S. and the austerity measures in the European Union. Within a month of the 2010 United States elections, 2010 midterm elections, Obama announced a compromise deal with the Congressional Republican leadership that included a temporary, two-year extension of the Bush tax cuts, 2001 and 2003 income tax rates, a one-year Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax, payroll tax reduction, continuation of unemployment benefits, and a new rate and exemption amount for Estate tax in the United States, estate taxes. The compromise overcame opposition from some in both parties, and the resulting $858billion
Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 (), also known as the 2010 Tax Relief Act, was passed by the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislatu ...
passed with bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress before Obama signed it on December 17, 2010. In December 2013, Obama declared that growing Income inequality in the United States, income inequality is a "defining challenge of our time" and called on Congress to bolster the safety net and raise wages. This came on the heels of the Fast food worker strikes, nationwide strikes of fast-food workers and Pope Francis' criticism of inequality and trickle-down economics. Obama urged Congress to ratify a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership.


Environmental policy

While campaigning, Obama expressed hope that Congress would regulate greenhouse gases and that, as a second-best route, such regulation would come from the Environmental Protection Agency. On September 30, 2009, the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories, and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been , but the current changes are more rapid than any known events in Earth's history. The main cau ...

global warming
. On April 20, 2010, an explosion destroyed an offshore drilling rig at the Macondo Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a Deepwater Horizon oil spill, major sustained oil leak. Obama visited the Gulf, announced a federal investigation, and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by United States Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings. He then announced a six-month moratorium on new deepwater drilling permits and leases, pending regulatory review. As multiple efforts by BP failed, some in the media and public expressed confusion and criticism over various aspects of the incident, and stated a desire for more involvement by Obama and the federal government. In July 2013, Obama expressed reservations and said he "would reject the Keystone XL pipeline if it increased carbon pollution" or "greenhouse emissions". Obama's advisers called for a halt to petroleum exploration in the Arctic in January 2013. On February 24, 2015, Obama vetoed a bill that would have authorized the pipeline. It was the third veto of Obama's presidency and his first major veto. Obama emphasized the Conservation movement, conservation of federal lands during his term in office. He used his power under the Antiquities Act to create 25 new National monument (United States), national monuments during his presidency and expand four others, protecting a total of of federal lands and waters, more than any other U.S. president.


Health care reform

Obama called for United States Congress, Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States, a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal. He proposed an expansion of health insurance coverage to cover the uninsured, cap premium increases, and allow people to retain their coverage when they leave or change jobs. His proposal was to spend $900billion over ten years and include a government insurance plan, also known as the public health insurance option, public option, to compete with the corporate insurance sector as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality of health care. It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for pre-existing conditions, and require every American to carry health coverage. The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans. On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017-page plan for overhauling the U.S. health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009. After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered Barack Obama speech to joint session of Congress, September 2009, a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over the proposals. In March 2009, Obama lifted a ban on using federal funds for stem cell research. On November 7, 2009, a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House. On December 24, 2009, the Senate passed its own bill—without a public option—on a party-line vote of 60–39. On March 21, 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) passed by the Senate in December was passed in the House by a vote of 219 to 212. Obama signed the bill into law on March 23, 2010. The ACA includes Provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, health-related provisions, most of which took effect in 2014, including expanding Medicaid eligibility for people making up to 133 percentof the federal poverty level (FPL) starting in 2014, subsidizing insurance premiums for people making up to 400 percentof the FPL ($88,000 for family of four in 2010) so their maximum "out-of-pocket" payment for annual premiums will be from 2 percent to 9.5 percent of income, providing incentives for businesses to provide health care benefits, prohibiting denial of coverage and denial of claims based on pre-existing conditions, establishing health insurance exchanges, prohibiting annual coverage caps, and support for medical research. According to White House and CBO figures, the maximum share of income that enrollees would have to pay would vary depending on their income relative to the federal poverty level. The costs of these provisions are offset by taxes, fees, and cost-saving measures, such as new Medicare taxes for those in high-income tax bracket, brackets, taxes on indoor tanning, cuts to the Medicare Advantage program in favor of traditional Medicare, and fees on medical devices and pharmaceutical companies; there is also a tax penalty for those who do not obtain health insurance, unless they are exempt due to low income or other reasons. In March 2010, the CBO estimated that the net effect of both laws will be a reduction in the federal deficit by $143billion over the first decade. The law faced several legal challenges, primarily based on the argument that an individual mandate requiring Americans to buy health insurance was unconstitutional. On June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5–4 vote in ''National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius'' that the mandate was constitutional under the U.S. Congress's taxing authority. In ''Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., Burwell v. Hobby Lobby'' the Court ruled that "closely-held" for-profit corporations could be exempt on religious grounds under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act from regulations adopted under the ACA that would have required them to pay for insurance that covered certain contraceptives. In June 2015, the Court ruled 6–3 in ''King v. Burwell'' that subsidies to help individuals and families purchase health insurance were authorized for those doing so on both the federal exchange and state exchanges, not only those purchasing plans "established by the State", as the statute reads.


