Name' is a Latin corruption of the Arabic patronym bin Sīnā (), meaning "Son of Sina". However, Avicenna was not the son but the great-great-grandson of a man named Sina. His formal Arabic name was Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn bin ʿAbdillāh ibn al-Ḥasan bin ʿAlī ibn Sīnā ().
CircumstancesAvicenna created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the , in which the translations of , n, and n texts were studied extensively. Greco-Roman ( Mid- and Neo-Platonic, and ) texts translated by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, , , and . The in the eastern part of , and Central Asia as well as the in the western part of Persia and provided a thriving atmosphere for scholarly and cultural development. Under the Samanids, rivaled as a cultural capital of the . There, the study of the and the thrived. Philosophy, and ( ) were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna and his opponents. Al-Razi and had provided and knowledge in medicine and philosophy. Avicenna had access to the great libraries of , , , Rey, and . Various texts (such as the 'Ahd with Bahmanyar) show that he debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time. Aruzi Samarqandi describes how before Avicenna left he had met (a famous scientist and astronomer), Abu Nasr Iraqi (a renowned mathematician), Abu Sahl Masihi (a respected philosopher) and Abu al-Khayr Khammar (a great physician).
Early lifeAvicenna was born in Afshana, a village near (in present-day ), the of the , a Persian in and . His mother, named Sitāra, was from Bukhara. While, according to most scholars, most of Avicenna's family were , his father, Abdullāh, was a respected scholar from (in present-day ) who might have converted to or remained a . It was an important town of the , in what is today , . His father worked in the government of in the village Kharmasain, a regional power. After five years, his younger brother, Mahmoud, was born. Avicenna first began to learn the and literature in such a way that when he was ten years old he had essentially learned all of them. According to his autobiography, Avicenna had memorised the entire Quran by the age of 10. He learned Indian arithmetic from an greengrocer, Mahmoud Massahi and he began to learn more from a wandering scholar who gained a livelihood by curing the sick and teaching the young. He also studied (Islamic jurisprudence) under the scholar Ismail al-Zahid.Jorge J.E. Gracia and Timothy B. Noone (2003), ''A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages'', p. 196, Avicenna was taught some extent of philosophy books such as , .Porphyry's Introduction ( ), , 's by an unpopular philosopher, Abu Abdullah Nateli, who claimed philosophizing. As a teenager, he was greatly troubled by the Greek '' '' of , which he could not understand until he read 's commentary on the work. For the next year and a half, he studied philosophy, in which he encountered greater obstacles. In such moments of baffled inquiry, he would leave his books, perform the requisite ablutions, then go to the mosque, and continue in till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night, he would continue his studies, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty times, it is said, he read through the ''Metaphysics'' of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning was hopelessly obscure to him until he purchased a brief commentary by al-Farabi from a bookstall for three dirhams (a very low price at the time). So great was his joy at the discovery, made with the help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, and bestowed alms upon the poor. He turned to medicine at 16, and not only learned medical theory, but also by gratuitous attendance of the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment. The teenager achieved full status as a qualified physician at age 18, and found that "Medicine is no hard and thorny science, like mathematics and metaphysics, so I soon made great progress; I became an excellent doctor and began to treat patients, using approved remedies." The youthful physician's fame spread quickly, and he treated many patients without asking for payment.
ReligionA number of theories have been proposed regarding Avicenna's (school of thought within Islamic jurisprudence). Medieval historian Ẓahīr al-dīn al-Bayhaqī (d. 1169) considered Avicenna to be a follower of the . excerpt: "... Dimitri Gutas's ''Avicenna's maḏhab'' convincingly demonstrates that I.S. was a sunnî-Ḥanafî
