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The Baltic languages belong to the
Balto-Slavic The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It traditionally comprises the Baltic languages, Baltic and Slavic languages. Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other ...
branch of the
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of ...
language family. Baltic languages are spoken by the
Balts The Balts or Baltic people ( lt, baltai, lv, balti) are a group of Indo-European peoples The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together wi ...

Balts
, mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
in
Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other geographic ...
. Scholars usually regard them as a single
language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions b ...
divided into two groups: Western Baltic (containing only
extinct language An extinct language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between s ...
s) and Eastern Baltic (containing three living languages,
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...
, Latvian and Latgalian). The range of the Eastern Baltic linguistic influence once possibly reached as far as the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south ...
, but this hypothesis has been questioned.
Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language f ...
, a Western Baltic language that became extinct in the 18th century, ranks as the most archaic of the Baltic languages. Although morphologically related, the Lithuanian, Latvian and, particularly, Old Prussian vocabularies differ substantially from one another, and as such they are not
mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
, mainly due to a substantial number of
false friend In linguistics, a false friend is either of a pair of words in different languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning. Examples include the English ''embarrassed'' and the Spanish ''embarazada'' ("pregnant"); Engli ...
s, and foreign words, borrowed from surrounding language families, which are used differently.


Branches

The Baltic languages are generally thought to form a single family with two branches, Eastern and Western. However, these two branches are sometimes classified as independent branches of
Balto-Slavic The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It traditionally comprises the Baltic languages, Baltic and Slavic languages. Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other ...
.


Western Baltic languages †

* (Western) Galindian † *
Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language f ...
† *
Sudovian Sudovian (also known as Yotvingian, Yatvingian, or Jatvingian) is an extinct language, extinct Western Baltic languages, Western Baltic language of Northeastern Europe. Sudovian was closely related to Old Prussian, it was formerly spoken southwes ...
(
Yotvingian Yotvingians, or Sudovians (also called Suduvians, Jatvians, or Jatvingians in English; lt, Jotvingiai, Sūduviai; lv, Jātvingi; pl, Jaćwingowie, be, Яцвягі, ger, Sudauer), were a Baltic people with close cultural ties in the 13th ...
) † * ? Skalvian † (unattested)


Eastern Baltic languages

* Latvian (~2.2 million speakers, whereof ~1.75 million native speakers, 0.5 million second language speakers) * Latgalian (150,000–200,000 speakers) *
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...
(~3 million native speakers) * Samogitian (<500,000 speakers) * Selonian † * Semigallian † * Old Curonian (sometimes considered Western Baltic) †


Dnieper Baltic languages †

* (Eastern) Galindian (the language of the Eastern Galindians, also known by its name in russian: Голядь, Golyad') † († –
extinct language An extinct language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between s ...
)


Prehistory and history

It is believed that the Baltic languages are among the most archaic of the currently remaining Indo-European languages, despite their late attestation. Although the various Baltic tribes were mentioned by ancient historians as early as 98 CE, the first attestation of a Baltic language was 1369, in a Basel
epigram An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek, Greek "inscription" from "to write on, to inscribe", and the literary device has been employed for o ...
of two lines written in Old Prussian. Lithuanian was first attested in a printed book, which is a
Catechism A catechism (; from grc, κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine Doctrine (from la, doctrina, meaning "teaching, instruction") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught pri ...
by Martynas Mažvydas published in 1547. Latvian appeared in a printed Catechism in 1585. One reason for the late attestation is that the Baltic peoples resisted Christianization longer than any other Europeans, which delayed the introduction of writing and isolated their languages from outside influence. With the establishment of a
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
state in Prussia, and the eradication or flight of much of the Baltic Prussian population in the 13th century, the remaining Prussians began to be assimilated, and by the end of the 17th century, the Prussian language had become extinct. After the
Partitions of Poland The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish–Lithuanian can refer to: * Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569) * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) * Polish-Lithuanian identity as ...

