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The Bagua, Pakua or Palgwae are eight symbols used in
Taoist Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of c ...
cosmology Cosmology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts. Each consists of three lines, each line either "broken" or "unbroken", respectively representing
yin or yang
yin or yang
, 0 or 1 forming binary numbers 000-111 (0 to 7). Due to their tripartite structure, they are often referred to as Eight Trigrams in English. The trigrams are related to
Taiji Tai chi (), short for T'ai chi ch'üan or Tàijíquán ( zh, c=太極拳, labels=no), sometimes also known as "Shadowboxing Shadowboxing is an combat sport exercise in which a person throws punches at the air as though there is an oppon ...
or
Taegeuk ''Taegeuk'' (, ) is a Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean ...

Taegeuk
philosophy,
Taijiquan Tai chi (), short for T'ai chi ch'üan or Tàijíquán ( zh, c=太極拳, labels=no), sometimes also known as "Shadowboxing Shadowboxing is an combat sport exercise in which a person throws punches at the air as though there is an oppone ...
and the Wuxing, or "five elements". The relationships between the trigrams are represented in two arrangements, the ''Primordial'' (), "Earlier Heaven" or "Fu Xi" bagua (), and the ''Manifested'' (), "Later Heaven," or "King Wen" bagua. The trigrams have correspondences in
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
,
astrology Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divination, divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of Celestial objects in astrology, celestial objects. Astrology has be ...
,
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
,
geomancy Geomancy (Greek language, Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand. The most prevalent form of divinator ...
,
anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It ...

anatomy
, the family,
martial arts Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; combat sport, competition; physical, mental, and spiritual development; entertainment; an ...
and elsewhere. The ancient Chinese classic,
I Ching The ''I Ching'' or ''Yi Jing'' (, ), usually translated as ''Book of Changes'' or ''Classic of Changes'', is an ancient Chinese divination Divination (from Latin ''divinare'', 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to prophesy') is the at ...
(
Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

Pinyin
: Yi Jing), consists of the 64 pairwise permutations of trigrams, referred to as "
hexagrams , can be seen as a compound polygon, compound composed of an upwards (blue here) and downwards (pink) facing equilateral triangle, with their intersection as a regular hexagon (in green). A hexagram (Greek language, Greek) or sexagram (Latin la ...
", along with commentary on each one.


Trigrams


Relation to other principles

There are two possible sources of ''bagua''. The first is from traditional
Yin and Yang In Ancient Chinese philosophy Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significan ...

Yin and Yang
philosophy. This is explained by
Fuxi Fuxi or Fu Hsi (伏羲 ~ 伏犧 ~ 伏戲) is a culture hero A culture hero is a mythological hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) i ...

Fuxi
in the following way:
Another possible source of ''bagua'' is the following, attributed to
King Wen of Zhou King Wen of Zhou (; 1112–1050 BC, the Civilizing King) was Count of ZhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of the Shang dynasty * Predynastic Zhou (), 11th-century BC precursor to the Z ...

King Wen of Zhou
Dynasty: "When the world began, there was heaven and earth. Heaven mated with the earth and gave birth to everything in the world. Heaven is ''Qian''-gua, and the Earth is ''Kun''-gua. The remaining six guas are their sons and daughters". The trigrams are related to the five elements of Wu Xing, used by
Feng Shui Feng shui, also known as Chinese geomancy Geomancy (Greek language, Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, ro ...

Feng Shui
practitioners and in
Traditional Chinese Medicine#REDIRECT Traditional Chinese medicine {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. Those five elements are Water, Wood, Fire, Earth and Metal. The Water (Kan) and Fire (Li) trigrams correspond directly with the Water and Fire elements. The element of Earth corresponds with both the trigrams of Earth (Kun) and Mountain (Gen). The element of Wood corresponds with the trigrams of Wind (Xun) (as a gentle but inexorable force that can erode and penetrate stone) and Thunder (Zhen). The element of Metal corresponds with the trigrams of Heaven (Qian) and Lake (Dui). There are eight possible combinations to render the various trigrams ( ''bāguà''):


Hexagram lookup table


Fu Xi "Earlier Heaven"

This is also known as the "binary sequence" or
Shao YongImage:Shao Yong.jpg, 200px, Shao Yong Shao Yong (; 1011–1077), courtesy name Yaofu (堯夫), named Shào Kāngjié (邵康節) was a Chinese cosmologist, historian, philosopher, and poet who greatly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism ...

