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Ibn Sina ( fa, ابن سینا), also known as Abu Ali Sina (), Pur Sina (), and often known in the West as Avicenna (;  – June 1037), was a
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific prob ...

polymath
who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
, and the father of early modern medicine. Sajjad H. Rizvi has called Avicenna "arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era". He was a Muslim Peripatetic philosopher influenced by Greek
Aristotelian philosophy Aristotelianism ( ) is a philosophical tradition inspired by the work of Aristotle, usually characterized by Prior Analytics, deductive logic and an posterior analytics, analytic inductive method in the study of nature and Natural_law#Aristotle, na ...
. Of the 450 works he is believed to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. His most famous works are ''
The Book of Healing ''The Book of Healing'' (; ; also known as ) is a scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken i ...
'', a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and ''
The Canon of Medicine ''The Canon of Medicine'' ( ar, القانون في الطب, italic=yes ''al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb''; fa, قانون در طب, italic=yes, ''Qanun-e dâr Tâb'') is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian physician-phil ...

The Canon of Medicine
'', a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval
universities A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typi ...

universities
and remained in use as late as 1650. Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
,
alchemy Depiction of Ouroboros from the alchemical treatise ''Aurora consurgens'' (15th century), Zentralbibliothek Zürich, Switzerland Alchemy (from Arabic: ''al-kīmiyā''; from Ancient Greek: ''khumeía'') is an ancient branch of natural philosop ...
, geography and geology,
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...
,
Islamic theology :''See Islamic schools and branches for different schools of thought; see aqidah for the concept of the different "creeds" in Islam; see Kalam ''ʿIlm al-Kalām'' ( ar, عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. ...
,
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit ...
,
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...
and works of
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...
.


Name

' is a Latin corruption of the Arabic patronym bin Sīnā (), meaning "Son of Sina". However, Avicenna was not the son but the great-great-grandson of a man named Sina. His formal Arabic name was Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn bin ʿAbdillāh ibn al-Ḥasan bin ʿAlī ibn Sīnā ().


Circumstances

Avicenna created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
, in which the translations of
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
Greco-Roman The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the ), as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to geographical regions and countries that culturally—and so historically—were directly and ...
,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
n, and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
n texts were studied extensively. Greco-Roman ( Mid- and Neo-Platonic, and
Aristotelian Aristotelian may refer to: * Aristotle (384–322 BCE), Greek philosopher * Aristotelianism, the philosophical tradition begun by Aristotle * Aristotelian ethics * Aristotelian logic, term logic * Aristotelian physics, the natural sciences * Aristot ...
) texts translated by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems,
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
,
algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. In its most ge ...

algebra
,
trigonometry Trigonometry (from ', "triangle" and ', "measure") is a branch of that studies relationships between side lengths and s of s. The field emerged in the during the 3rd century BC from applications of to . The Greeks focused on the , while ...

trigonometry
and
medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...
. The
Samanid dynasty The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, ''Sāmāniyān'', also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ...

Samanid dynasty
in the eastern part of
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
,
Greater Khorasan Greater KhorāsānDabeersiaghi, Commentary on Safarnâma-e Nâsir Khusraw, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr: 1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235–236 or Khorāsān ( pal, Xwarāsān; fa, wikt:خراسان, خراسان ), is a historical eastern region ...
and Central Asia as well as the
Buyid dynasty The Buyid dynasty, or the Buyids ( fa, آل بویه ''Āl-e Būya''; also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids), was a Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves o ...
in the western part of Persia and
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
provided a thriving atmosphere for scholarly and cultural development. Under the Samanids,
Bukhara Bukhara (; Uzbek language, Uzbek: /; Tajik language, Tajik: Бухоро, ) is the List of cities in Uzbekistan, fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 247,644 , and the capital of Bukhara Region. People have inhabited the region ...

Bukhara
rivaled
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
as a cultural capital of the
Islamic world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...
. There, the study of the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
and the
Hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or ...

Hadith
thrived. Philosophy,
Fiqh ''Fiqh'' (; ar} ) is Islamic jurisprudence. Muhammad-> Sahabah, Companions-> Tabi‘un, Followers-> Fiqh. The commands and prohibitions chosen by God were revealed through the agency of the Prophet in both the Quran and the Sunnah (words, dee ...
and
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
(
kalaam
kalaam
) were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna and his opponents. Al-Razi and
Al-Farabi Abu Nasr Al-Farabi (; '; known in the West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-base ...

Al-Farabi
had provided
methodology Methodology is the study of research methods, or, more formally, "'a contextual framework' for research, a coherent and logical scheme based on views, beliefs, and values, that guides the choices researchers
r other users R, or r, is the eighteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that ...
make". It compris ...
and knowledge in medicine and philosophy. Avicenna had access to the great libraries of
Balkh ), named for its green-tiled ''Gonbad'' ( fa, گُنبَد, dome), in July 2001 , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield ...

Balkh
,
Khwarezm Khwarazm , or Chorasmia (Old Persian: ''Uvârazmiya'', fa, خوارزم, ''Xwârazm'' or ''Xârazm''), is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the ea ...
,
Gorgan Gorgan ( fa, گرگان ; also romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for study ...

Gorgan
, Rey,
Isfahan Isfahan ( fa, اصفهان, Esfahān ), from its Achaemenid empire, ancient designation ''Aspadana'' and later ''Spahan'' in Sassanian Empire, middle Persian, rendered in English as ''Ispahan'', is a major city in Greater Isfahan Region, Is ...

Isfahan
and
Hamadan Hamadan () or Hamedan ( fa, همدان, ''Hamedān'') (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2019 census, its population was 783,300 in 230,775 families.The majority of people living in Hamadan ...

Hamadan
. Various texts (such as the 'Ahd with Bahmanyar) show that he debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time. Aruzi Samarqandi describes how before Avicenna left
Khwarezm Khwarazm , or Chorasmia (Old Persian: ''Uvârazmiya'', fa, خوارزم, ''Xwârazm'' or ''Xârazm''), is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the ea ...
he had met
Al-Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a co ...
(a famous scientist and astronomer), Abu Nasr Iraqi (a renowned mathematician), Abu Sahl Masihi (a respected philosopher) and Abu al-Khayr Khammar (a great physician).


Biography


Early life

Avicenna was born in Afshana, a village near
Bukhara Bukhara (; Uzbek language, Uzbek: /; Tajik language, Tajik: Бухоро, ) is the List of cities in Uzbekistan, fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 247,644 , and the capital of Bukhara Region. People have inhabited the region ...

Bukhara
(in present-day
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
), the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
of the
Samanids People A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established ...
, a Persian
dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of the University of Oxford. It is the larges ...
in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
and
Greater Khorasan Greater KhorāsānDabeersiaghi, Commentary on Safarnâma-e Nâsir Khusraw, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr: 1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235–236 or Khorāsān ( pal, Xwarāsān; fa, wikt:خراسان, خراسان ), is a historical eastern region ...
. His mother, named Sitāra, was from Bukhara. While, according to most scholars, most of Avicenna's family were
Sunnis Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and ...
, his father, Abdullāh, was a respected scholar from
Balkh ), named for its green-tiled ''Gonbad'' ( fa, گُنبَد, dome), in July 2001 , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield ...