Energy policy

Prior to June 2014, Obama offered substantial support for a broadly-based "All of the above" approach to domestic energy policy, which Obama has maintained since his first term and which he last confirmed at his State of the Union speech in January 2014 to a mixed reception by both parties. In June 2014, Obama made indications that his administration would consider a shift towards an energy policy more closely tuned to the manufacturing industry and its impact on the domestic economy. Obama's approach of selectively combining regulation and incentive to various issues in the domestic energy policy, such as coal mining and oil fracking, has received mixed commentary for not being as responsive to the needs of the domestic manufacturing sector as needed, following claims that the domestic manufacturing sector utilizes as much as a third of the nation's available energy resources.


Gun control

On January 16, 2013, one month after the
Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting occurred on December 14, 2012, in Newtown, Connecticut, United States, when 20-year-old Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people, including 20 children between six and seven years old, and six adult staff m ...
, Obama signed 23 executive orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding
gun control Gun control (or firearms regulation) is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians. Overview of gun laws by nation, Most countries have a restrictive f ...
. He urged Congress to reintroduce an Federal Assault Weapons Ban, expired ban on military-style
assault weapons The term assault weapon is used in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consist ...
, such as those used in several recent mass shootings, impose limits on ammunition magazines to 10 rounds, introduce background checks on all gun sales, pass a ban on possession and sale of armor-piercing bullets, introduce harsher penalties for gun-traffickers, especially unlicensed dealers who buy arms for criminals and approving the appointment of the head of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for the first time since 2006. On January 5, 2016, Obama announced new executive actions extending background check requirements to more gun sellers. In a 2016 editorial in ''The New York Times'', Obama compared the struggle for what he termed "common-sense gun reform" to women's suffrage and other civil rights movements in American history.


2010 midterm elections

Obama called the 2010 United States House of Representatives elections, November 2, 2010 election, where the Democratic Party lost 63 seats in, and control of, the House of Representatives, "humbling" and a "shellacking". He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery.


Cybersecurity and Internet policy

On November 10, 2014, President Obama recommended the Federal Communications Commission reclassify Internet access, broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. On February 12, 2013, President Obama signed , "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity".


Government mass surveillance

In 2005 and 2006, Obama criticized certain aspects of the Patriot Act for infringing too much on civil liberties and sought as Senator to strengthen civil liberties protections. In 2006, he voted to reauthorize a revised version of the Patriot Act, saying the law was not ideal but that the revised version had strengthened civil liberties. In 2011, he signed a four-year renewal of the Patriot Act. Following the Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present), 2013 global surveillance disclosures by whistleblower Edward Snowden, Obama condemned the leak as unpatriotic, but called for increased restrictions on the NSA to address violations of privacy. The changes which Obama ordered have been described as "modest" however.


Foreign policy

In February and March 2009, Vice President Joe Biden and United States Secretary of State, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "Russian reset, reset" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration. Obama attempted to reach out to Arab leaders by granting his first interview to an Arab satellite TV network, Al Arabiya. On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran. In April, Obama gave a speech in Ankara, Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments. On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University in Egypt calling for "A New Beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace. On June 26, 2009, Obama responded to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following 2009 Iranian presidential election, Iran's 2009 presidential election by saying: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it." While in Moscow on July 7, he responded to Vice President Biden's comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East." On September 24, 2009, Obama became the first sitting U.S. president to President of the United Nations Security Council, preside over a meeting of the United Nations Security Council. In March 2010, Obama took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem. During the same month, an agreement was reached with the administration of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to replace the START I, 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with a new pact reducing the number of long-range nuclear weapons in the arsenals of both countries by about a third. Obama and Medvedev signed the
New START New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) (Russian abbrev.: СНВ-III, ''SNV-III'' from ''сокращение стратегических наступательных вооружений'' "reduction of strategic offensive arms") is a nucl ...
treaty in April 2010, and the United States Senate, U.S. Senate ratified it in December 2010. In December 2011, Obama instructed agencies to consider LGBT rights by country or territory, LGBT rights when issuing financial aid to foreign countries. In August 2013, he criticized Russia's law that discriminates against gays, but he stopped short of advocating a boycott of the upcoming 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. In December 2014, Obama announced that he intended to United States–Cuban Thaw, normalize relationships between Cuba–United States relations, Cuba and the United States. The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20, 2015. In March 2015, Obama declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, military intervention in Yemen, establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia. In 2016, the Obama administration proposed a series of Saudi Arabia–United States relations, arms deals with Saudi Arabia worth $115billion. Obama halted the sale of guided munition technology to Saudi Arabia after Saudi warplanes 2016 Sana'a funeral airstrike, targeted a funeral in Yemen's capital Sanaa, killing more than 140 people. Before leaving office, Obama said German Chancellor Angela Merkel had been his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as president.