Partitions of Poland
, most of the Baltic lands were under the rule of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, where the native languages or alphabets were sometimes prohibited from being written down or used publicly in a
Russification Russification or Russianization (russian: Русификация, ''Rusifikatsiya'') is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non- Russian communities (whether involuntarily or voluntarily) give up their culture and language in fav ...
effort (see
Lithuanian press ban The Lithuanian press ban ( lt, spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans to w ...
for the ban in force from 1864 to 1904).


Geographic distribution

Speakers of modern Baltic languages are generally concentrated within the borders of
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countr ...
and
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
, and in emigrant communities in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and the countries within the former borders of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. Historically the languages were spoken over a larger area: west to the mouth of the
Vistula The Vistula (; pl, Wisła, , german: Weichsel) is the longest river in Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinc ...

Vistula
river in present-day
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
, at least as far east as the
Dniepr } The Dnieper or Dnipro () is one of the major rivers of Europe A river is a natural flowing watercourse A watercourse is the channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physi ...
river in present-day
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niam ...

Belarus
, perhaps even to
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
, and perhaps as far south as
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
. Key evidence of Baltic language presence in these regions is found in
hydronym A hydronym (from el, ὕδρω, , "water" and , , "name") is a type of toponym Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponom ...
s (names of bodies of water) that are characteristically Baltic. The use of hydronyms is generally accepted to determine the extent of a culture's influence, but ''not'' the date of such influence. The
Mordvinic languages The Mordvinic languages, also known as the Mordvin, Mordovian or Mordvinian languages (russian: Мордовские языки, ''Mordovskiye yazyki''), are a subgroup of the Uralic languages, comprising the closely related Erzya language and Moksh ...
, spoken mainly along western tributaries of the
Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...

Volga
, show several dozen loanwords from one or more Baltic languages. These may have been mediated by contacts with the Eastern Balts along the river Oka. The eventual expansion of the use of
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
in the south and east, and
Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian su ...

Germanic languages
in the west, reduced the geographic distribution of Baltic languages to a fraction of the area that they formerly covered. The Russian geneticist Oleg Balanovsky speculated that there is a predominance of the assimilated pre-Slavic substrate in the genetics of East and West Slavic populations, according to him the common genetic structure which contrasts East Slavs and Balts from other populations may suggest that the pre-Slavic substrate of the
East Slavs The East Slavs are the most populous subgroup of the Slavs. They speak the East Slavic languages, and formed the majority of the population of the medieval state Kievan Rus', which all three independent East Slavic states (Belarus, Russia, and U ...
consists most significantly of Baltic-speakers, which predated the Slavs in the cultures of the
Eurasian steppe The Eurasian Steppe, also simply called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. It stretches through Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Europ ...
according to archaeological references he cites. Though
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
is geopolitically included among the
Baltic states The Baltic states ( et, Balti riigid, Baltimaad; lv, Baltijas valstis; lt, Baltijos valstybės), also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations, or simply the Baltics, is a geopolitical term, typically used to group the ...

Baltic states
due to its location,
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
is a
Finnic language The Finnic (''Fennic'') or Balto-Finnic (''Balto-Fennic''; Baltic Finnic, ''Baltic Fennic'') languages are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples. There are around 7 million speakers who live ...
and is not related to the Baltic languages, which are
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of ...
.