Balkh
(in present-day
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
) who might have converted to
Ismailism Ismāʿīlism (Arabic language, Arabic: , ) is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī () get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor (Imamate in Nizari doctrine, imām) to ...
or remained a
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
. It was an important town of the
Samanid Empire The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in ...
, in what is today
Balkh Province Balkh (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iran ...
,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
. His father worked in the government of
Samanid The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in G ...
in the village Kharmasain, a
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
regional power. After five years, his younger brother, Mahmoud, was born. Avicenna first began to learn the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
and literature in such a way that when he was ten years old he had essentially learned all of them. According to his autobiography, Avicenna had memorised the entire Quran by the age of 10. He learned Indian arithmetic from an
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
greengrocer, Mahmoud Massahi and he began to learn more from a wandering scholar who gained a livelihood by curing the sick and teaching the young. He also studied
Fiqh ''Fiqh'' (; ar} ) is Islamic jurisprudence. Muhammad-> Sahabah, Companions-> Tabi‘un, Followers-> Fiqh. The commands and prohibitions chosen by God were revealed through the agency of the Prophet in both the Quran and the Sunnah (words, dee ...
(Islamic jurisprudence) under the
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
scholar Ismail al-Zahid.Jorge J.E. Gracia and Timothy B. Noone (2003), ''A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages'', p. 196,
Blackwell Publishing Wiley-Blackwell is an international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons John Wiley & Sons, Inc., commonly known as Wiley (), is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multina ...
, .
Avicenna was taught some extent of philosophy books such as Porphyry's Introduction (
Isagoge The ''Isagoge'' ( el, Εἰσαγωγή, ''Eisagōgḗ''; ) or "Introduction" to Categories (Aristotle), Aristotle's "Categories", written by Porphyry (philosopher), Porphyry in Ancient Greek, Greek and translated into Latin by Boethius, was the st ...
),
Euclid's Elements The ''Elements'' ( grc, Στοιχεῖα ''Stoikheîa'') is a mathematics, mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematics, Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt 300 BC. It is a colle ...
,
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
's
Almagest The ''Almagest'' is a 2nd-century Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
by an unpopular philosopher, Abu Abdullah Nateli, who claimed philosophizing. As a teenager, he was greatly troubled by the Greek ''
Metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between ...
'' of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
, which he could not understand until he read
al-Farabi Abu Nasr Al-Farabi (; '; known in the West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-base ...

al-Farabi
's commentary on the work. For the next year and a half, he studied philosophy, in which he encountered greater obstacles. In such moments of baffled inquiry, he would leave his books, perform the requisite ablutions, then go to the mosque, and continue in
prayer Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity or a deified an ...

prayer
till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night, he would continue his studies, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty times, it is said, he read through the ''Metaphysics'' of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning was hopelessly obscure to him until he purchased a brief commentary by al-Farabi from a bookstall for three dirhams (a very low price at the time). So great was his joy at the discovery, made with the help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, and bestowed alms upon the poor. He turned to medicine at 16, and not only learned medical theory, but also by gratuitous attendance of the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment. The teenager achieved full status as a qualified physician at age 18, and found that "Medicine is no hard and thorny science, like mathematics and metaphysics, so I soon made great progress; I became an excellent doctor and began to treat patients, using approved remedies." The youthful physician's fame spread quickly, and he treated many patients without asking for payment.


Religion

A number of theories have been proposed regarding Avicenna's
madhab A ' ( ar, مذهب ', , "way to act") is a school of thought within ''fiqh ''Fiqh'' (; ar} ) is Islamic jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nat ...
(school of thought within Islamic jurisprudence). Medieval historian Ẓahīr al-dīn al-Bayhaqī (d. 1169) considered Avicenna to be a follower of the
Brethren of Purity The Brethren of Purity ( ar, إخوان‌ الصفا, Ikhwān Al-Ṣafā; also The Brethren of Sincerity) were a secret society of Muslim philosophers in Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraqi city located on the S ...
. excerpt: "... Dimitri Gutas's ''Avicenna's maḏhab'' convincingly demonstrates that I.S. was a sunnî-Ḥanafî

/ref> On the other hand,
Dimitri Gutas Dimitri Gutas ( el, Δημήτρης Γούτας; born 1945, Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The Cairo metropolitan area, with a population of 21.3 mi ...
along with Aisha Khan and Jules J. Janssens demonstrated that Avicenna was a
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
. Avicenna studied
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
law, many of his notable teachers were
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
jurists, and he served under the Hanafi court of Ali ibn Mamun. Avicenna said at an early age that he remained "unconvinced" by Ismaili missionary attempts to convert him. However, the 14th century
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib as his Succession to Mu ...
faqih Nurullah Shushtari according to
Seyyed Hossein Nasr Seyyed Hossein Nasr (; fa, سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian University Professor of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosophy, Islamic philosopher. He is the author of scholarly books and ...
, claimed he was a
Twelver Shia Twelver ( ar, ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ' fa, شیعه دوازده‌امامی, '), also known as Imamiyyah ( ar, إِمَامِيَّة), is the largest branch of Shia Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' i ...
. Conversely, Sharaf Khorasani, citing a rejection of an invitation of the Sunni Governor Sultan Mahmoud Ghazanavi by Avicenna to his court, believes that Avicenna was an
Ismaili Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''Esmâ'īliyân'') is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branch ...
. Similar disagreements exist on the background of Avicenna's family, whereas most writers considered them Sunni, recent Shiite writers contested that they were Shia.


Adulthood

Avicenna's first appointment was that of physician to the
emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristocrat, holder of high-ranking military or politic ...

emir
,
Nuh II Nuh II ( fa, نوح, died 22 July 997)''Tabaqat-i Nasiri'' by Minhaj-i-Siraj, pg. 107, Lahore Sangmil Publications 2004 was amir of the Samanids (976–997). He was the son and successor of Mansur I. Beginning and Middle of Reign Having ascended ...
, who owed him his recovery from a dangerous illness (997). Avicenna's chief reward for this service was access to the royal library of the Samanids, well-known patrons of scholarship and scholars. When the library was destroyed by fire not long after, the enemies of Avicenna accused him of burning it, in order for ever to conceal the sources of his knowledge. Meanwhile, he assisted his father in his financial labours, but still found time to write some of his earliest works. At 22 years old, Avicenna lost his father. The Samanid dynasty came to its end in December 1004. Avicenna seems to have declined the offers of
Mahmud of Ghazni Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn ( fa, یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030), usually known as Mahmud of Ghazni ( fa, ) or Mahmud Ghaznavi was the f ...

Mahmud of Ghazni
, and proceeded westwards to
Urgench image:Urgentch.jpg, View of the central market area of Urgench from the fifth floor of the Hamkor Bank building. In the background the blue and white building of the "Gipermarket", the largest shopping centre in Urgench. image:Honighaendler.JPG, ...
in modern
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins. There ar ...