War in Iraq

On February 27, 2009, Obama announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of United States Marine Corps, Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: by August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end." The Obama administration scheduled the withdrawal of combat troops to be completed by August 2010, decreasing troop's levels from 142,000 while leaving a transitional force of about 50,000 in Iraq until the end of 2011. On August 19, 2010, the last U.S. combat brigade exited Iraq. Remaining troops transitioned from combat operations to counter-terrorism and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces. On August 31, 2010, Obama announced that the United States combat mission in Iraq was over. On October 21, 2011 President Obama announced that all U.S. troops would leave Iraq in time to be "home for the holidays". In June 2014, following the Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014)#Fall of Mosul and push into Kirkuk, capture of Mosul by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIS, Obama sent 275 troops to provide support and security for U.S. personnel and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. ISIS continued to gain ground and to commit Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant#Human rights abuse and war crime findings, widespread massacres and ethnic cleansing. In August 2014, during the Sinjar massacre, Obama ordered a American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)#United States airstrikes, campaign of U.S. airstrikes against ISIS. By the end of 2014, 3,100 American ground troops were committed to the conflict and 16,000 sorties were flown over the battlefield, primarily by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots. In early 2015, with the addition of the "Panther Brigade" of the 82nd Airborne Division the number of U.S. ground troops in Iraq surged to 4,400, and by July American-led coalition air forces counted 44,000 sorties over the battlefield.


War in Afghanistan

Early in his presidency, Obama moved to bolster U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan. He announced an increase in U.S. troop levels to 17,000 military personnel in February 2009 to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan", an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires". He replaced the military commander in Afghanistan, General David D. McKiernan, with former Special Forces (United States Army), Special Forces commander Lt. Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal in May 2009, indicating that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war. On December 1, 2009, Obama announced the deployment of an additional 30,000 military personnel to Afghanistan and proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date; this took place in July 2011. David Petraeus replaced McChrystal in June 2010, after McChrystal's staff criticized White House personnel in a magazine article. In February 2013, Obama said the U.S. military would reduce the troop level in Afghanistan from 68,000 to 34,000 U.S. troops by February 2014. In October 2015, the White House announced a plan to keep U.S. Forces in Afghanistan indefinitely in light of the deteriorating security situation.


Israel

In 2011, the United States vetoed a Security Council resolution condemning Israeli settlements, with the United States being the only nation to do so. Obama supports the two-state solution to the Arab–Israeli conflict based on the 1967 borders with land swaps. In June 2011, Obama said the bond between the United States and Israel is "unbreakable". During the initial years of the Obama administration, the U.S. increased military cooperation with Israel, including increased military aid, re-establishment of the Joint Political Military Group, U.S.-Israeli Joint Political Military Group and the Defense Policy Advisory Group, and an increase in visits among high-level military officials of both countries. The Obama administration asked Congress to allocate money toward funding the Iron Dome program in response to the waves of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel. In 2013, Jeffrey Goldberg reported that, in Obama's view, "with each new settlement announcement, Netanyahu is moving his country down a path toward near-total isolation." In 2014, Obama likened the Zionism, Zionist movement to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. He said both movements seek to bring justice and equal rights to historically persecuted peoples. He explained, "To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I've been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics." Obama expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. In 2015, Obama was harshly criticized by Israel for advocating and signing the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Iran Nuclear Deal; Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who had advocated the U.S. congress to oppose it, said the deal was "dangerous" and "bad". On December 23, 2016, under the Obama Administration, the United States abstained from United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334, which condemned Israeli settlement building in the occupied Palestinian territories as a violation of international law, effectively allowing it to pass. Netanyahu strongly criticized the Obama Administration's actions, and the Israeli government withdrew its annual dues from the organization, which totaled $6million, on January 6, 2017. On January 5, 2017, the United States House of Representatives voted 342–80 to condemn the UN Resolution.