AdulthoodAvicenna's first appointment was that of physician to the , , who owed him his recovery from a dangerous illness (997). Avicenna's chief reward for this service was access to the royal library of the Samanids, well-known patrons of scholarship and scholars. When the library was destroyed by fire not long after, the enemies of Avicenna accused him of burning it, in order for ever to conceal the sources of his knowledge. Meanwhile, he assisted his father in his financial labours, but still found time to write some of his earliest works. At 22 years old, Avicenna lost his father. The Samanid dynasty came to its end in December 1004. Avicenna seems to have declined the offers of , and proceeded westwards to in modern , where the , regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a monthly stipend. The pay was small, however, so Avicenna wandered from place to place through the districts of and to the borders of , seeking an opening for his talents. , the generous ruler of , himself a poet and a scholar, with whom Avicenna had expected to find asylum, was on about that date (1012) starved to death by his troops who had revolted. Avicenna himself was at this time stricken by a severe illness. Finally, at , near the , Avicenna met with a friend, who bought a dwelling near his own house in which Avicenna lectured on and . Several of his treatises were written for this patron; and the commencement of his ''Canon of Medicine'' also dates from his stay in . Avicenna subsequently settled at Rey, in the vicinity of modern , the home town of ; where Majd Addaula, a son of the last Buwayhid emir, was nominal ruler under the regency of his mother (Seyyedeh Khatun). About thirty of Avicenna's shorter works are said to have been composed in Rey. Constant feuds which raged between the regent and her second son, Shams al-Daula, however, compelled the scholar to quit the place. After a brief sojourn at Qazvin (city), Qazvin he passed southwards to Hamadãn where Shams al-Daula, another Buwayhid emir, had established himself. At first, Avicenna entered into the service of a high-born lady; but the emir, hearing of his arrival, called him in as medical attendant, and sent him back with presents to his dwelling. Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier. The emir decreed that he should be banished from the country. Avicenna, however, remained hidden for forty days in sheikh Ahmed Fadhel's house, until a fresh attack of illness induced the emir to restore him to his post. Even during this perturbed time, Avicenna persevered with his studies and teaching. Every evening, extracts from his great works, the ''Canon'' and the ''Sanatio'', were dictated and explained to his pupils. On the death of the emir, Avicenna ceased to be vizier and hid himself in the house of an apothecary, where, with intense assiduity, he continued the composition of his works. Meanwhile, he had written to Abu Ya'far, the prefect of the dynamic city of , offering his services. The new emir of Hamadan, hearing of this correspondence and discovering where Avicenna was hiding, incarcerated him in a fortress. War meanwhile continued between the rulers of Isfahan and Hamadãn; in 1024 the former captured Hamadan and its towns, expelling the Tajik mercenaries. When the storm had passed, Avicenna returned with the emir to Hamadan, and carried on his literary labors. Later, however, accompanied by his brother, a favorite pupil, and two slaves, Avicenna escaped from the city in the dress of a Sufi ascetic. After a perilous journey, they reached Isfahan, receiving an honorable welcome from the prince.
Later life and deathThe remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna's life were spent in the service of the Kakuyid ruler Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar (also known as Ala al-Dawla), whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns. During these years he began to study literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by criticisms on his style. A severe colic, which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Avicenna could scarcely stand. On a similar occasion the disease returned; with difficulty he reached Hamadan, where, finding the disease gaining ground, he refused to keep up the regimen imposed, and resigned himself to his fate. His friends advised him to slow down and take life moderately. He refused, however, stating that: ''"I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length"''. On his deathbed remorse seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust gains, freed his slaves, and read through the every three days until his death. He died in June 1037, in his fifty-sixth year, in the month of Ramadan, and was buried in , Iran.
PhilosophyAvicenna wrote extensively on early Islamic philosophy, especially the subjects , ethics, and metaphysics, including treatises named ''Logic'' and ''Metaphysics''. Most of his works were written in Arabic language, Arabic – then the language of science in the Middle East – and some in Persian language, Persian. Of linguistic significance even to this day are a few books that he wrote in nearly pure Persian language (particularly the Danishnamah-yi 'Ala', Philosophy for Ala' ad-Dawla'). Avicenna's commentaries on Aristotle often criticized the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad. Avicenna's Platonism in Islamic Philosophy, Neoplatonic scheme of "emanations" became fundamental in the ''Kalam'' (school of theological discourse) in the 12th century. His ''Book of Healing'' became available in Europe in partial Latin translation some fifty years after its composition, under the title ''Sufficientia'', and some authors have identified a "Latin Avicennism" as flourishing for some time, paralleling the more influential Latin Averroism, but suppressed by the Condemnations of 1210–1277, Parisian decrees of 1210 and 1215. Avicenna's psychology and theory of knowledge influenced William of Auvergne, Bishop of Paris and Albertus Magnus, while his metaphysics influenced the thought of Thomas Aquinas.