Turkmenistan
, where the
vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called ' (secretary), who was at first merely a ...
, regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a monthly stipend. The pay was small, however, so Avicenna wandered from place to place through the districts of
Nishapur Nishapur or Nishabur ( fa, ; also Romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for study ...
and
Merv Merv ( tk, Merw, ''Мерв'', مرو; fa, مرو, ''Marv''), also known as the Merve Oasis, formerly known as Alexandria ( el, Ἀλεξάνδρεια), Antiochia in Margiana ( el, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐν τῇ Μαργιανῇ) and ...

Merv
to the borders of
Khorasan Khorasan may refer to: * Greater Khorasan, a historical region which lies mostly in modern-day northern/northwestern Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan * Khorasan Province, a pre-2004 province of Iran, ...
, seeking an opening for his talents.
Qabus Qabus ibn Wushmagir (full name: ''Abol-Hasan Qābūs ibn Wušmagīr ibn Ziyar Sams al-maʿālī'', ; (died 1012) (r. 977–981; 997–1012) was the Ziyarid ruler of Gurgan and Tabaristan in medieval Iran. His father was Vushmgir and his mother was a ...
, the generous ruler of
Tabaristan Tabaristan or Tabarestan ( fa, طبرستان, Ṭabarestān, or mzn, تبرستون, Tabarestun, ultimately from Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later ...

Tabaristan
, himself a poet and a scholar, with whom Avicenna had expected to find asylum, was on about that date (1012) starved to death by his troops who had revolted. Avicenna himself was at this time stricken by a severe illness. Finally, at
Gorgan Gorgan ( fa, گرگان ; also romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for study ...

Gorgan
, near the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
, Avicenna met with a friend, who bought a dwelling near his own house in which Avicenna lectured on
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
and
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
. Several of his treatises were written for this patron; and the commencement of his ''Canon of Medicine'' also dates from his stay in
Hyrcania Hyrcania () ( el, ''Hyrkania'', Old Persian: 𐎺𐎼𐎣𐎠𐎴 ''Varkâna'',Lendering (1996) Middle Persian: 𐭢𐭥𐭫𐭢𐭠𐭭 ''Gurgān'', Akkadian (language), Akkadian: ''Urqananu'') is a historical region composed of the land sout ...
. Avicenna subsequently settled at Rey, in the vicinity of modern
Tehran Tehran (; fa, تهران ) is the Capital city, capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the List of largest cities o ...

Tehran
, the home town of
Rhazes Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyāʾ al-Rāzī ( ar, أبو بكر محمد بن زكرياء الرازي, also known by his Persian name Rāzī and by his Latinization (literature), Latinized name Rhazes), 864 or 865 – 925 or 935  ...
; where Majd Addaula, a son of the last Buwayhid emir, was nominal ruler under the regency of his mother (Seyyedeh Khatun). About thirty of Avicenna's shorter works are said to have been composed in Rey. Constant feuds which raged between the regent and her second son, Shams al-Daula, however, compelled the scholar to quit the place. After a brief sojourn at Qazvin (city), Qazvin he passed southwards to Hamadãn where Shams al-Daula, another Buwayhid emir, had established himself. At first, Avicenna entered into the service of a high-born lady; but the emir, hearing of his arrival, called him in as medical attendant, and sent him back with presents to his dwelling. Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier. The emir decreed that he should be banished from the country. Avicenna, however, remained hidden for forty days in sheikh Ahmed Fadhel's house, until a fresh attack of illness induced the emir to restore him to his post. Even during this perturbed time, Avicenna persevered with his studies and teaching. Every evening, extracts from his great works, the ''Canon'' and the ''Sanatio'', were dictated and explained to his pupils. On the death of the emir, Avicenna ceased to be vizier and hid himself in the house of an apothecary, where, with intense assiduity, he continued the composition of his works. Meanwhile, he had written to Abu Ya'far, the prefect of the dynamic city of
Isfahan Isfahan ( fa, اصفهان, Esfahān ), from its Achaemenid empire, ancient designation ''Aspadana'' and later ''Spahan'' in Sassanian Empire, middle Persian, rendered in English as ''Ispahan'', is a major city in Greater Isfahan Region, Is ...

Isfahan
, offering his services. The new emir of Hamadan, hearing of this correspondence and discovering where Avicenna was hiding, incarcerated him in a fortress. War meanwhile continued between the rulers of Isfahan and Hamadãn; in 1024 the former captured Hamadan and its towns, expelling the Tajik mercenaries. When the storm had passed, Avicenna returned with the emir to Hamadan, and carried on his literary labors. Later, however, accompanied by his brother, a favorite pupil, and two slaves, Avicenna escaped from the city in the dress of a Sufi ascetic. After a perilous journey, they reached Isfahan, receiving an honorable welcome from the prince.


Later life and death

The remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna's life were spent in the service of the Kakuyid ruler Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar (also known as Ala al-Dawla), whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns. During these years he began to study literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by criticisms on his style. A severe colic, which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Avicenna could scarcely stand. On a similar occasion the disease returned; with difficulty he reached Hamadan, where, finding the disease gaining ground, he refused to keep up the regimen imposed, and resigned himself to his fate. His friends advised him to slow down and take life moderately. He refused, however, stating that: ''"I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length"''. On his deathbed remorse seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust gains, freed his slaves, and read through the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
every three days until his death. He died in June 1037, in his fifty-sixth year, in the month of Ramadan, and was buried in
Hamadan Hamadan () or Hamedan ( fa, همدان, ''Hamedān'') (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2019 census, its population was 783,300 in 230,775 families.The majority of people living in Hamadan ...

Hamadan
, Iran.


Philosophy

Avicenna wrote extensively on early Islamic philosophy, especially the subjects
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
, ethics, and metaphysics, including treatises named ''Logic'' and ''Metaphysics''. Most of his works were written in Arabic language, Arabic – then the language of science in the Middle East – and some in Persian language, Persian. Of linguistic significance even to this day are a few books that he wrote in nearly pure Persian language (particularly the Danishnamah-yi 'Ala', Philosophy for Ala' ad-Dawla'). Avicenna's commentaries on Aristotle often criticized the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad. Avicenna's Platonism in Islamic Philosophy, Neoplatonic scheme of "emanations" became fundamental in the ''Kalam'' (school of theological discourse) in the 12th century. His ''Book of Healing'' became available in Europe in partial Latin translation some fifty years after its composition, under the title ''Sufficientia'', and some authors have identified a "Latin Avicennism" as flourishing for some time, paralleling the more influential Latin Averroism, but suppressed by the Condemnations of 1210–1277, Parisian decrees of 1210 and 1215. Avicenna's psychology and theory of knowledge influenced William of Auvergne, Bishop of Paris and Albertus Magnus, while his metaphysics influenced the thought of Thomas Aquinas.