Comparative linguistics


Genetic relatedness

The Baltic languages are of particular interest to linguists because they retain many archaic features, which are believed to have been present in the early stages of the
Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
. However, linguists have had a hard time establishing the precise relationship of the Baltic languages to other languages in the Indo-European family. Several of the extinct Baltic languages have a limited or nonexistent written record, their existence being known only from the records of ancient historians and personal or place names. All of the languages in the Baltic group (including the living ones) were first written down relatively late in their probable existence as distinct languages. These two factors combined with others have obscured the history of the Baltic languages, leading to a number of theories regarding their position in the Indo-European family. The Baltic languages show a close relationship with the Slavic languages, and are grouped with them in a
Balto-Slavic The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It traditionally comprises the Baltic languages, Baltic and Slavic languages. Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other ...
family by most scholars. This family is considered to have developed from a common ancestor,
Proto-Balto-Slavic Proto-Balto-Slavic (PBS) is a linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European (PIE). From Proto-Balto-Slavic, the later Balto-Slavic languages are thought to have develope ...
. Later on, several lexical, phonological and morphological dialectisms developed, separating the various Balto-Slavic languages from each other. Although it is generally agreed that the Slavic languages developed from a single more-or-less unified dialect (
Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
) that split off from common Balto-Slavic, there is more disagreement about the relationship between the Baltic languages. The traditional view is that the Balto-Slavic languages split into two branches, Baltic and Slavic, with each branch developing as a single common language (Proto-Baltic and Proto-Slavic) for some time afterwards. Proto-Baltic is then thought to have split into East Baltic and West Baltic branches. However, more recent scholarship has suggested that there was no unified Proto-Baltic stage, but that Proto-Balto-Slavic split directly into three groups: Slavic, East Baltic and West Baltic. Under this view, the Baltic family is
paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—Monophyly, monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyleti ...

paraphyletic
, and consists of all Balto-Slavic languages that are not Slavic. This would imply that Proto-Baltic, the last common ancestor of all Baltic languages, would be identical to Proto-Balto-Slavic itself, rather than distinct from it. In the 1960s
Vladimir Toporov Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Топоро́в; 5 July 1928 in Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of R ...
and Vyacheslav Ivanov made the following conclusions about the relationship between the Baltic and Slavic languages: a) Proto-Slavic language formed from the peripheral-type Baltic dialects; b) Slavic linguistic type formed later from the Baltic languages structural model; c) the Slavic structural model is a result of the Baltic languages structural model transformation. These scholars' theses do not contradict the Baltic and Slavic languages closeness and from a historical perspective specify the Baltic-Slavic languages evolution. Finally, there is a minority of scholars who argue that Baltic descended directly from Proto-Indo-European, without an intermediate common Balto-Slavic stage. They argue that the many similarities and shared innovations between Baltic and Slavic are due to several millennia of contact between the groups, rather than shared heritage.


Thracian hypothesis

The Baltic-speaking peoples likely encompassed an area in Eastern Europe much larger than their modern range: as in the case of the
Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language In the tree model In historical linguistics Historica ...
of Western Europe, they were reduced by invasion, extermination and assimilation. Studies in
comparative linguistics Comparative linguistics, or comparative-historical linguistics (formerly comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change ...
point to genetic relationship between the languages of the Baltic family and the following extinct languages: * DacianSchall H., Sudbalten und Daker. Vater der Lettoslawen. In:Primus congressus studiorum thracicorum. Thracia II. Serdicae, 1974, S. 304, 308, 310Radulescu M., The Indo-European position of lllirian, Daco-Mysian and Thracian: a historic Methodological Approach, 1987 *
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied ...
The Baltic classification of Dacian and Thracian has been proposed by the Lithuanian scientist
Jonas Basanavičius Jonas Basanavičius (, pl, Jan Basanowicz; 23 November 1851 – 16 February 1927) was an activist and proponent of the Lithuanian National RevivalThe Lithuanian National Revival, alternatively the Lithuanian National Awakening ( lt, Lietuvių tau ...
, who insisted this is the most important work of his life and listed 600 identical words of Balts and
Thracians The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. ...
. His theory included Phrygian in the related group, but this did not find support and was disapproved among other authors, such as
Ivan Duridanov Ivan may refer to: Arts and entertainment *Ivan (1932 film), ''Ivan'' (1932 film), a Soviet drama film *Ivan (2002 film), ''Ivan'' (2002 film), a Tamil-language film *Ivan (2017 film), ''Ivan'' (2017 film), a Slovenian drama film *''Ivan, Son of t ...
, whose own analysis found Phrygian completely lacking parallels in either Thracian or Baltic languages. The Bulgarian linguist Ivan Duridanov, who improved the most extensive list of toponyms, in his first publication claimed that Thracian is genetically linked to the Baltic languages and in the next one he made the following classification:"''The Thracian language formed a close group with the Baltic (resp. Balto-Slavic), the Dacian and the "
Pelasgian The name Pelasgians ( grc, Πελασγοί, ''Pelasgoí'', singular: Πελασγός, ''Pelasgós'') was used by classical Greek writers to refer either to the ancestors of the Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllin ...
" languages. More distant were its relations with the other Indo-European languages, and especially with Greek, the Italic and Celtic languages, which exhibit only isolated phonetic similarities with Thracian; the Tokharian and the Hittite were also distant. ''" Of about 20
reconstructed Thracian words
by Duridanov most cognates (138) appear in the Baltic languages, mostly in Lithuanian, followed by Germanic (61), Indo-Aryan (41), Greek (36), Bulgarian (23), Latin (10) and Albanian (8). The cognates of the reconstructed Dacian words in his publication are found mostly in the Baltic languages, followed by Albanian. Parallels have enabled linguists, using the techniques of
comparative linguistics Comparative linguistics, or comparative-historical linguistics (formerly comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change ...
, to decipher the meanings of several Dacian and Thracian placenames with, they claim, a high degree of probability. Of 74 Dacian placenames attested in primary sources and considered by Duridanov, a total of 62 have Baltic cognates, most of which were rated "certain" by Duridanov. For a big number of 300 Thracian geographic names most parallels were found between Thracian and Baltic geographic names in the study of Duridanov. According to him the most important impression make the geographic cognates of Baltic and Thracian "''the similarity of these parallels stretching frequently on the main element and the suffix simultaneously, which makes a strong impression''".