Shao Yong
sequence. A binary interpretation of each hexagram is made by interpreting yin as "0" and yang as "1", and reading the leading "digit" from the inside of the diagram, so the hexagram ''kūn'' is interpreted as 0, and ''gèn'' as 1. The hexagrams are in binary order when read up from the bottom around on the right, then up again on the left to the top.


King Wen "Later Heaven"


''Yellow River Map''

in this chart: (Generative/Counter-clockwise), (Destructive/Clockwise) Fire brings water, water feeds wood, wood brings metal, metal brings fire Fire melts metal, metal chops wood, wood drains water, water quenches fire Earth is now consted in Yellow River Map.


''Nine Halls Diagram''

Cycles of elements in this chart: (Generative/Counter-clockwise),(Destructive/Clockwise) Water feeds wood, wood brings metal, metal brings fire, fire brings water Water quenches fire, fire melts metal, metal chops wood, wood drains water Earth is now contest in element. Wood, Fire, Metal and Water is contest.


Bagua used in Feng Shui

The Bagua is an essential tool in the majority of Feng Shui schools. The Bagua used in
Feng shui Feng shui, also known as Chinese geomancy Geomancy (Greek language, Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, ro ...

Feng shui
can appear in two different versions: the ''Earlier Heaven Bagua'', used for burial sites, and the ''Later Heaven Bagua'', used for the residences.


Orthodox Bagua

In the Chinese orthodoxy culture, five elements does not exist. In the ancient China, Chinese people created four elements theory as the earliest theory of Bagua. Historian expert from Hong Kong discovered the genuine versions of eight trigram should be follow the rule of clockwise Gold (Spring), Wood (Summer), Water (Autumn), Fire (Winter). Another Bagua must following Spring (Fire), Summer (Gold), Autumn (Wood), Winter (Water). Both Xiantian Bagua and Houtian Bagua were counterfeited versions promoted by Confucianisms.Chun Ming Chan,《由《輔行訣臟腑用藥法要》到香港當代新經學》,Amazon
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Xiantian Bagua

In Xiantian Bagua, also known as Fu Xi Bagua or Earlier Heaven Bagua, the Heaven is in the higher part and the Earth is in the lower part. The trigram Qian (Heaven) is at the top, the trigram Kun (Earth) is at the bottom (in the past, the South was located at the top in Chinese maps). The trigram Li (Fire) is located on the left and opposite to it is the trigram Kan (Water). Zhen (Thunder) and Xun (Wind) form another pair, while being one opposite the other, the first on the bottom left next to Li while the second is next to Qian on the top right of the Bagua. Gen (Mountain) and Dui (Lake) form the last pair, one opposite the other, both in balance and harmony. The adjustment of the trigrams is symmetrical by forming exact contrary pairs. They symbolize the opposite forces of Yin and Yang and represent an ideal state, when everything is in balance.


Houtian Bagua

The sequence of the trigrams in Houtian Bagua, also known as the Bagua of King Wen or Later Heaven Bagua, describes the patterns of the environmental changes. Kan is placed downwards and Li at the top, Zhen in the East and Dui in the West. Contrary to the Earlier Heaven Bagua, this one is a dynamic Bagua where energies and the aspects of each trigram flow towards the following. It is the sequence used by the Luo Pan compass which is used in Feng Shui to analyze the movement of the Qi that allegedly affects us.


Western Bagua

Feng shui was made very popular in the
Occident The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabi ...

Occident
thanks to the Bagua of the eight aspirations. Each trigram corresponds to an aspect of life which, in its turn, corresponds to one of the cardinal directions. Applying feng shui using the Bagua of the eight aspirations (or Bagua map for short) made it possible to simplify feng shui and to bring it within the reach of everyone. Western Bagua focuses more heavily on the power of intention than the traditional forms of feng shui. Masters of traditional feng shui disregard this approach,Moran, Elizabeth and Master Yu, Joseph
''The Complete Idiot's Guide to Feng Shui, 3rd Edition''
Penguin, 2005.
for its simplicity, because it does not take into account the forms of the landscape or the temporal influence or the annual cycles. The Bagua of the eight aspirations is divided into two branches: the first, which uses the compass and cardinal directions, and the second, which uses the Bagua by using the main door. It is clear that, not taking into account the cardinal directions, the second is even more simplified.