Metaphysical doctrine

Early Islamic philosophy and Islamic metaphysics, imbued as it is with Kalam, Islamic theology, distinguishes more clearly than Aristotelianism between essence and existence. Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. The philosophy of Avicenna, particularly that part relating to metaphysics, owes much to al-Farabi. The search for a definitive Islamic philosophy separate from Occasionalism can be seen in what is left of his work. Following al-Farabi's lead, Avicenna initiated a full-fledged inquiry into the question of being, in which he distinguished between essence (''Mahiat'') and existence (''Wujud''). He argued that the fact of existence cannot be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things, and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things. Existence must, therefore, be due to an Causality, agent-cause that necessitates, imparts, gives, or adds existence to an essence. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing and coexist with its effect. Avicenna's consideration of the essence-attributes question may be elucidated in terms of his ontological analysis of the modalities of being; namely impossibility, contingency, and necessity. Avicenna argued that the impossible being is that which cannot exist, while the contingent in itself (''mumkin bi-dhatihi'') has the potentiality to be or not to be without entailing a contradiction. When actualized, the contingent becomes a 'necessary existent due to what is other than itself' (''wajib al-wujud bi-ghayrihi''). Thus, contingency-in-itself is potential beingness that could eventually be actualized by an external cause other than itself. The metaphysical structures of necessity and contingency are different. Necessary being due to itself (''wajib al-wujud bi-dhatihi'') is true in itself, while the contingent being is 'false in itself' and 'true due to something else other than itself'. The necessary is the source of its own being without borrowed existence. It is what always exists. The Necessary exists 'due-to-Its-Self', and has no quiddity/essence (''mahiyya'') other than existence (''wujud''). Furthermore, It is 'One' (''wahid ahad'') since there cannot be more than one 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' without differentia (fasl) to distinguish them from each other. Yet, to require differentia entails that they exist 'due-to-themselves' as well as 'due to what is other than themselves'; and this is contradictory. However, if no differentia distinguishes them from each other, then there is no sense in which these 'Existents' are not one and the same.Nader El-Bizri, ''The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger'' (Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000) Avicenna adds that the 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' has no genus (''jins''), nor a definition (''hadd''), nor a counterpart (''nadd''), nor an opposite (''did''), and is detached (''bari'') from matter (''madda''), quality (''kayf''), quantity (''kam''), place (''ayn''), situation (''wad''), and time (''waqt''). Avicenna's theology on metaphysical issues (''ilāhiyyāt'') has been criticized by some Islamic scholars, among them al-Ghazali, Ibn Taymiyya, and Ibn al-Qayyim. While discussing the views of the theists among the Greek philosophers, namely Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
in ''Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal'' ("Deliverance from Error"), al-Ghazali noted that the Greek philosophers "must be taxed with unbelief, as must their partisans among the Muslim philosophers, such as Avicenna and al-Farabi and their likes." He added that "None, however, of the Muslim philosophers engaged so much in transmitting Aristotle's lore as did the two men just mentioned. [...] The sum of what we regard as the authentic philosophy of Aristotle, as transmitted by al-Farabi and Avicenna, can be reduced to three parts: a part which must be branded as unbelief; a part which must be stigmatized as innovation; and a part which need not be repudiated at all.


Argument for God's existence

Avicenna made an argument for the existence of God which would be known as the "Proof of the Truthful" (Arabic: ''burhan al-siddiqin''). Avicenna argued that there must be a "necessary existent" (Arabic: ''wajib al-wujud''), an entity that cannot ''not'' exist and through a series of arguments, he identified it with God in Islam, the Islamic conception of God. Present-day History of philosophy, historian of philosophy Peter Adamson (philosopher), Peter Adamson called this argument one of the most influential medieval arguments for God's existence, and Avicenna's biggest contribution to the history of philosophy.


Al-Biruni correspondence

Correspondence between Avicenna (with his student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi) and
Al-Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a co ...
has survived in which they debated
Aristotelian Aristotelian may refer to: * Aristotle (384–322 BCE), Greek philosopher * Aristotelianism, the philosophical tradition begun by Aristotle * Aristotelian ethics * Aristotelian logic, term logic * Aristotelian physics, the natural sciences * Aristot ...
natural philosophy and the Peripatetic school. Abu Rayhan began by asking Avicenna eighteen questions, ten of which were criticisms of Aristotle's ''On the Heavens''.


Theology

Avicenna was a devout Muslim and sought to reconcile rational philosophy with Islamic theology. His aim was to prove the existence of God and His creation of the world scientifically and through reason and
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
.Lenn Evan Goodman (2003), ''Islamic Humanism'', pp. 8–9, Oxford University Press, . Avicenna's views on Islamic theology (and philosophy) were enormously influential, forming part of the core of the curriculum at Islamic religious schools until the 19th century. Avicenna wrote a number of short treatises dealing with Islamic theology. These included treatises on the Islamic prophet, prophets (whom he viewed as "inspired philosophers"), and also on various scientific and philosophical interpretations of the Quran, such as how Quranic cosmology corresponds to his own philosophical system. In general these treatises linked his philosophical writings to Islamic religious ideas; for example, the body's afterlife. There are occasional brief hints and allusions in his longer works however that Avicenna considered philosophy as the only sensible way to distinguish real prophecy from illusion. He did not state this more clearly because of the political implications of such a theory, if prophecy could be questioned, and also because most of the time he was writing shorter works which concentrated on explaining his theories on philosophy and theology clearly, without digressing to consider epistemological matters which could only be properly considered by other philosophers. Later interpretations of Avicenna's philosophy split into three different schools; those (such as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, al-Tusi) who continued to apply his philosophy as a system to interpret later political events and scientific advances; those (such as Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, al-Razi) who considered Avicenna's theological works in isolation from his wider philosophical concerns; and those (such as al-Ghazali) who selectively used parts of his philosophy to support their own attempts to gain greater spiritual insights through a variety of mystical means. It was the theological interpretation championed by those such as al-Razi which eventually came to predominate in the madrasahs. Avicenna Hafiz (Quran), memorized the Quran by the age of ten, and as an adult, he wrote five treatises commenting on suras from the Quran. One of these texts included the ''Proof of Prophecies'', in which he comments on several Quranic verses and holds the Quran in high esteem. Avicenna argued that the Islamic prophets should be considered higher than philosophers.


Thought experiments

While he was imprisoned in the castle of Fardajan near Hamadhan, Avicenna wrote his famous "floating man" – literally falling man – a thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality and immateriality of the soul. Avicenna believed his "Floating Man" thought experiment demonstrated that the soul is a substance, and claimed humans cannot doubt their own consciousness, even in a situation that prevents all sensory data input. The thought experiment told its readers to imagine themselves created all at once while suspended in the air, isolated from all Wikt:sensation, sensations, which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. He argued that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. Because it is conceivable that a person, suspended in air while cut off from empirical evidence, sense experience, would still be capable of determining his own existence, the thought experiment points to the conclusions that the soul is a perfection, independent of the body, and an immaterial substance. The conceivability of this "Floating Man" indicates that the soul is perceived intellectually, which entails the soul's separateness from the body. Avicenna referred to the living human nous, intelligence, particularly the active intellect, which he believed to be the hypostatic abstraction, hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature. Following is an English translation of the argument: However, Avicenna posited the brain as the place where reason interacts with sensation. Sensation prepares the soul to receive rational concepts from the universal Agent Intellect. The first knowledge of the flying person would be "I am," affirming his or her essence. That essence could not be the body, obviously, as the flying person has no sensation. Thus, the knowledge that "I am" is the core of a human being: the soul exists and is self-aware. Avicenna thus concluded that the idea of the self (philosophy), self is not logically dependent on any physical Object (philosophy), thing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance theory, substance. The body is unnecessary; in relation to it, the soul is its perfection. In itself, the soul is an immaterial substance.