Libya

In February 2011, protests in Libya began against long-time dictator
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Ling ...
as part of the Arab Spring. They soon turned violent. In March, as forces loyal to Gaddafi advanced on rebels across Libya, calls for a no-fly zone came from around the world, including Europe, the Arab League, and a resolution passed unanimously by the U.S. Senate. In response to the unanimous passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 on March 17, Gaddafi—who had previously vowed to "show no mercy" to the rebels of Benghazi—announced an immediate cessation of military activities, yet reports came in that his forces continued shelling Misrata. The next day, on Obama's orders, the U.S. military took part in air strikes to destroy the Libyan government's air defense capabilities to protect civilians and enforce a no-fly-zone, including the use of Tomahawk (missile), Tomahawk missiles, Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, B-2 Spirits, and fighter jets. Six days later, on March 25, by unanimous vote of all its 28 members, NATO took over leadership of the effort, dubbed Operation Unified Protector. Some Representatives questioned whether Obama had the constitutional authority to order military action in addition to questioning its cost, structure and aftermath.


Syrian Civil War

On August 18, 2011, several months after the start of the Syrian Civil War, Obama issued a written statement that said: "The time has come for Bashar al-Assad, President Assad to step aside." This stance was reaffirmed in November 2015. In 2012, Obama authorized multiple Timber Sycamore, programs run by the CIA and the Pentagon to train anti-Assad rebels. The Pentagon-run program was later found to have failed and was formally abandoned in October 2015. In the wake of a Ghouta chemical attack, chemical weapons attack in Syria, U.S. Government Assessment of the Syrian Government's Use of Chemical Weapons on August 21, 2013, formally blamed by the Obama administration on the Assad government, Obama chose not to enforce the "red line" he had pledged and, rather than authorize the promised military action against Assad, went along with the Russia-brokered deal that led to Assad Destruction of Syria's chemical weapons, giving up chemical weapons; however attacks with chlorine gas continued. In 2014, Obama authorized an Military intervention against ISIL, air campaign aimed primarily at ISIL.


Death of Osama bin Laden

Starting with information received from Central Intelligence Agency operatives in July 2010, the CIA developed intelligence over the next several months that determined what they believed to be the hideout of Osama bin Laden. He was living in seclusion in Osama bin Laden's compound in Abbottabad, a large compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, a suburban area from Islamabad. CIA head Leon Panetta reported this intelligence to President Obama in March 2011. Meeting with his national security advisers over the course of the next six weeks, Obama rejected a plan to bomb the compound, and authorized a "surgical raid" to be conducted by United States Navy SEALs. The operation took place on May 1, 2011, and resulted in the shooting death of bin Laden and the seizure of papers, computer drives and disks from the compound. DNA testing was one of five methods used to positively identify bin Laden's corpse, which was buried at sea several hours later. Within minutes of the President's announcement from Washington, DC, late in the evening on May 1, there were spontaneous celebrations around the country as crowds gathered outside the White House, and at New York City's World Trade Center site, Ground Zero and Times Square. Reactions to the death of Osama bin Laden, Reaction to the announcement was positive across party lines, including from former presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.


Iran nuclear talks

On October 1, 2009, the Obama administration went ahead with a Bush administration program, increasing nuclear weapons production. The "Complex Modernization" initiative expanded two existing nuclear sites to produce new bomb parts. The administration built new plutonium pits at the Los Alamos lab in New Mexico and expanded enriched uranium processing at the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In November 2013, the Obama administration opened Negotiations leading to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, negotiations with Iran to prevent it from acquiring nuclear weapons, which included an Joint Plan of Action, interim agreement. Negotiations took two years with numerous delays, with a deal being announced on July 14, 2015. The deal titled the "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action" saw sanctions removed in exchange for measures that would prevent Iran from producing nuclear weapons. While Obama hailed the agreement as being a step towards a more hopeful world, the deal drew strong criticism from Republican and conservative quarters, and from Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. In addition, the transfer of $1.7billion in cash to Iran shortly after the deal was announced was criticized by the republican party. The Obama administration said that the payment in cash was because of the "effectiveness of U.S. and international sanctions". In order to advance the deal, the Obama administration shielded Hezbollah from the Drug Enforcement Administration's Project Cassandra investigation regarding drug smuggling and from the Central Intelligence Agency. On a side note, the very same year, in December 2015, Obama started a $348billion worth program to back the biggest U.S. buildup of nuclear arms since Ronald Reagan left the White House.