Metaphysical doctrineEarly Islamic philosophy and Islamic metaphysics, imbued as it is with Kalam, Islamic theology, distinguishes more clearly than Aristotelianism between essence and existence. Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. The philosophy of Avicenna, particularly that part relating to metaphysics, owes much to al-Farabi. The search for a definitive Islamic philosophy separate from Occasionalism can be seen in what is left of his work. Following al-Farabi's lead, Avicenna initiated a full-fledged inquiry into the question of being, in which he distinguished between essence (''Mahiat'') and existence (''Wujud''). He argued that the fact of existence cannot be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things, and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things. Existence must, therefore, be due to an Causality, agent-cause that necessitates, imparts, gives, or adds existence to an essence. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing and coexist with its effect. Avicenna's consideration of the essence-attributes question may be elucidated in terms of his ontological analysis of the modalities of being; namely impossibility, contingency, and necessity. Avicenna argued that the impossible being is that which cannot exist, while the contingent in itself (''mumkin bi-dhatihi'') has the potentiality to be or not to be without entailing a contradiction. When actualized, the contingent becomes a 'necessary existent due to what is other than itself' (''wajib al-wujud bi-ghayrihi''). Thus, contingency-in-itself is potential beingness that could eventually be actualized by an external cause other than itself. The metaphysical structures of necessity and contingency are different. Necessary being due to itself (''wajib al-wujud bi-dhatihi'') is true in itself, while the contingent being is 'false in itself' and 'true due to something else other than itself'. The necessary is the source of its own being without borrowed existence. It is what always exists. The Necessary exists 'due-to-Its-Self', and has no quiddity/essence (''mahiyya'') other than existence (''wujud''). Furthermore, It is 'One' (''wahid ahad'') since there cannot be more than one 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' without differentia (fasl) to distinguish them from each other. Yet, to require differentia entails that they exist 'due-to-themselves' as well as 'due to what is other than themselves'; and this is contradictory. However, if no differentia distinguishes them from each other, then there is no sense in which these 'Existents' are not one and the same.Nader El-Bizri, ''The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger'' (Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000) Avicenna adds that the 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' has no genus (''jins''), nor a definition (''hadd''), nor a counterpart (''nadd''), nor an opposite (''did''), and is detached (''bari'') from matter (''madda''), quality (''kayf''), quantity (''kam''), place (''ayn''), situation (''wad''), and time (''waqt''). Avicenna's theology on metaphysical issues (''ilāhiyyāt'') has been criticized by some Islamic scholars, among them al-Ghazali, Ibn Taymiyya, and Ibn al-Qayyim. While discussing the views of the theists among the Greek philosophers, namely Socrates, Plato, and in ''Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal'' ("Deliverance from Error"), al-Ghazali noted that the Greek philosophers "must be taxed with unbelief, as must their partisans among the Muslim philosophers, such as Avicenna and al-Farabi and their likes." He added that "None, however, of the Muslim philosophers engaged so much in transmitting Aristotle's lore as did the two men just mentioned. [...] The sum of what we regard as the authentic philosophy of Aristotle, as transmitted by al-Farabi and Avicenna, can be reduced to three parts: a part which must be branded as unbelief; a part which must be stigmatized as innovation; and a part which need not be repudiated at all.
Argument for God's existenceAvicenna made an argument for the existence of God which would be known as the "Proof of the Truthful" (Arabic: ''burhan al-siddiqin''). Avicenna argued that there must be a "necessary existent" (Arabic: ''wajib al-wujud''), an entity that cannot ''not'' exist and through a series of arguments, he identified it with God in Islam, the Islamic conception of God. Present-day History of philosophy, historian of philosophy Peter Adamson (philosopher), Peter Adamson called this argument one of the most influential medieval arguments for God's existence, and Avicenna's biggest contribution to the history of philosophy.
Al-Biruni correspondenceCorrespondence between Avicenna (with his student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi) and has survived in which they debated natural philosophy and the Peripatetic school. Abu Rayhan began by asking Avicenna eighteen questions, ten of which were criticisms of Aristotle's ''On the Heavens''.
TheologyAvicenna was a devout Muslim and sought to reconcile rational philosophy with Islamic theology. His aim was to prove the existence of God and His creation of the world scientifically and through reason and .Lenn Evan Goodman (2003), ''Islamic Humanism'', pp. 8–9, Oxford University Press, . Avicenna's views on Islamic theology (and philosophy) were enormously influential, forming part of the core of the curriculum at Islamic religious schools until the 19th century. Avicenna wrote a number of short treatises dealing with Islamic theology. These included treatises on the Islamic prophet, prophets (whom he viewed as "inspired philosophers"), and also on various scientific and philosophical interpretations of the Quran, such as how Quranic cosmology corresponds to his own philosophical system. In general these treatises linked his philosophical writings to Islamic religious ideas; for example, the body's afterlife. There are occasional brief hints and allusions in his longer works however that Avicenna considered philosophy as the only sensible way to distinguish real prophecy from illusion. He did not state this more clearly because of the political implications of such a theory, if prophecy could be questioned, and also because most of the time he was writing shorter works which concentrated on explaining his theories on philosophy and theology clearly, without digressing to consider epistemological matters which could only be properly considered by other philosophers. Later interpretations of Avicenna's philosophy split into three different schools; those (such as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, al-Tusi) who continued to apply his philosophy as a system to interpret later political events and scientific advances; those (such as Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, al-Razi) who considered Avicenna's theological works in isolation from his wider philosophical concerns; and those (such as al-Ghazali) who selectively used parts of his philosophy to support their own attempts to gain greater spiritual insights through a variety of mystical means. It was the theological interpretation championed by those such as al-Razi which eventually came to predominate in the madrasahs. Avicenna Hafiz (Quran), memorized the Quran by the age of ten, and as an adult, he wrote five treatises commenting on suras from the Quran. One of these texts included the ''Proof of Prophecies'', in which he comments on several Quranic verses and holds the Quran in high esteem. Avicenna argued that the Islamic prophets should be considered higher than philosophers.