Bagua map

A bagua map is a tool used in Western forms of
feng shui Feng shui, also known as Chinese geomancy Geomancy (Greek language, Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, ro ...

feng shui
to map a room or location and see how the different sections correspond to different aspects in one's life. These sections are believed to relate to every area or aspect of life and are divided into such categories as: fame, relationships/marriage, children/creativity, helpful people/travel, career, inner knowledge, family/ancestors/health, and wealth/blessings. In this system, the map is intended to be used over the land, one's home,
office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, administrative Work (human activity), work in order to support and realize objects and Goals, plans, action theory, goals of the organizatio ...

office
or desk to find areas lacking good
chiThe initialism CHI may refer to: Health *Catholic Health Initiatives Catholic Health Initiatives (CHI) is a national Catholic healthcare system, with headquarters in Englewood, Colorado. CHI is a nonprofit, faith-based health system formed, in 19 ...

chi
, and to show where there are negative or missing spaces that may need rectifying or enhancing in life or the environment. For example, if the bagua grid is placed over the entire house plan and it shows the toilet, bathroom, laundry, or kitchen in the wealth/blessings area it would be considered that the money coming into that particular environment would disappear very fast, as if to be 'going down the drain.'


In Unicode

The bagua symbols are in the
Miscellaneous Symbols Miscellaneous Symbols is a Unicode block A Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes (code point In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up t ...
block of Unicode:


In culture

In
Peking Opera Peking opera, or Beijing opera (), is the most dominant form of Chinese opera Traditional Chinese opera (), or ''Xiqu'', is a form of musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China. It is an amalgamation of var ...
, a role that has Taoist technique or military strategy wears a costume decorated with
Taiji Tai chi (), short for T'ai chi ch'üan or Tàijíquán ( zh, c=太極拳, labels=no), sometimes also known as "Shadowboxing Shadowboxing is an combat sport exercise in which a person throws punches at the air as though there is an oppon ...

Taiji
and Bagua.
Baguazhang Baguazhang or Pakua chang () is one of the three main Chinese martial arts of the Wudang chuan, Wudang school, the other two being Taijiquan, T'ai chi and Xing Yi Quan. It is more broadly grouped as an internal practice (or neijia, neijia quan). ...
and
Taijiquan Tai chi (), short for T'ai chi ch'üan or Tàijíquán ( zh, c=太極拳, labels=no), sometimes also known as "Shadowboxing Shadowboxing is an combat sport exercise in which a person throws punches at the air as though there is an oppone ...
are two Chinese martial arts based on principles derived from bagua.


Other adoptions

*
Flag of South Korea The flag of South Korea, also known as the Taegukgi (also spelled as ''Taegeukgi'', ), has three parts: a white rectangular background, a red and blue Taegeuk in its center, and four black I Ching trigram, trigrams, one in each corner. Flags si ...

Flag of South Korea
: a flag that has four trigrams surrounding the
taegeuk ''Taegeuk'' (, ) is a Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean ...

taegeuk
. *
Singapore dollar The Singapore dollar (currency sign, sign: S$; ISO 4217, code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore. It is divided into 100 cent (currency), cents. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or S$ to distinguish it from other do ...
: the one dollar coin is shaped like a bagua. *
Flag of South Vietnam The flag of South Vietnam served as national flag of the former State of Vietnam, and its successor, the Republic of Vietnam from 1949 to 1975. The flag is popular amongst overseas Vietnamese communities. It consists of a yellow background with t ...

Flag of South Vietnam
: the three stripes is said as a trigram representing "south". *
Tekes County Tekes County is a county within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang; officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is an autonomous region of ...
and Zhuge Village: both these communities has a layout based on bagua.


See also

* Tian gan and Di zhi: the archaic calendar system of East Asia. *
Ba Xian The Eight Immortals () are a group of legendary '' xian'' ("immortals") in Chinese mythology. Each immortal's power can be transferred to a vessel () that can bestow life or destroy evil. Together, these eight vessels are called the "Covert Eight ...

Ba Xian
* Ba Mai (; qí jīng bā mài) * Ba Duan Jin


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Bagua Chinese words and phrases Esoteric cosmology I Ching Symbolism Taoist cosmology