Relations with Cuba

Since the spring of 2013, secret meetings were conducted between the United States and Cuba in the neutral locations of Canada and Vatican City. The Vatican first became involved in 2013 when Pope Francis advised the U.S. and Cuba to prisoner exchange, exchange prisoners as a gesture of goodwill. On December 10, 2013, Cuban President Raúl Castro, in a significant public moment, greeted and shook hands with Obama at the Death of Nelson Mandela, Nelson Mandela memorial service in Johannesburg. In December 2014, after the secret meetings, it was announced that Obama, with Pope Francis as an intermediary, had negotiated a restoration of relations with Cuba, after nearly sixty years of détente. Popularly dubbed the Cuban Thaw, ''The New Republic'' deemed the Cuban Thaw to be "Obama's finest foreign policy achievement". On July 1, 2015, President Obama announced that formal diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States would resume, and embassies would be opened in Washington and Havana. The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20 and August 13, 2015, respectively. Obama visited Havana, Cuba for two days in March 2016, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to arrive since Calvin Coolidge in 1928.


Africa

Obama spoke in front of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on July 29, 2015, the first sitting U.S. president to do so. He gave a speech encouraging the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progress made in Education in Africa, education, infrastructure, and Economy of Africa, economy. He also criticized the lack of democracy and leaders who refuse to step aside, discrimination against minorities (LGBT people, religious groups and ethnicities), and corruption. He suggested an intensified democratization and free trade, to significantly improve the quality of life for Africans. During his July 2015 trip, Obama also was the first U.S. president ever to United States presidential visits to Sub-Saharan Africa, visit Kenya, which is the homeland of his father.


Hiroshima speech

On May 27, 2016, Obama became the first sitting American president to visit Hiroshima, Japan, 71 years after the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima that ended World War II. Accompanied by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Obama paid tribute to the victims of the bombing at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum.


Russia

After Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Russia's invasion of Crimea in 2014, Russian military intervention in Syria, military intervention in Syria in 2015, and the 2016 United States election interference by Russia, interference in the 2016 United States presidential election, 2016 U.S. presidential election, Obama's Russia policy was widely seen as a failure. George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, George Robertson, a former UK defense secretary and NATO secretary-general, said Obama had "allowed Putin to jump back on the world stage and test the resolve of the West", adding that the legacy of this disaster would last.


Cultural and political image

Obama's family history, upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement. Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong." Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation." Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator. During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses. In his speeches as president, Obama did not make more overt references to race relations than his predecessors, but according to one study, he implemented stronger policy action on behalf of African-Americans than any president since the Nixon era. According to the Gallup Organization, Obama began his presidency with a 68 percent approval rating before gradually declining for the rest of the year, and eventually bottoming out at 41 percent in August 2010, a trend similar to Ronald Reagan's and Bill Clinton's first years in office. He experienced a small poll bounce shortly after the death of Osama bin Laden on May 2, 2011. This bounce lasted until around June 2011, when his approval numbers dropped back to where they were previously. His approval ratings rebounded around the same time as his reelection in 2012, with polls showing an average job approval of 52 percent shortly after his second inauguration. Despite approval ratings dropping to 39 percent in late-2013 due to the ACA roll-out, they climbed to 50 percent in January 2015 according to Gallup. Polls showed strong support for Obama in other countries both before and during his presidency. In a February 2009 poll conducted in Western Europe and the U.S. by Harris Insights & Analytics, Harris Interactive for France 24 and the ''International Herald Tribune'', Obama was rated as the most respected world leader, as well as the most powerful. In a similar poll conducted by Harris in May 2009, Obama was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of the economic downturn. Obama won Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album, Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of ''Dreams from My Father'' in February 2006 and for ''The Audacity of Hope'' in February 2008. His Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008#New Hampshire, concession speech after the New Hampshire primary was set to music by independent artists as the music video "Yes We Can (will.i.am song), Yes We Can", which was viewed ten million times on YouTube in its first month and received a Daytime Emmy Award. In December 2008 and in 2012, ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine named Obama as its Time Person of the Year, Person of the Year. The 2008 awarding was for his historic candidacy and election, which ''Time'' described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments". On May 25, 2011, Obama became the first President of the United States to address both houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, UK Parliament in Westminster Hall, London. This was only the fifth occurrence since the start of the 20th century of a head of state's being extended this invitation, following Charles de Gaulle in 1960, Nelson Mandela in 1996, Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth II in 2002 and Pope Benedict XVI in 2010. On October 9, 2009, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that Obama had won the
2009 Nobel Peace Prize The 2009 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to United States President Barack Obama for his "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between people". The Norwegian Nobel Committee announced the award on October 9, 2 ...
"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples". Obama accepted this award in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2009, with "deep gratitude and great humility". The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures. Obama's peace prize was called a "stunning surprise" by ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''. Some Neoconservatism, neoconservatives praised his speech for what they viewed as pro-American content. He became the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the third to become a Nobel laureate while in office. Obama's Nobel Prize has been viewed skeptically in subsequent years, especially after the director of the Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said Obama's Peace Prize did not have the desired effect of encouraging the president.