Thought experimentsWhile he was imprisoned in the castle of Fardajan near Hamadhan, Avicenna wrote his famous "floating man" – literally falling man – a thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality and immateriality of the soul. Avicenna believed his "Floating Man" thought experiment demonstrated that the soul is a substance, and claimed humans cannot doubt their own consciousness, even in a situation that prevents all sensory data input. The thought experiment told its readers to imagine themselves created all at once while suspended in the air, isolated from all Wikt:sensation, sensations, which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. He argued that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. Because it is conceivable that a person, suspended in air while cut off from empirical evidence, sense experience, would still be capable of determining his own existence, the thought experiment points to the conclusions that the soul is a perfection, independent of the body, and an immaterial substance. The conceivability of this "Floating Man" indicates that the soul is perceived intellectually, which entails the soul's separateness from the body. Avicenna referred to the living human nous, intelligence, particularly the active intellect, which he believed to be the hypostatic abstraction, hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature. Following is an English translation of the argument: However, Avicenna posited the brain as the place where reason interacts with sensation. Sensation prepares the soul to receive rational concepts from the universal Agent Intellect. The first knowledge of the flying person would be "I am," affirming his or her essence. That essence could not be the body, obviously, as the flying person has no sensation. Thus, the knowledge that "I am" is the core of a human being: the soul exists and is self-aware. Avicenna thus concluded that the idea of the self (philosophy), self is not logically dependent on any physical Object (philosophy), thing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance theory, substance. The body is unnecessary; in relation to it, the soul is its perfection. In itself, the soul is an immaterial substance.
''The Canon of Medicine''Avicenna authored a five-volume medical encyclopedia: ''The Canon of Medicine'' (''Al-Qanun fi't-Tibb''). It was used as the standard medical textbook in the Islamic world and Europe up to the 18th century. The ''Canon'' still plays an important role in Unani medicine.
''Liber Primus Naturalium''Avicenna considered whether events like rare diseases or disorders have natural causes. He used the example of polydactyly to explain his perception that causal reasons exist for all medical events. This view of medical phenomena anticipated developments in the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment by seven centuries.
''The Book of Healing''
Earth sciencesAvicenna wrote on Earth sciences such as geology in ''The Book of Healing''.Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield (1965), ''The Ancestry of Science: The Discovery of Time'', p. 64, University of Chicago Press (cf
Philosophy of scienceIn the ''Al-Burhan'' (''On Demonstration'') section of ''The Book of Healing'', Avicenna discussed the philosophy of science and described an early scientific method of inquiry. He discusses Aristotle's ''Posterior Analytics'' and significantly diverged from it on several points. Avicenna discussed the issue of a proper methodology for scientific inquiry and the question of "How does one acquire the first principles of a science?" He asked how a scientist would arrive at "the initial axioms or hypothesis, hypotheses of a deductive reasoning, deductive science without inferring them from some more basic premises?" He explains that the ideal situation is when one grasps that a "relation holds between the terms, which would allow for absolute, universal certainty". Avicenna then adds two further methods for arriving at the first principles: the ancient Aristotelian method of inductive reasoning, induction (''istiqra''), and the method of Hypothesis, examination and experimentation (''tajriba''). Avicenna criticized Aristotelian induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide." In its place, he develops a "method of experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry."
LogicAn early formal system of temporal logic was studied by Avicenna. Although he did not develop a real theory of temporal propositions, he did study the relationship between ''temporalis'' and the implication. Avicenna's work was further developed by Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī and became the dominant system of Logic in Islamic philosophy, Islamic logic until modern times. Avicennian logic also influenced several early European logicians such as Albertus Magnus and William of Ockham. Avicenna endorsed the law of non-contradiction proposed by Aristotle, that a fact could not be both true and false at the same time and in the same sense of the terminology used. He stated, "Anyone who denies the law of non-contradiction should be beaten and burned until he admits that to be beaten is not the same as not to be beaten, and to be burned is not the same as not to be burned."
