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Baidoa ( so, Baydhabo) is capital in the southwestern
Bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...

Bay
region of
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
. In 2005, the Transitional Federal Government established temporary headquarters in Baidoa before an eventual relocation of government offices to Mogadishu. Between the years 2002 and 2014, Baidoa was the capital of the
South West The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degree ( ...
state. However, in 2014, the capital of
South West The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degree ( ...
was changed to
Barawa Barawa ( so, Baraawe, ar, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة ''Madīna Barāwa''), also known as Barawe and Brava, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the lette ...

Barawa
. Baidoa is the largest city of
South West The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degree ( ...
.


Overview

Baydhabo is the main hub of the Somali inter-riverine region and state capital of the
Bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...

Bay
. It was traditionally known as ''Baydhabo Jinaay'' (the heavenly Baydhabo) or ''ll Baydhabo'' (the spring of Baydhabo). The city was founded at the edge of the main highlands known as ''magniafulka'' where the ll springs originate, a prime grazing area. Legend states that a bird pecked the ground with its beak and would signal people to come and discover the pristine land. The shrine of Obo Esherow the patron
Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ...

Sufi
mystic/saint of Baidoa has been honoured for over four centuries.


History


Antiquity

Baidoa and the broader Bay region is home to a number of important ancient sites. Archaeologists have found pre-historic rock art on the city's outskirts, in Buur Heybe.


Medieval

During the medieval period Baidoa was founded and settled by the Madanle clan and many traditions link the Ajuran with a people known to Somalis Madanle (Maaanthinle, Madinle, etc.) who were celebrated well-diggers in southern Somalia. Many traditions ascribe Madanle origins to Baidao and were attributed to stone-built rectangular enclosure in the deep interior so far adequately described. Baidoa is said to have solid stone and mortar walls ruins some four foot six inches high in places. This affirms the traditions that Baidoa during Ajuran was a large town and a trading hub center.Lee V. Cassanelli, ''The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900'', (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p.102.


Early Modern

Baidoa was captured by Sultan Ibrahim Adeer who defeated the Madanle section of Ajuran and expelled them from the region. The city population was eventually replaced by Mirifle and the city reached its golden age under
Geledi Sultanate The Sultanate of the Geledi ( so, Saldanadda Geledi, ar, سلطنة غلدي) also known as the Gobroon Dynasty Somali Sultanate: The Geledi City-state Over 150 Years - Virginia Luling (2002) Page 229 was a Somali people, Somali kingdom that ruled ...
rule. It was crossroads of caravan trade. Baidoa city was surrounded with large walls with one foritified gate. It attracted many merchants and farmers from the benadir coast to settle in what came to be known as (Buula Benadir) (the Benadir quarter).
Menelik II Menelik II ( gez, ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ ; horse name Abba Dagnew (Amharic: አባ ዳኘው ''abba daññäw''); 17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), baptised as Sahle Maryam (ሣህለ ማርያም ''sahlä maryam'') was Emperor of Ethiopi ...

Menelik II
of Ethiopia invaded Baidoa in the late 19th century, but was pushed back under Sultan
Osman Ahmed Osman Ahmed ( so, Cismaan Axmed, ar, عثمان أحمد) was a Somali people, Somali ruler. He was the fifth and final Sultan of the Sultanate of the Geledi, Geledi sultanate. History Osman Ahmed is considered less illustrious than his predecessor ...
rule.


Colonial Period

The Italians occupied the city in July, 1913. During the British military occupation (1941-1950), the Bardaale Quarter, where Somali clients and employees of the British lived, was the stronghold of the
Somali Youth League The Somali Youth League (SYL) ( so, Ururka Dhalinyarada Soomaaliyeed 𐒚𐒇𐒚𐒇𐒏𐒖 𐒊𐒖𐒐𐒘𐒒𐒕𐒖𐒇𐒖𐒆𐒖 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒜𐒆, it, Lega dei Giovani Somali or ''Lega Somala della Gioventù''), initi ...
; the rest of the city was held by the members of the Hizbiya Digil-Mirifle.


Modern

With an agropastoral economy, common livestock include goats and camels, with the main agricultural produce being sorghum. Pre
Civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
Bay state was home to the largest camel population in Somalia, with above 1.3 million camels. Post independence, Baidoa would attract many international projects such as the Bay Agricultural Development Project.