Post-presidency (2017–present)

Obama's presidency ended at noon on January 20, 2017, immediately following the Inauguration of Donald Trump, inauguration of his Republican successor, Donald Trump. Obama and Biden attended Trump's inaguration. After the inauguration, Obama lifted off on Executive One, circled the White House, and flew to Joint Base Andrews. The family currently rents a house in Kalorama, Washington, D.C. On March 2, 2017, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum awarded the annual Profile in Courage Award to Obama "for his enduring commitment to democratic ideals and elevating the standard of political courage". In his first public appearance out of office, Obama appeared at a seminar at the University of Chicago on April 24. The seminar was aimed at the engagement with a new generation as well as an appeal for their participation in politics. On May 4, three days ahead of the 2017 French presidential election, French presidential election, Obama publicly endorsed centrist Emmanuel Macron over right-wing populist Marine Le Pen: "He appeals to people's hopes and not their fears, and I enjoyed speaking to Emmanuel recently to hear about his independent movement and his vision for the future of France." Macron went on to win the election. While in Berlin on May 25, Obama made a joint public appearance with Chancellor Angela Merkel where he stressed inclusion and for leaders to question themselves. Obama had been formally invited to Berlin while still in office as part of an effort to boost Merkel's re-election campaign. Obama traveled to Kensington Palace in England and met with Prince Harry on May 27, 2017; Obama tweeted afterward that the two discussed their foundations and offering condolences in the wake of the Manchester Arena bombing that occurred five days prior. After President Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the
Paris Agreement The Paris Agreement (french: l'accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), on climate change mitigation, Climate change adaptation, adaptation, and Climate finance, finance, signed i ...
on June 1, Obama released a statement disagreeing with the choice: "But even in the absence of American leadership; even as this administration joins a small handful of nations that reject the future; I'm confident that our states, cities, and businesses will step up and do even more to lead the way, and help protect for future generations the one planet we've got." After Senate Republicans revealed the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017, their discussion draft of a health care bill to replace the Affordable Care Act, on June 22, Obama released a Facebook post calling the bill "a massive transfer of wealth from middle-class and poor families to the richest people in America". On September 19, while delivering the keynote address at Goalkeepers, Obama admitted his frustration with Republicans backing "a bill that will raise costs, reduce coverage, and roll back protections for older Americans and people with pre-existing conditions". After Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced the termination of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program on September 5, Obama released a Facebook post criticizing the decision. Two days later, he partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast of the United States, Gulf Coast and Texas communities. Obama hosted the inaugural summit of the Obama Foundation in Chicago from October 31 to November 1, 2017. Obama intends for the foundation to be the central focus of his post-presidency and part of his ambitions for his subsequent activities following his presidency to be more consequential than his time in office. Obama has also written a presidential memoir, in a reported $65million deal with Penguin Random House. The book, ''A Promised Land'', was released on November 17, 2020. Obama went on an List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama, international trip from November 28 to December 2, 2017, and visited China, India and France. In China, he delivered remarks at the Global Alliance of SMEs Summit in Shanghai and met with Chinese Communist Party Leader of the Chinese Communist Party, leader Xi Jinping in Beijing. He then went to India, where he spoke at the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit before meeting with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi over lunch. In addition, he held a town hall for young leaders, organized by the Obama Foundation. He also met with the Dalai Lama