PhysicsIn mechanics, Avicenna, in ''The Book of Healing'', developed a theory of motion (physics), motion, in which he made a distinction between the inclination (tendency to motion) and force of a projectile, and concluded that motion was a result of an inclination (''mayl'') transferred to the projectile by the thrower, and that projectile motion in a vacuum would not cease.Fernando Espinoza (2005). "An analysis of the historical development of ideas about motion and its implications for teaching", ''Physics Education'' 40 (2), p. 141. He viewed inclination as a permanent force whose effect is dissipated by external forces such as air resistance. The theory of motion presented by Avicenna was probably influenced by the 6th-century Alexandrian scholar John Philoponus. Avicenna's is a less sophisticated variant of the theory of impetus developed by Buridan in the 14th century. It is unclear if Buridan was influenced by Avicenna, or by Philoponus directly. In optics, Avicenna was among those who argued that light had a speed, observing that "if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of Subatomic particle, particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite." He also provided a wrong explanation of the rainbow phenomenon. Carl Benjamin Boyer described Avicenna's ("Ibn Sīnā") theory on the rainbow as follows: In 1253, a Latin text entitled ''Speculum Tripartitum'' stated the following regarding Avicenna's theory on heat:
PsychologyAvicenna's legacy in classical psychology is primarily embodied in the ''Kitab al-nafs'' parts of his ''Kitab al-shifa'' (''The Book of Healing'') and ''Kitab al-najat'' (''The Book of Deliverance''). These were known in Latin under the title De Anima (treatises "on the soul"). Notably, Avicenna develops what is called the Floating man, Flying Man argument in the Psychology of ''The Cure'' I.1.7 as defence of the argument that the soul is without quantitative extension, which has an affinity with Descartes's ''cogito'' argument (or what phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology designates as a form of an "''epoche''").Nader El-Bizri, ''The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger'' (Binghamton, NY: Global Publications SUNY, 2000), pp. 149–171.Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna's De Anima between Aristotle and Husserl," in ''The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming'', ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 67–89. Avicenna's psychology requires that connection between the body and soul be strong enough to ensure the soul's individuation, but weak enough to allow for its immortality. Avicenna grounds his psychology on physiology, which means his account of the soul is one that deals almost entirely with the natural science of the body and its abilities of perception. Thus, the philosopher's connection between the soul and body is explained almost entirely by his understanding of perception; in this way, bodily perception interrelates with the immaterial human intellect. In sense perception, the perceiver senses the form of the object; first, by perceiving features of the object by our external senses. This sensory information is supplied to the internal senses, which merge all the pieces into a whole, unified conscious experience. This process of perception and abstraction is the nexus of the soul and body, for the material body may only perceive material objects, while the immaterial soul may only receive the immaterial, universal forms. The way the soul and body interact in the final abstraction of the universal from the concrete particular is the key to their relationship and interaction, which takes place in the physical body. The soul completes the action of intellection by accepting forms that have been abstracted from matter. This process requires a concrete particular (material) to be abstracted into the universal intelligible (immaterial). The material and immaterial interact through the Active Intellect, which is a "divine light" containing the intelligible forms. The Active Intellect reveals the universals concealed in material objects much like the sun makes colour available to our eyes.
Astronomy and astrologyAvicenna wrote an attack on astrology titled ''Resāla fī ebṭāl aḥkām al-nojūm'', in which he cited passages from the Quran to dispute the power of astrology to foretell the future. He believed that each planet had some influence on the earth, but argued against astrologers being able to determine the exact effects. Avicenna's astronomical writings had some influence on later writers, although in general his work could be considered less developed than Alhazen or . One important feature of his writing is that he considers mathematical astronomy as a separate discipline to astrology. He criticized Aristotle's view of the stars receiving their light from the Sun, stating that the stars are self-luminous, and believed that the planets are also self-luminous. He claimed to have observed Transit of Venus, Venus as a spot on the Sun. This is possible, as there was a transit on 24 May 1032, but Avicenna did not give the date of his observation, and modern scholars have questioned whether he could have observed the transit from his location at that time; he may have mistaken a sunspot for Venus. He used his transit observation to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in Ptolemaic cosmology, i.e. the sphere of Venus comes before the sphere of the Sun when moving out from the Earth in the prevailing geocentric model. He also wrote the ''Summary of the Almagest'', (based on 's '' ''), with an appended treatise "to bring that which is stated in the Almagest and what is understood from Natural Science into conformity". For example, Avicenna considers the motion of the solar apogee, which Ptolemy had taken to be fixed.
ChemistryAvicenna was first to derive the attar of flowers from distillation and used steam distillation to produce essential oils such as rose essence, which he used as aromatherapeutic treatments for heart conditions.Marlene Ericksen (2000). ''Healing with Aromatherapy'', p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. . Unlike al-Razi, Avicenna explicitly disputed the theory of the Philosopher's stone, transmutation of substances commonly believed by alchemy, alchemists: Four works on alchemy attributed to Avicenna were translated into Latin as:Georges C. Anawati (1996), "Arabic alchemy", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., ''Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science'', Vol. 3, pp. 853–885 . Routledge, London and New York. * * * * was the most influential, having influenced later medieval chemists and alchemists such as Vincent of Beauvais. However Anawati argues (following Ruska) that the de Anima is a fake by a Spanish author. Similarly the Declaratio is believed not to be actually by Avicenna. The third work (''The Book of Minerals'') is agreed to be Avicenna's writing, adapted from the ''Kitab al-Shifa'' (''Book of the Remedy''). Avicenna classified minerals into stones, fusible substances, sulfurs, and salts, building on the ideas of Aristotle and Jabir. The ''epistola de Re recta'' is somewhat less sceptical of alchemy; Anawati argues that it is by Avicenna, but written earlier in his career when he had not yet firmly decided that transmutation was impossible.