''The Canon of Medicine''

Avicenna authored a five-volume medical encyclopedia: ''The Canon of Medicine'' (''Al-Qanun fi't-Tibb''). It was used as the standard medical textbook in the Islamic world and Europe up to the 18th century. The ''Canon'' still plays an important role in Unani medicine.


''Liber Primus Naturalium''

Avicenna considered whether events like rare diseases or disorders have natural causes. He used the example of polydactyly to explain his perception that causal reasons exist for all medical events. This view of medical phenomena anticipated developments in the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment by seven centuries.


''The Book of Healing''


Earth sciences

Avicenna wrote on Earth sciences such as geology in ''The Book of Healing''.Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield (1965), ''The Ancestry of Science: The Discovery of Time'', p. 64, University of Chicago Press (cf
The Contribution of Ibn Sina to the development of Earth sciences
)
While discussing the formation of mountains, he explained:


Philosophy of science

In the ''Al-Burhan'' (''On Demonstration'') section of ''The Book of Healing'', Avicenna discussed the philosophy of science and described an early scientific method of inquiry. He discusses Aristotle's ''Posterior Analytics'' and significantly diverged from it on several points. Avicenna discussed the issue of a proper methodology for scientific inquiry and the question of "How does one acquire the first principles of a science?" He asked how a scientist would arrive at "the initial axioms or hypothesis, hypotheses of a deductive reasoning, deductive science without inferring them from some more basic premises?" He explains that the ideal situation is when one grasps that a "relation holds between the terms, which would allow for absolute, universal certainty". Avicenna then adds two further methods for arriving at the first principles: the ancient Aristotelian method of inductive reasoning, induction (''istiqra''), and the method of Hypothesis, examination and experimentation (''tajriba''). Avicenna criticized Aristotelian induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide." In its place, he develops a "method of experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry."


Logic

An early formal system of temporal logic was studied by Avicenna. Although he did not develop a real theory of temporal propositions, he did study the relationship between ''temporalis'' and the implication. Avicenna's work was further developed by Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī and became the dominant system of Logic in Islamic philosophy, Islamic logic until modern times. Avicennian logic also influenced several early European logicians such as Albertus Magnus and William of Ockham. Avicenna endorsed the law of non-contradiction proposed by Aristotle, that a fact could not be both true and false at the same time and in the same sense of the terminology used. He stated, "Anyone who denies the law of non-contradiction should be beaten and burned until he admits that to be beaten is not the same as not to be beaten, and to be burned is not the same as not to be burned."


Physics

In mechanics, Avicenna, in ''The Book of Healing'', developed a theory of motion (physics), motion, in which he made a distinction between the inclination (tendency to motion) and force of a projectile, and concluded that motion was a result of an inclination (''mayl'') transferred to the projectile by the thrower, and that projectile motion in a vacuum would not cease.Fernando Espinoza (2005). "An analysis of the historical development of ideas about motion and its implications for teaching", ''Physics Education'' 40 (2), p. 141. He viewed inclination as a permanent force whose effect is dissipated by external forces such as air resistance. The theory of motion presented by Avicenna was probably influenced by the 6th-century Alexandrian scholar John Philoponus. Avicenna's is a less sophisticated variant of the theory of impetus developed by Buridan in the 14th century. It is unclear if Buridan was influenced by Avicenna, or by Philoponus directly. In optics, Avicenna was among those who argued that light had a speed, observing that "if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of Subatomic particle, particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite." He also provided a wrong explanation of the rainbow phenomenon. Carl Benjamin Boyer described Avicenna's ("Ibn Sīnā") theory on the rainbow as follows: In 1253, a Latin text entitled ''Speculum Tripartitum'' stated the following regarding Avicenna's theory on heat:


Psychology

Avicenna's legacy in classical psychology is primarily embodied in the ''Kitab al-nafs'' parts of his ''Kitab al-shifa'' (''The Book of Healing'') and ''Kitab al-najat'' (''The Book of Deliverance''). These were known in Latin under the title De Anima (treatises "on the soul"). Notably, Avicenna develops what is called the Floating man, Flying Man argument in the Psychology of ''The Cure'' I.1.7 as defence of the argument that the soul is without quantitative extension, which has an affinity with Descartes's ''cogito'' argument (or what phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology designates as a form of an "''epoche''").Nader El-Bizri, ''The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger'' (Binghamton, NY: Global Publications SUNY, 2000), pp. 149–171.Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna's De Anima between Aristotle and Husserl," in ''The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming'', ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 67–89. Avicenna's psychology requires that connection between the body and soul be strong enough to ensure the soul's individuation, but weak enough to allow for its immortality. Avicenna grounds his psychology on physiology, which means his account of the soul is one that deals almost entirely with the natural science of the body and its abilities of perception. Thus, the philosopher's connection between the soul and body is explained almost entirely by his understanding of perception; in this way, bodily perception interrelates with the immaterial human intellect. In sense perception, the perceiver senses the form of the object; first, by perceiving features of the object by our external senses. This sensory information is supplied to the internal senses, which merge all the pieces into a whole, unified conscious experience. This process of perception and abstraction is the nexus of the soul and body, for the material body may only perceive material objects, while the immaterial soul may only receive the immaterial, universal forms. The way the soul and body interact in the final abstraction of the universal from the concrete particular is the key to their relationship and interaction, which takes place in the physical body. The soul completes the action of intellection by accepting forms that have been abstracted from matter. This process requires a concrete particular (material) to be abstracted into the universal intelligible (immaterial). The material and immaterial interact through the Active Intellect, which is a "divine light" containing the intelligible forms. The Active Intellect reveals the universals concealed in material objects much like the sun makes colour available to our eyes.


Other contributions


Astronomy and astrology

Avicenna wrote an attack on astrology titled ''Resāla fī ebṭāl aḥkām al-nojūm'', in which he cited passages from the Quran to dispute the power of astrology to foretell the future. He believed that each planet had some influence on the earth, but argued against astrologers being able to determine the exact effects. Avicenna's astronomical writings had some influence on later writers, although in general his work could be considered less developed than Alhazen or
Al-Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a co ...
. One important feature of his writing is that he considers mathematical astronomy as a separate discipline to astrology. He criticized Aristotle's view of the stars receiving their light from the Sun, stating that the stars are self-luminous, and believed that the planets are also self-luminous. He claimed to have observed Transit of Venus, Venus as a spot on the Sun. This is possible, as there was a transit on 24 May 1032, but Avicenna did not give the date of his observation, and modern scholars have questioned whether he could have observed the transit from his location at that time; he may have mistaken a sunspot for Venus. He used his transit observation to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in Ptolemaic cosmology, i.e. the sphere of Venus comes before the sphere of the Sun when moving out from the Earth in the prevailing geocentric model. He also wrote the ''Summary of the Almagest'', (based on
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
's ''
Almagest The ''Almagest'' is a 2nd-century Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
''), with an appended treatise "to bring that which is stated in the Almagest and what is understood from Natural Science into conformity". For example, Avicenna considers the motion of the solar apogee, which Ptolemy had taken to be fixed.