while in New Delhi. He ended his five-day trip in France where he met with French President Emmanuel Macron, former President François Hollande and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo and then spoke at an invitation-only event, touching on climate issues. In May 2018, Obama criticized President Trump's decision to withdraw from the nuclear deal with Iran under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action saying "the deal was working and it was in U.S. interests." Barack and Michelle Obama signed a deal on May 22, 2018 to produce docu-series, documentaries and features for Netflix under the Obamas' newly formed production company, Higher Ground Productions. On the deal, Michelle said "I have always believed in the power of storytelling to inspire us, to make us think differently about the world around us, and to help us open our minds and hearts to others." Higher Ground's first film, ''American Factory,'' won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2020. A package that contained a October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts, pipe bomb was sent to Obama's home in Washington, D.C, on October 24, 2018. The package was intercepted by the United States Secret Service, Secret Service during routine mail screenings. Similar packages were sent to several other Democratic leaders, mostly those who voiced strong objections to the policies of Donald Trump, as well as one to CNN. Debbie Wasserman Schultz was addressed as the purported sender of the packages. On October 26, 2018, Cesar Sayoc was arrested and faced five federal charges in Manhattan carrying a combined maximum sentence of 48 years behind bars in relation to the pipe bombs. He was sentenced to a maximum of 20 years in prison on August 5, 2019. In 2019, Barack and Michelle Obama bought a home on Martha's Vineyard from Wyc Grousbeck. On October 16, 2019, five days ahead of the 2019 Canadian federal election, Canadian federal election, Obama publicly endorsed Justin Trudeau and the Liberal Party of Canada, Liberal Party for re-election. On April 14, 2020, Obama endorsed his former vice president
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
for president in the 2020 United States presidential election, 2020 election, stating that he has "all the qualities we need in a president right now". In May 2020, Obama criticized President Trump for his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, COVID-19 pandemic, calling his response to the crisis "an absolute chaotic disaster", and stating that the consequences of the Trump presidency have been "our worst impulses unleashed, our proud reputation around the world badly diminished, and our democratic institutions threatened like never before". Michelle also criticized Trump, calling him "the wrong president for America". Trump retaliated by accusing Obama of having committed "the biggest political crime in American history", though he refused to say what he was talking about, telling reporters, "You know what the crime is, the crime is very obvious to everybody." On May 16, 2020, Obama delivered two commencement speeches on behalf of the graduating youth who were not able to go to their physical graduation ceremonies due to the COVID-19 pandemic. His first speech was for part of the video streamed online program, "Show Me Your Walk H.B.C.U. Edition" virtual commencement. In his address, he spoke about systemic racism, touching on both the pandemic, the shooting death of Ahmaud Arbery, and the fight to stay politically active saying, "The fight for equality and justice begins with awareness, empathy, passion, even righteous anger. Don't just activate yourself online, change requires strategy, action, organizing, marching, and voting in the real world like never before." His next commencement address was a part of a nationally televised event, titled ''Graduate Together: America Honors the High School Class of 2020'' which aired on NBC News, NBC. In early December 2020, Obama criticized the "defund the police" slogan, claiming that it could derail Social justice, social justice activists' attempts at making change and that "you lost a big audience the minute you say it". On January 20, 2021, Obama and Michelle attended the inauguration of Joe Biden, alongside George W. Bush, Laura Bush, Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton. In February 2021, Obama and musician Bruce Springsteen started a podcast called ''Renegades: Born in the USA'' where the two talk about "their backgrounds, music and their "enduring love of America.""