PoetryAlmost half of Avicenna's works are versified. His poems appear in both Arabic and Persian. As an example, Edward Granville Browne claims that the following Persian verses are incorrectly attributed to Omar Khayyám, and were originally written by Ibn Sīnā:
Classical Islamic civilizationRobert Wisnovsky, a scholar of Avicenna attached to the McGill University, says that "Avicenna was the central figure in the long history of the rational sciences in Islam, particularly in the fields of metaphysics, logic and medicine" but that his works didn't only have an influence in these "secular" fields of knowledge alone, as "these works, or portions of them, were read, taught, copied, commented upon, quoted, paraphrased and cited by thousands of post-Avicennian scholars – not only philosophers, logicians, physicians and specialists in the mathematical or exact sciences, but also by those who specialized in the disciplines of Kalam, ʿilm al-kalām (rational theology, but understood to include natural philosophy, epistemology and philosophy of mind) and Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, usūl al-fiqh (jurisprudence, but understood to include philosophy of law, dialectic, and philosophy of language)."
Middle Ages and RenaissanceAs early as the 13th century when Dante Alighieri depicted him in Limbo alongside the virtuous non-Christian thinkers in his ''Divine Comedy'' such as Virgil, Averroes, Homer, Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Socrates, Plato, and Saladin. Avicenna has been recognized by both East and West, as one of the great figures in intellectual history. George Sarton, the author of ''The History of Science'', described Avicenna as "one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history"George Sarton, ''Introduction to the History of Science''.
Modern receptionIn present-day Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, he is considered a national icon, and is often regarded as among the greatest Persians. A monument was erected outside the Bukhara museum. The Avicenna Mausoleum and Museum in was built in 1952. Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan (Iran), the biotechnology Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran (Iran), the ''ibn Sīnā'' Tajik State Medical University in Dushanbe, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences at Aligarh, India, Avicenna School in Karachi and Avicenna Medical College in Lahore, Pakistan, Ibn Sina Balkh Medical School in his native province of in , Ibni Sina Faculty Of Medicine of Ankara University Ankara, Turkey, the main classroom building (the Avicenna Building) of the Sharif University of Technology, and Ibn Sina Integrated School in Marawi City (Philippines) are all named in his honour. His portrait hangs in the Hall of the Avicenna Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris. There is a crater on the Moon named Avicenna (crater), Avicenna and a mangrove genus. In 1980, the Soviet Union, which then ruled his birthplace Bukhara, celebrated the thousandth anniversary of Avicenna's birth by circulating various commemorative stamps with artistic illustrations, and by erecting a bust (sculpture), bust of Avicenna based on anthropological research by Soviet scholars. Near his birthplace in Qishlak Afshona, some north of Bukhara, a training college for medical staff has been named for him. On the grounds is a museum dedicated to his life, times and work. The Avicenna Prize, established in 2003, is awarded every two years by UNESCO and rewards individuals and groups for their achievements in the field of ethics in science. The aim of the award is to promote ethical reflection on issues raised by advances in science and technology, and to raise global awareness of the importance of ethics in science. The Avicenna Directories (2008–15; now the World Directory of Medical Schools) list universities and schools where doctors, public health practitioners, pharmacists and others, are educated. The original project team stated "Why Avicenna? Avicenna ... was ... noted for his synthesis of knowledge from both east and west. He has had a lasting influence on the development of medicine and health sciences. The use of Avicenna's name symbolises the worldwide partnership that is needed for the promotion of health services of high quality." In June 2009, Iran donated a "Persian Scholars Pavilion" to United Nations Office in Vienna which is placed in the central Memorial Plaza (Vienna), Memorial Plaza of the Vienna International Center. The "Persian Scholars Pavilion" at United Nations in Vienna, Austria is featuring the statues of four prominent Iranian figures. Highlighting the Iranian architectural features, the pavilion is adorned with Persian art forms and includes the statues of renowned Iranian scientists Avicenna, , Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) and Omar Khayyam. The 1982 Soviet film ''Youth of Genius'' (russian: Юность гения, Yunost geniya, links=no) by recounts Avicenna's younger years. The film is set in Bukhara at the turn of the millennium. In Louis L'Amour's 1985 historical novel ''The Walking Drum'', Kerbouchard studies and discusses Avicenna's ''The Canon of Medicine''. In his book ''The Physician'' (1988) Noah Gordon (novelist), Noah Gordon tells the story of a young English medical apprentice who disguises himself as a Jew to travel from England to Persia and learn from Avicenna, the great master of his time. The novel was adapted into a feature film, ''The Physician (2013 film), The Physician'', in 2013. Avicenna was played by Ben Kingsley.