Chemistry

Avicenna was first to derive the attar of flowers from distillation and used steam distillation to produce essential oils such as rose essence, which he used as aromatherapeutic treatments for heart conditions.Marlene Ericksen (2000). ''Healing with Aromatherapy'', p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. . Unlike al-Razi, Avicenna explicitly disputed the theory of the Philosopher's stone, transmutation of substances commonly believed by alchemy, alchemists: Four works on alchemy attributed to Avicenna were translated into Latin as:Georges C. Anawati (1996), "Arabic alchemy", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., ''Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science'', Vol. 3, pp. 853–885 [875]. Routledge, London and New York. * * * * was the most influential, having influenced later medieval chemists and alchemists such as Vincent of Beauvais. However Anawati argues (following Ruska) that the de Anima is a fake by a Spanish author. Similarly the Declaratio is believed not to be actually by Avicenna. The third work (''The Book of Minerals'') is agreed to be Avicenna's writing, adapted from the ''Kitab al-Shifa'' (''Book of the Remedy''). Avicenna classified minerals into stones, fusible substances, sulfurs, and salts, building on the ideas of Aristotle and Jabir. The ''epistola de Re recta'' is somewhat less sceptical of alchemy; Anawati argues that it is by Avicenna, but written earlier in his career when he had not yet firmly decided that transmutation was impossible.


Poetry

Almost half of Avicenna's works are versified. His poems appear in both Arabic and Persian. As an example, Edward Granville Browne claims that the following Persian verses are incorrectly attributed to Omar Khayyám, and were originally written by Ibn Sīnā:


Legacy


Classical Islamic civilization

Robert Wisnovsky, a scholar of Avicenna attached to the McGill University, says that "Avicenna was the central figure in the long history of the rational sciences in Islam, particularly in the fields of metaphysics, logic and medicine" but that his works didn't only have an influence in these "secular" fields of knowledge alone, as "these works, or portions of them, were read, taught, copied, commented upon, quoted, paraphrased and cited by thousands of post-Avicennian scholars – not only philosophers, logicians, physicians and specialists in the mathematical or exact sciences, but also by those who specialized in the disciplines of Kalam, ʿilm al-kalām (rational theology, but understood to include natural philosophy, epistemology and philosophy of mind) and Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, usūl al-fiqh (jurisprudence, but understood to include philosophy of law, dialectic, and philosophy of language)."


Middle Ages and Renaissance

As early as the 13th century when Dante Alighieri depicted him in Limbo alongside the virtuous non-Christian thinkers in his ''Divine Comedy'' such as Virgil, Averroes, Homer, Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Socrates, Plato, and Saladin. Avicenna has been recognized by both East and West, as one of the great figures in intellectual history. George Sarton, the author of ''The History of Science'', described Avicenna as "one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history"George Sarton, ''Introduction to the History of Science''.
(cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997)
Quotations From Famous Historians of Science
Cyberistan.)
and called him "the most famous Islamic science, scientist of Islam and one of the most famous of all races, places, and times." He was one of the Islamic world's leading writers in the field of medicine. Along with
Rhazes Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyāʾ al-Rāzī ( ar, أبو بكر محمد بن زكرياء الرازي, also known by his Persian name Rāzī and by his Latinization (literature), Latinized name Rhazes), 864 or 865 – 925 or 935  ...
, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, Abulcasis, Ibn al-Nafis, and Hunayn ibn Ishaq, al-Ibadi, Avicenna is considered an important compiler of early Muslim medicine. He is remembered in the Western history of medicine as a major historical figure who made important contributions to medicine and the European Renaissance. His medical texts were unusual in that where controversy existed between Galen and Aristotle's views on medical matters (such as anatomy), he preferred to side with Aristotle, where necessary updating Aristotle's position to take into account post-Aristotelian advances in anatomical knowledge. Aristotle's dominant intellectual influence among medieval European scholars meant that Avicenna's linking of Galen's medical writings with Aristotle's philosophical writings in the ''Canon of Medicine'' (along with its comprehensive and logical organisation of knowledge) significantly increased Avicenna's importance in medieval Europe in comparison to other Islamic writers on medicine. His influence following translation of the ''Canon'' was such that from the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth centuries he was ranked with Hippocrates and Galen as one of the acknowledged authorities, ("prince of physicians").


Modern reception

In present-day Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, he is considered a national icon, and is often regarded as among the greatest Persians. A monument was erected outside the Bukhara museum. The Avicenna Mausoleum and Museum in
Hamadan Hamadan () or Hamedan ( fa, همدان, ''Hamedān'') (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2019 census, its population was 783,300 in 230,775 families.The majority of people living in Hamadan ...

Hamadan
was built in 1952. Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan (Iran), the biotechnology Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran (Iran), the ''ibn Sīnā'' Tajik State Medical University in Dushanbe, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences at Aligarh, India, Avicenna School in Karachi and Avicenna Medical College in Lahore, Pakistan, Ibn Sina Balkh Medical School in his native province of
Balkh ), named for its green-tiled ''Gonbad'' ( fa, گُنبَد, dome), in July 2001 , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield ...

Balkh
in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
, Ibni Sina Faculty Of Medicine of Ankara University Ankara, Turkey, the main classroom building (the Avicenna Building) of the Sharif University of Technology, and Ibn Sina Integrated School in Marawi City (Philippines) are all named in his honour. His portrait hangs in the Hall of the Avicenna Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris. There is a crater on the Moon named Avicenna (crater), Avicenna and a mangrove genus. In 1980, the Soviet Union, which then ruled his birthplace Bukhara, celebrated the thousandth anniversary of Avicenna's birth by circulating various commemorative stamps with artistic illustrations, and by erecting a bust (sculpture), bust of Avicenna based on anthropological research by Soviet scholars. Near his birthplace in Qishlak Afshona, some north of Bukhara, a training college for medical staff has been named for him. On the grounds is a museum dedicated to his life, times and work. The Avicenna Prize, established in 2003, is awarded every two years by UNESCO and rewards individuals and groups for their achievements in the field of ethics in science. The aim of the award is to promote ethical reflection on issues raised by advances in science and technology, and to raise global awareness of the importance of ethics in science. The Avicenna Directories (2008–15; now the World Directory of Medical Schools) list universities and schools where doctors, public health practitioners, pharmacists and others, are educated. The original project team stated "Why Avicenna? Avicenna ... was ... noted for his synthesis of knowledge from both east and west. He has had a lasting influence on the development of medicine and health sciences. The use of Avicenna's name symbolises the worldwide partnership that is needed for the promotion of health services of high quality." In June 2009, Iran donated a "Persian Scholars Pavilion" to United Nations Office in Vienna which is placed in the central Memorial Plaza (Vienna), Memorial Plaza of the Vienna International Center. The "Persian Scholars Pavilion" at United Nations in Vienna, Austria is featuring the statues of four prominent Iranian figures. Highlighting the Iranian architectural features, the pavilion is adorned with Persian art forms and includes the statues of renowned Iranian scientists Avicenna,
Al-Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a co ...
, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) and Omar Khayyam. The 1982 Soviet film ''Youth of Genius'' (russian: Юность гения, Yunost geniya, links=no) by recounts Avicenna's younger years. The film is set in Bukhara at the turn of the millennium. In Louis L'Amour's 1985 historical novel ''The Walking Drum'', Kerbouchard studies and discusses Avicenna's ''The Canon of Medicine''. In his book ''The Physician'' (1988) Noah Gordon (novelist), Noah Gordon tells the story of a young English medical apprentice who disguises himself as a Jew to travel from England to Persia and learn from Avicenna, the great master of his time. The novel was adapted into a feature film, ''The Physician (2013 film), The Physician'', in 2013. Avicenna was played by Ben Kingsley.