Civil War

Baidoa incurred significant damage in the early 1990s, following the start of the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
. In September 1995,
United Somali Congress The United Somali Congress (USC) was one of the major rebel organizations in Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia ...
militia attacked and occupied the town. They remained in control of Baidoa until around January 1996, while the local
Rahanweyn Resistance Army The Rahaweyn Resistance Army (RRA), also known as the Reewin Resistance Army, is an autonomist militant group operating in the Southern Somalia, It was the first Reewin armed faction to emerge during the Somali civil war. The stated goal of the R ...
militia continued to engage the USC in the town's environs. In 1999, the RRA seized control of the wider Lower Shabelle, Gedo, Bay and
Bakool Bakool ( so, Bakool, ar, بكول) is a region (''gobol'') in southwestern Somalia. Overiew It is bordered by the Somali regions of Hiiraan, Bay, Somalia, Bay and Gedo. Bakool, like Gedo and Bay, as well as most parts of the Jubbada Dhexe (Mid ...
provinces. The town and larger region gradually rebounded to become among the more stable areas in the south. In 2002, the RRA's leader
Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud Colonel Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud ( so, Xasan Maxamed Nuur Shaatigaduud; ar, حسن محمد نور شاتيغادود) (1946 – 2013) was a Somali people, Somali politician and faction leader. He served as the chairman of the Rahanweyn Resis ...
founded the Southwestern State of Somalia regional administration, with its headquarters in Baidoa. The creation of the autonomous state was a move to show the RRA leadership's disaffection with the nascent
Mogadishu Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city ...

Mogadishu
-based
Transitional National Government The Transitional National Government (TNG) was the internationally recognized central government of Somalia from 2000 to 2004. Overview The TNG was established in April–May 2000 at the Somalia National Peace Conference held in Arta, Djibouti, Ar ...
, which had been established two years earlier. In 2005, the Southwestern State was officially dissolved after its leader Shatigadud had joined the
Transitional Federal Parliament The Transitional Federal Parliament of the Somali Republic (TFP) ( so, Golaha Shacabka Federaalka Kumeelgaarka ee Jamhuuriyada Soomaaliya; often ''Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya'') was the national parliament In modern politics and ...
in November 2004 and later became Minister of Finance in January 2005 in the
Transitional Federal Government The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) ( so, Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, ar, الحكومة الاتحادية الانتقالية) was internationally recognized as a provisional government of the Somalia, Republic of Somalia from A ...
(TFG), the TNG's successor. In early 2005, the TFG sent official delegations to Baidoa and
Jowhar Jowhar ( so, Jowhar, ar, جوهر, it, Giohar, formerly ''Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi'' or simply ''Villabruzzi'') is the capital city of Hirshabelle Hirshabelle, officially Hirshabelle State of Somalia ( Somali: ''Dowlad goboleedka H ...

Jowhar
to assess the suitability of each city as a temporary headquarters for the TFG before an eventual relocation of government offices to Mogadishu. In June–July 2005, the Transitional Federal Government established an interim seat in Jowhar due to ongoing insecurity in the capital. To strengthen its presence in the town, the central authorities built an improved airport and inaugurated the Duduble Canal. The TFG later moved its temporary headquarters to Baidoa. In December 2006, Ethiopian troops entered Somalia to assist the TFG against the advancing
Islamic Courts Union The Islamic Courts Union (ICU; so, Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga;) was a legal and political organisation which was formed to address lawlessness in Somalia following the fall of the Siad Barre regime in the 1991 during the Somali Civil War Th ...
, initially winning the Battle of Baidoa. On 28 December 2006, the allied forces recaptured the capital from the ICU. The offensive helped the TFG solidify its rule. On 8 January 2007, for the first time since taking office, President
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed ( so, Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, ar, عبدالله يوسف أحمد‎; 15 December 1934 – 23 March 2012) was a Somali politician and former Colonel in the Somali National Army. He was one of the founders of the Soma ...

Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
entered Mogadishu from Baidoa to engage in consultations with local business, religious and civil society representatives as the TFG moved its base to the national capital. Following its defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue its insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. In February 2012, Somali government forces and allied Ethiopian troops re-captured Baidoa from Al-Shabaab.


Southwestern State

In December 2013, a convention began in Baidoa between
Federal Government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...
officials and local representatives with the aim of establishing an
autonomous state An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division or territory, internal territory of a sovereign state that has a degree of ...
in the area under the Provision Federal Constitution. Two simultaneous political processes for the establishment of a new Southwestern State of Somalia were underway: one led by former Parliament Speaker
Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan ( so, Shariif Xasan Sheekh Aadan, ar, شريف حسن الشيخ آدم; is a Somali people, Somali politician. He is a former Ministry of Finance (Somalia), Minister of Finance of Somalia, and the last Speaker (politics ...
, which proposed a three region state consisting of the Bay, Bakool and Lower Shabelle provinces; another led by convention organizer Malaq Ali Shino, former MP Madobe Nunow Mohamed and erstwhile Bay region Governor Abdifatah Geesey, which proposed instead the re-establishment of a six region Southwestern Somalia state consisting of the Bay, Bakool,
Lower Shabelle Lower Shabelle ( so, Shabeellaha Hoose, ar, شبيلي السفلى, it, Basso Scebeli) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in southern Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somali ...
,
Gedo Gedo ( so, Gedo, Maay Maay, Maay: ''Gethy'', ar, جيذو, it, Ghedo or ''Ghedu'') is an administrative region (''States and regions of Somalia, gobol'') in Jubaland, southern Somalia. Its regional capital is Garbahaarreey. It was created in 1 ...