See also

*
Historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change Language change is variation over time in a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including s ...
* Dacian–Baltic connection


Notes


References

* * Ernst Fraenkel (1950) ''Die baltischen Sprachen'', Carl Winter, Heidelberg, 1950 * Joseph Pashka (1950
Proto Baltic and Baltic languages

Lituanus Linguistics Index
(1955–2004) provides a number of articles on modern and archaic Baltic languages * Mallory, J. P. (1991) ''In Search of the Indo-Europeans: language, archaeology and myth.'' New York: Thames and Hudson * Algirdas Girininkas (1994) "The monuments of the Stone Age in the historical Baltic region", in: ''Baltų archeologija'', N.1, 1994 (English summary, p. 22). * Algirdas Girininkas (1994) "Origin of the Baltic culture. Summary", in: ''Baltų kultūros ištakos'', Vilnius: "Savastis" "; p. 259 * Edmund Remys (2007) "General distinguishing features of various Indo-European languages and their relationship to Lithuanian", in: ''Indogermanische Forschungen''; Vol. 112. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter * * * * * * *


Literature

* Stafecka, A. & Mikuleniene, D., 2009. Baltu valodu atlants: prospekts = Baltu kalbu atlasas: prospektas = Atlas of the Baltic languages: a prospect, Vilnius: Lietuvių kalbos institutas; Riga: Latvijas Universitates Latviesu valodas instituts. * (In Lithuanian) Pietro U. Dini, ''Baltų kalbos. Lyginamoji istorija'' (''Baltic languages. A Comparative History''), Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla, 2000, p. 540. * (In Lithuanian) Letas Palmaitis
''Baltų kalbų gramatinės sistemos raida''
(''Development of the grammatical system of the Baltic Languages: Lithuanian, Latvian, Prussian''), Vilnius: „Šviesa“, 1998


External links


Baltic Online
by Virginija Vasiliauskiene, Lilita Zalkalns, and Jonathan Slocum, free online lessons at th
Linguistics Research Center
at the
University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin, UT, or Texas) is a public university, public research university in Austin, Texas, founded in 1883. The University of Texas was included in the Association of American Universities in 1929. The i ...
{{DEFAULTSORT:Baltic Languages Indo-European languages