List of worksThe treatises of Avicenna influenced later Muslim thinkers in many areas including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics, and music. His works numbered almost 450 volumes on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 volumes of his surviving works concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. His most famous works are ''The Book of Healing'', and ''The Canon of Medicine''. Avicenna wrote at least one treatise on alchemy, but several others have been falsely attributed to him. His ''Logic'', ''Metaphysics'', ''Physics'', and ''De Caelo'', are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelianism, Aristotelian doctrine, though ''Metaphysics'' demonstrates a significant departure from the brand of Neoplatonism known as Aristotelianism in Avicenna's world; Arabic philosophers have hinted at the idea that Avicennawas attempting to "re-Aristotelianise" Muslim philosophy in its entirety, unlike his predecessors, who accepted the conflation of Platonic, Aristotelian, Neo- and Middle-Platonic works transmitted into the Muslim world. The ''Logic'' and ''Metaphysics'' have been extensively reprinted, the latter, e.g., at Venice in 1493, 1495, and 1546. Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, etc., take a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836). Two encyclopedic treatises, dealing with philosophy, are often mentioned. The larger, ''The Book of Healing, Al-Shifa''' (''Sanatio''), exists nearly complete in manuscript in the Bodleian Library and elsewhere; part of it on the ''De Anima'' appeared at Pavia (1490) as the ''Liber Sextus Naturalium'', and the long account of Avicenna's philosophy given by Muhammad al-Shahrastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a reproduction, of the Al-Shifa'. A shorter form of the work is known as the An-najat (''Liberatio''). The Latin editions of part of these works have been modified by the corrections which the monastic editors confess that they applied. There is also a (''hikmat-al-mashriqqiyya'', in Latin ''Philosophia Orientalis''), mentioned by Roger Bacon, the majority of which is lost in antiquity, which according to Averroes was pantheistic in tone. Avicenna's works further include: * ''Sirat al-shaykh al-ra'is'' (''The Life of Avicenna''), ed. and trans. WE. Gohlman, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1974. (The only critical edition of Avicenna's autobiography, supplemented with material from a biography by his student Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani. A more recent translation of the Autobiography appears in D. Gutas, ''Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works'', Leiden: Brill, 1988; second edition 2014.) * ''Al-isharat wa al-tanbihat'' (''Remarks and Admonitions''), ed. S. Dunya, Cairo, 1960; parts translated by S.C. Inati, Remarks and Admonitions, Part One: Logic, Toronto, Ont.: Pontifical Institute for Mediaeval Studies, 1984, and Ibn Sina and Mysticism, Remarks and Admonitions: Part 4, London: Kegan Paul International, 1996. * ''Al-Qanun fi'l-tibb'' (''The Canon of Medicine''), ed. I. a-Qashsh, Cairo, 1987. (Encyclopedia of medicine.) manuscript, Latin translation, Flores Avicenne, Michael de Capella, 1508, Modern text. Ahmed Shawkat Al-Shatti, Jibran Jabbur. * ''Risalah fi sirr al-qadar'' (''Essay on the Secret of Destiny''), trans. G. Hourani in Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. * ''Daneshnameh-ye AlaiB, Danishnama-i 'ala'i'' (''The Book of Scientific Knowledge''), ed. and trans. P. Morewedge, The Metaphysics of Avicenna, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. * ''Kitab al-Shifa ('' ''). (Avicenna's major work on philosophy. He probably began to compose al-Shifa' in 1014, and completed it in 1020.) Critical editions of the Arabic text have been published in Cairo, 1952–83, originally under the supervision of I. Madkour. * ''Kitab al-Najat'' (''The Book of Salvation''), trans. F. Rahman, ''Avicenna's Psychology: An English Translation of Kitab al-Najat, Book II, Chapter VI with Historical-philosophical Notes and Textual Improvements on the Cairo Edition'', Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952. (The psychology of al-Shifa'.) (Digital version of the Arabic text)
Persian worksAvicenna's most important Persian language, Persian work is the ''Danishnama-i 'Alai'' (, "the Book of Knowledge for [Prince] 'Ala ad-Daulah"). Avicenna created new scientific vocabulary that had not previously existed in Persian. The Danishnama covers such topics as logic, metaphysics, music theory and other sciences of his time. It has been translated into English by Parwiz Morewedge in 1977. The book is also important in respect to Persian scientific works. ''Andar Danesh-e Rag'' (, "On the Science of the Pulse") contains nine chapters on the science of the pulse and is a condensed synopsis. Persian poetry from Avicenna is recorded in various manuscripts and later anthologies such as ''Nozhat al-Majales''.