Gedo
,
Middle Jubba Middle Juba ( so, Jubbada Dhexe, ar, جوبا الأوسط, it, Medio Giuba) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') in southern Somalia. With its capital at Bu'aale, it is located in the States and regions o ...
and Lower Jubba provinces.


Demographics

According to the UNDP in 2005 the population of Baidoa was 370,000. The city is situated at the center of one of the most densely populated areas in the nation. It is an ethnically and culturally diverse town, with many local residents originating from other parts of the country. Additionally, Baidoa is the heartland of Maay, an
Afro-Asiatic Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...
language principally spoken by the Digil and Mirifle (
Rahanweyn The Rahanweyn ( Maay: ''Reewin'', Northern Somali: ''Raxanweyn'', ar, رحنوين), also known as the Digil and Mirifle () are a Somali clan. It is one of the major Somali clans in the Horn of Africa, with a large territory and densely populate ...
) clans in the southern regions of Somalia. Its speech area extends from the southwestern border with Ethiopia to a region close to the coastal strip between Mogadishu and Kismayo. Maay is not mutually comprehensible with Standard Somali, and it differs considerably in sentence structure and phonology. However, Maay speakers often use Standard Somali as a lingua franca, which is learned via mass communications, internal migration and urbanization.


Climate

Baidoa has a hot and
semi-arid climate A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables ove ...
( Köppen ''BSh''), as with much of southern Somalia. By contrast, towns in the northern part of the country generally have a hot arid climate (Köppen ''BWh''). ''(direct
Final Revised Paper
''


Education

Baidoa has a large secondary school, from which around 580 pupils graduated per year in 2008. As of 2012, several other high schools were in development. Tertiary education in the city is served by the
University of Southern Somalia The University of Southern Somalia is a higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional ...
. After a considerable planning stage, the institution was established in 2007 by a group of Somali scholars and intellectuals. Inaugural classes began the following year, in August 2008. University representatives concurrently announced plans to develop four colleges: the College of Science, Agriculture, and Engineering, the College of Social Science, the College of Education, the College of Health and Environmental Sciences, and the College of Jurisprudence. Additionally, an Institute of Social Research is being developed. Plans are also in the works to construct a new campus in an area around 15 km north of Baidoa, as well as two new branches in two other principal cities in the Bay region. Schools: *Baidoa Secondary and primary school *AlBasha'ir primary and secondary school *Alqalam primary and secondary school *Baidoa model primary and secondary school *Hanano Community Primary and Secondary school *Ma'ruf Primary and Secondary School *Alcayn primary and secondary school *Almacrifa primary and secondary school *Mujamma Alkuwait primary and secondary school *Ma'mur primary and secondary school *Abdalla derow girls school *AlHudda Primary and secondary school *Alabraar primary and secondary school *Baydhabo Janaay primary and secondary school *Salaam Institute of language and health Science *Alnajuum tertiary and primary school *Salaxudin primary and secondary school


Transportation

Air transportation in Baidoa is served by the Baidoa Airport. Sitting at an elevation of , it has a 9843 × 131 ft (3000 × 40 m) asphalt runway. The airport has fuel services, a terminal building, storage container, on-site warehouse, and radio towers.


Subdivisions

Baidoa is administratively divided into four
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipal ...

district
s: *Isha *Horseed *Berdaale *Howlwadaag *Daru salaam *Salaamey *Towfiiq *Wadajir *Waaberi *Ideedi


Notable residents

*
Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud Colonel Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud ( so, Xasan Maxamed Nuur Shaatigaduud; ar, حسن محمد نور شاتيغادود) (1946 – 2013) was a Somali people, Somali politician and faction leader. He served as the chairman of the Rahanweyn Resis ...
– former Minister of Finance of Somalia and
Rahanweyn Resistance Army The Rahaweyn Resistance Army (RRA), also known as the Reewin Resistance Army, is an autonomist militant group operating in the Southern Somalia, It was the first Reewin armed faction to emerge during the Somali civil war. The stated goal of the R ...
leader *
Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan ( so, Shariif Xasan Sheekh Aadan, ar, شريف حسن الشيخ آدم; is a Somali politician. He is a former Minister of Finance of Somalia, and the last Speaker (politics), Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parlia ...
– Somali politician * Said Ali Hussein - Somali footballer; emigrated to the Netherlands as a result of the Somali Civil War


See also

* Battle of Baidoa


Notes


References


Iscia Baidoa: Somalia


External links

{{Commons category, Baidoa
Administrative map of Baidoa District
Populated places in Bay, Somalia