List of works

The treatises of Avicenna influenced later Muslim thinkers in many areas including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics, and music. His works numbered almost 450 volumes on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 volumes of his surviving works concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. His most famous works are ''The Book of Healing'', and ''The Canon of Medicine''. Avicenna wrote at least one treatise on alchemy, but several others have been falsely attributed to him. His ''Logic'', ''Metaphysics'', ''Physics'', and ''De Caelo'', are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelianism, Aristotelian doctrine, though ''Metaphysics'' demonstrates a significant departure from the brand of Neoplatonism known as Aristotelianism in Avicenna's world; Arabic philosophers have hinted at the idea that Avicennawas attempting to "re-Aristotelianise" Muslim philosophy in its entirety, unlike his predecessors, who accepted the conflation of Platonic, Aristotelian, Neo- and Middle-Platonic works transmitted into the Muslim world. The ''Logic'' and ''Metaphysics'' have been extensively reprinted, the latter, e.g., at Venice in 1493, 1495, and 1546. Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, etc., take a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836). Two encyclopedic treatises, dealing with philosophy, are often mentioned. The larger, ''The Book of Healing, Al-Shifa''' (''Sanatio''), exists nearly complete in manuscript in the Bodleian Library and elsewhere; part of it on the ''De Anima'' appeared at Pavia (1490) as the ''Liber Sextus Naturalium'', and the long account of Avicenna's philosophy given by Muhammad al-Shahrastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a reproduction, of the Al-Shifa'. A shorter form of the work is known as the An-najat (''Liberatio''). The Latin editions of part of these works have been modified by the corrections which the monastic editors confess that they applied. There is also a (''hikmat-al-mashriqqiyya'', in Latin ''Philosophia Orientalis''), mentioned by Roger Bacon, the majority of which is lost in antiquity, which according to Averroes was pantheistic in tone. Avicenna's works further include: * ''Sirat al-shaykh al-ra'is'' (''The Life of Avicenna''), ed. and trans. WE. Gohlman, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1974. (The only critical edition of Avicenna's autobiography, supplemented with material from a biography by his student Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani. A more recent translation of the Autobiography appears in D. Gutas, ''Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works'', Leiden: Brill, 1988; second edition 2014.) * ''Al-isharat wa al-tanbihat'' (''Remarks and Admonitions''), ed. S. Dunya, Cairo, 1960; parts translated by S.C. Inati, Remarks and Admonitions, Part One: Logic, Toronto, Ont.: Pontifical Institute for Mediaeval Studies, 1984, and Ibn Sina and Mysticism, Remarks and Admonitions: Part 4, London: Kegan Paul International, 1996. * ''Al-Qanun fi'l-tibb'' (''The Canon of Medicine''), ed. I. a-Qashsh, Cairo, 1987. (Encyclopedia of medicine.) manuscript, Latin translation, Flores Avicenne, Michael de Capella, 1508, Modern text. Ahmed Shawkat Al-Shatti, Jibran Jabbur. * ''Risalah fi sirr al-qadar'' (''Essay on the Secret of Destiny''), trans. G. Hourani in Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. * ''Daneshnameh-ye AlaiB, Danishnama-i 'ala'i'' (''The Book of Scientific Knowledge''), ed. and trans. P. Morewedge, The Metaphysics of Avicenna, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. * ''Kitab al-Shifa (''
The Book of Healing ''The Book of Healing'' (; ; also known as ) is a scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken i ...
''). (Avicenna's major work on philosophy. He probably began to compose al-Shifa' in 1014, and completed it in 1020.) Critical editions of the Arabic text have been published in Cairo, 1952–83, originally under the supervision of I. Madkour. * ''Kitab al-Najat'' (''The Book of Salvation''), trans. F. Rahman, ''Avicenna's Psychology: An English Translation of Kitab al-Najat, Book II, Chapter VI with Historical-philosophical Notes and Textual Improvements on the Cairo Edition'', Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952. (The psychology of al-Shifa'.) (Digital version of the Arabic text)


Persian works

Avicenna's most important Persian language, Persian work is the ''Danishnama-i 'Alai'' (, "the Book of Knowledge for [Prince] 'Ala ad-Daulah"). Avicenna created new scientific vocabulary that had not previously existed in Persian. The Danishnama covers such topics as logic, metaphysics, music theory and other sciences of his time. It has been translated into English by Parwiz Morewedge in 1977. The book is also important in respect to Persian scientific works. ''Andar Danesh-e Rag'' (, "On the Science of the Pulse") contains nine chapters on the science of the pulse and is a condensed synopsis. Persian poetry from Avicenna is recorded in various manuscripts and later anthologies such as ''Nozhat al-Majales''.


See also

* Qumri, Al-Qumri (possibly Avicenna's teacher) * Abdol Hamid Khosro Shahi (Iranian theologian) * Mummia (Persian medicine) * Namesakes of Ibn Sina ** Avicenna Bay in Antartica ** Avicenna (crater) on the far side of the Moon ** Avicenna Cultural and Scientific Foundation ** Avicenne Hospital in Paris, France ** Avicenna International College in Budapest, Hungary ** Avicenna Mausoleum (complex dedicated to Avicenna) in
Hamadan Hamadan () or Hamedan ( fa, همدان, ''Hamedān'') (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2019 census, its population was 783,300 in 230,775 families.The majority of people living in Hamadan ...