Legacy

Obama's most significant legacy is generally considered to be the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), provisions of which went into effect from 2010 to 2020. Many attempts by Senate Republicans to repeal the PPACA, including a "skinny repeal", have thus far failed. Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act amendment, it represents the Health care in the United States, U.S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of Medicare (United States), Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. Many commentators credit Obama with averting a threatened Depression (economics), depression and pulling the economy back from the Great Recession. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Obama administration created 11.3 million jobs from the month after first inauguration of Barack Obama, his first inauguration to the end of his term. In 2010, Obama signed into effect the
Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank) is a United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a co ...
. Passed as a response to the financial crisis of 2007–08, it brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression under Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 2009, Obama signed into law the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which contained in it the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, the first addition to existing federal hate crime law in the United States since Democratic President Bill Clinton signed into law the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996. The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded Hate crime laws in the United States, existing federal hate crime laws in the United States to apply to crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and dropped the prerequisite that the victim be engaged in a federally protected activity. As president, Obama advanced LGBT rights. In 2010, he signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which brought an end to "don't ask, don't tell" policy in the U.S. armed forces that banned open service from Lesbian, gay and bisexual, LGB people; the law went into effect the following year. In 2016, his administration brought an end to the ban on transgender people serving openly in the U.S. armed forces. A Gallup poll, taken in the final days of Obama's term, showed that 68 percent of Americans believed the U.S. had made progress in the situation for gays and lesbians during Obama's eight years in office. Obama substantially escalated the use of drone strikes against suspected militants and terrorists associated with al-Qaeda and the Taliban. In 2016, the last year of his presidency, the U.S. dropped 26,171 bombs on seven different countries. Obama left about 8,400 U.S. troops in Afghanistan, 5,262 in Iraq, 503 in Syria, 133 in Pakistan, 106 in Somalia, seven in Yemen, and two in Libya at the end of his presidency. According to Pew Research Center and United States Bureau of Justice Statistics, from December 31, 2009, to December 31, 2015, inmates sentenced in U.S. federal custody declined by five percent. This is the largest decline in sentenced inmates in U.S. federal custody since Democratic President Jimmy Carter. By contrast, the federal prison population increased significantly under presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush. Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60 percent approval rating. A 2018 survey of historians by the American Political Science Association ranked Obama the Historical rankings of presidents of the United States, 8th-greatest American President. Obama gained 10 spots from the same survey in 2015 from the Brookings Institution that ranked him the 18th-greatest American President.


Presidential library

The Barack Obama Presidential Center is Obama's planned presidential library. It will be hosted by the University of Chicago and located in Jackson Park (Chicago), Jackson Park on the South Side, Chicago, South Side of Chicago.


Bibliography


Books

* * * *


Audiobooks

* 2006: ''The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream'' (read by the author), Random House Audio, * 2020: ''A Promised Land'' (read by the author)


Articles

* * Uncredited case comment. * * * * * * * * * * *


See also


Politics

* DREAM Act * Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 * Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 * IRS targeting controversy * Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 * National Broadband Plan (United States) * Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy * Social policy of the Barack Obama administration * SPEECH Act * Stay with It * White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy


Other

* Roberts Court * Speeches of Barack Obama


Lists

* Assassination threats against Barack Obama * List of African-American United States senators * List of Barack Obama 2008 presidential campaign endorsements * List of Barack Obama 2012 presidential campaign endorsements * List of federal political scandals in the United States#2009–2017 Barack Obama Administration, List of federal political scandals, 2009–17 * List of people granted executive clemency by Barack Obama * List of things named after Barack Obama


References


Works cited

* * * * * *


Further reading

* * * * * *


External links


Official

* of The Obama Foundation * of the Barack Obama Presidential Library * of Organizing for Action
White House biography


Other


Column archive
at ''HuffPost, The Huffington Post'' * * * * * * * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Obama, Barack Barack Obama, 1961 births Living people 20th-century American people 21st-century American people 20th-century American male writers 20th-century American non-fiction writers 20th-century Protestants 20th-century scholars 21st-century American male writers 21st-century American non-fiction writers 21st-century American politicians 21st-century presidents of the United States 21st-century Protestants 21st-century scholars Activists from Illinois African-American academics African-American Christians African-American educators African-American feminists African-American non-fiction writers African-American state legislators in Illinois African-American candidates for President of the United States African-American United States senators American civil rights lawyers American community activists American feminist writers American gun control activists American legal scholars American male non-fiction writers American memoirists American Nobel laureates American people of English descent American people of French descent American people of German descent American people of Irish descent American people of Kenyan descent American people of Luo descent American people of Scottish descent American people of Swiss descent American people of Welsh descent American political writers American Protestants Articles containing video clips Candidates in the 2008 United States presidential election Candidates in the 2012 United States presidential election Columbia College (New York) alumni Democratic Party presidents of the United States Democratic Party (United States) presidential nominees Democratic Party United States senators Grammy Award winners Harvard Law School alumni Illinois Democrats Illinois lawyers Illinois state senators LGBT rights activists from the United States Male feminists Members of the American Philosophical Society Nobel Peace Prize laureates Obama family Politicians from Chicago Politicians from Honolulu Presidents of the United States Proponents of Christian feminism Punahou School alumni United States senators from Illinois University of Chicago Law School faculty Writers from Chicago