Hamadan
, Iran ** Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran, Iran ** Avicenna Tajik State Medical University in Dushanbe, Tajikistan ** Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamedan, Iran ** Ibn Sina Peak – named after the Scientist, on the Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border ** Ibn Sina Foundation in Houston, Texas ** Ibn Sina Hospital,
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
,
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
** Ibn Sina Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey ** Ibn Sina Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh ** Ibn Sina University Hospital of Rabat-Salé at Mohammed V University in Rabat, Morocco ** Ibne Sina Hospital, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan ** International Ibn Sina Clinic, Dushanbe, Tajikistan * Philosophy ** Eastern philosophy ** Iranian philosophy ** Islamic philosophy ** Contemporary Islamic philosophy * Science in the medieval Islamic world ** List of scientists in medieval Islamic world ** Sufi philosophy * Science and technology in Iran ** Ancient Iranian medicine ** List of pre-modern Iranian scientists and scholars


References


Further reading


Encyclopedic articles

* * * * * * * (PDF version)
Avicenna
entry by Sajjad H. Rizvi in the ''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy''


Primary literature

* For an old list of other extant works, C. Brockelmann's ''Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur'' (Weimar 1898), vol. i. pp. 452–458. (XV. W.; G. W. T.) * For a current list of his works see A. Bertolacci (2006) and D. Gutas (2014) in the section "Philosophy". * * * Avicenne: ''Réfutation de l'astrologie''. Edition et traduction du texte arabe, introduction, notes et lexique par Yahya Michot. Préface d'Elizabeth Teissier (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2006) . * William E. Gohlam (ed.), ''The Life of Ibn Sina. A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation'', Albany, State of New York University Press, 1974. * For Ibn Sina's life, see Ibn Khallikan's ''Biographical Dictionary'', translated by de Slane (1842); F. Wüstenfeld's ''Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher'' (Göttingen, 1840). * Madelung, Wilferd and Toby Mayer (ed. and tr.), ''Struggling with the Philosopher: A Refutation of Avicenna's Metaphysics.'' A New Arabic Edition and English Translation of Muhammad al-Shahrastani, Shahrastani's Kitab al-Musara'a.


Secondary literature

* :: This is, on the whole, an informed and good account of the life and accomplishments of one of the greatest influences on the development of thought both Eastern and Western. ... It is not as philosophically thorough as the works of D. Saliba, A.M. Goichon, or L. Gardet, but it is probably the best essay in English on this important thinker of the Middle Ages. (Julius R. Weinberg, ''The Philosophical Review'', Vol. 69, No. 2, Apr. 1960, pp. 255–259) * :: This is a distinguished work which stands out from, and above, many of the books and articles which have been written in this century on Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) (980–1037). It has two main features on which its distinction as a major contribution to Avicennan studies may be said to rest: the first is its clarity and readability; the second is the comparative approach adopted by the author. ... (Ian Richard Netton, ''Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society'', Third Series, Vol. 4, No. 2, July 1994, pp. 263–264) * * Y.T. Langermann (ed.), ''Avicenna and his Legacy. A Golden Age of Science and Philosophy'', Brepols Publishers, 2010, * For a new understanding of his early career, based on a newly discovered text, see also: Michot, Yahya, ''Ibn Sînâ: Lettre au vizir Abû Sa'd''. ''Editio princeps'' d'après le manuscrit de Bursa, traduction de l'arabe, introduction, notes et lexique (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2000) . * :: This German publication is both one of the most comprehensive general introductions to the life and works of the philosopher and physician Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, d. 1037) and an extensive and careful survey of his contribution to the history of science. Its author is a renowned expert in Greek and Arabic medicine who has paid considerable attention to Avicenna in his recent studies. ... (Amos Bertolacci, ''Isis'', Vol. 96, No. 4, December 2005, p. 649) * * * * * * * Shaikh al Rais Ibn Sina (Special number) 1958–59, Ed. Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Tibbia College Magazine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
.


Medicine

* Edward Granville Browne, Browne, Edward G.. ''Islamic Medicine. Fitzpatrick Lectures Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians in 1919–1920'', reprint: New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2001. * Pormann, Peter & Savage-Smith, Emilie. ''Medieval Islamic Medicine'', Washington: Georgetown University Press, 2007. * Prioreschi, Plinio. ''Byzantine and Islamic Medicine'', A History of Medicine, Vol. 4, Omaha: Horatius Press, 2001. * Syed Ziaur Rahman. Pharmacology of Avicennian Cardiac Drugs (Metaanalysis of researches and studies in Avicennian Cardiac Drugs along with English translation of Risalah al Adwiya al Qalbiyah), Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Aligarh, India, 2020


Philosophy

* Amos Bertolacci, ''The Reception of Aristotle's Metaphysics in Avicenna's Kitab al-Sifa'. A Milestone of Western Metaphysical Thought'', Leiden: Brill 2006, (Appendix C contains an ''Overview of the Main Works by Avicenna on Metaphysics in Chronological Order''). *
Dimitri Gutas Dimitri Gutas ( el, Δημήτρης Γούτας; born 1945, Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The Cairo metropolitan area, with a population of 21.3 mi ...
, ''Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works'', Leiden, Brill 2014, second revised and expanded edition (first edition: 1988), including an inventory of Avicenna' Authentic Works. * Andreas Lammer: ''The Elements of Avicenna’s Physics. Greek Sources and Arabic Innovations''. Scientia graeco-arabica 20. Berlin / Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2018. * Jon McGinnis and David C. Reisman (eds.) ''Interpreting Avicenna: Science and Philosophy in Medieval Islam: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Avicenna Study Group'', Leiden: Brill, 2004. * Michot, Jean R., ''La destinée de l'homme selon Avicenne'', Louvain: Aedibus Peeters, 1986, . * Nader El-Bizri, ''The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger'', Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000 (reprinted by SUNY Press in 2014 with a new Preface). * Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna and Essentialism," ''Review of Metaphysics'', Vol. 54 (June 2001), pp. 753–778. * Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna's ''De Anima'' between Aristotle and Husserl," in ''The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming'', ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2003, pp. 67–89. * Nader El-Bizri, "Being and Necessity: A Phenomenological Investigation of Avicenna's Metaphysics and Cosmology," in ''Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm'', ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2006, pp. 243–261. * Nader El-Bizri, 'Ibn Sīnā's Ontology and the Question of Being', ''Ishrāq: Islamic Philosophy Yearbook'' 2 (2011), 222–237 * Nader El-Bizri, 'Philosophising at the Margins of 'Sh'i Studies': Reflections on Ibn Sīnā's Ontology', in ''The Study of Sh'i Islam. History, Theology and Law'', eds. F. Daftary and G. Miskinzoda (London: I.B. Tauris, 2014), pp. 585–597. * Reisman, David C. (ed.), ''Before and After Avicenna: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group'', Leiden: Brill, 2003.


External links

* * * * * * * * *
Avicenna (Ibn-Sina) on the Subject and the Object of Metaphysics
with a list of translations of the logical and philosophical works and an annotated bibliography * {{Authority control Avicenna, 980s births 1037 deaths 10th-century Iranian people 11th-century astronomers 11th-century Iranian people 11th-century Persian writers 11th-century philosophers 11th-century physicians Alchemists of medieval Islam Aristotelian philosophers Burials in Iran Buyid viziers Classical humanists Critics of atheism Cultural critics Epistemologists Founders of philosophical traditions Iranian music theorists Islamic philosophers Logicians Medieval Persian physicians People from Bukhara Region Pharmacologists of medieval Iran Medieval Persian poets Medieval Persian writers Metaphysicians Moral philosophers Musical theorists of medieval Islam Muslim inventors Ontologists People from Khorasan Persian physicists Philosophers of ethics and morality Philosophers of logic Philosophers of mind Philosophers of psychology Philosophers of religion Philosophers of science Physicians of medieval Islam Samanid scholars Unani medicine Medieval Persian philosophers Iranian logicians Iranian ethicists People who memorized the Quran