See also* Qumri, Al-Qumri (possibly Avicenna's teacher) * Abdol Hamid Khosro Shahi (Iranian theologian) * Mummia (Persian medicine) * Namesakes of Ibn Sina ** Avicenna Bay in Antartica ** Avicenna (crater) on the far side of the Moon ** Avicenna Cultural and Scientific Foundation ** Avicenne Hospital in Paris, France ** Avicenna International College in Budapest, Hungary ** Avicenna Mausoleum (complex dedicated to Avicenna) in , Iran ** Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran, Iran ** Avicenna Tajik State Medical University in Dushanbe, Tajikistan ** Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamedan, Iran ** Ibn Sina Peak – named after the Scientist, on the Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border ** Ibn Sina Foundation in Houston, Texas ** Ibn Sina Hospital, , ** Ibn Sina Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey ** Ibn Sina Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh ** Ibn Sina University Hospital of Rabat-Salé at Mohammed V University in Rabat, Morocco ** Ibne Sina Hospital, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan ** International Ibn Sina Clinic, Dushanbe, Tajikistan * Philosophy ** Eastern philosophy ** Iranian philosophy ** Islamic philosophy ** Contemporary Islamic philosophy * Science in the medieval Islamic world ** List of scientists in medieval Islamic world ** Sufi philosophy * Science and technology in Iran ** Ancient Iranian medicine ** List of pre-modern Iranian scientists and scholars
Encyclopedic articles* * * * * * * (PDF version)
Primary literature* For an old list of other extant works, C. Brockelmann's ''Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur'' (Weimar 1898), vol. i. pp. 452–458. (XV. W.; G. W. T.) * For a current list of his works see A. Bertolacci (2006) and D. Gutas (2014) in the section "Philosophy". * * * Avicenne: ''Réfutation de l'astrologie''. Edition et traduction du texte arabe, introduction, notes et lexique par Yahya Michot. Préface d'Elizabeth Teissier (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2006) . * William E. Gohlam (ed.), ''The Life of Ibn Sina. A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation'', Albany, State of New York University Press, 1974. * For Ibn Sina's life, see Ibn Khallikan's ''Biographical Dictionary'', translated by de Slane (1842); F. Wüstenfeld's ''Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher'' (Göttingen, 1840). * Madelung, Wilferd and Toby Mayer (ed. and tr.), ''Struggling with the Philosopher: A Refutation of Avicenna's Metaphysics.'' A New Arabic Edition and English Translation of Muhammad al-Shahrastani, Shahrastani's Kitab al-Musara'a.
Secondary literature* :: This is, on the whole, an informed and good account of the life and accomplishments of one of the greatest influences on the development of thought both Eastern and Western. ... It is not as philosophically thorough as the works of D. Saliba, A.M. Goichon, or L. Gardet, but it is probably the best essay in English on this important thinker of the Middle Ages. (Julius R. Weinberg, ''The Philosophical Review'', Vol. 69, No. 2, Apr. 1960, pp. 255–259) * :: This is a distinguished work which stands out from, and above, many of the books and articles which have been written in this century on Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) (980–1037). It has two main features on which its distinction as a major contribution to Avicennan studies may be said to rest: the first is its clarity and readability; the second is the comparative approach adopted by the author. ... (Ian Richard Netton, ''Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society'', Third Series, Vol. 4, No. 2, July 1994, pp. 263–264) * * Y.T. Langermann (ed.), ''Avicenna and his Legacy. A Golden Age of Science and Philosophy'', Brepols Publishers, 2010, * For a new understanding of his early career, based on a newly discovered text, see also: Michot, Yahya, ''Ibn Sînâ: Lettre au vizir Abû Sa'd''. ''Editio princeps'' d'après le manuscrit de Bursa, traduction de l'arabe, introduction, notes et lexique (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2000) . * :: This German publication is both one of the most comprehensive general introductions to the life and works of the philosopher and physician Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, d. 1037) and an extensive and careful survey of his contribution to the history of science. Its author is a renowned expert in Greek and Arabic medicine who has paid considerable attention to Avicenna in his recent studies. ... (Amos Bertolacci, ''Isis'', Vol. 96, No. 4, December 2005, p. 649) * * * * * * * Shaikh al Rais Ibn Sina (Special number) 1958–59, Ed. Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Tibbia College Magazine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, .
Medicine* Edward Granville Browne, Browne, Edward G.. ''Islamic Medicine. Fitzpatrick Lectures Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians in 1919–1920'', reprint: New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2001. * Pormann, Peter & Savage-Smith, Emilie. ''Medieval Islamic Medicine'', Washington: Georgetown University Press, 2007. * Prioreschi, Plinio. ''Byzantine and Islamic Medicine'', A History of Medicine, Vol. 4, Omaha: Horatius Press, 2001. * Syed Ziaur Rahman. Pharmacology of Avicennian Cardiac Drugs (Metaanalysis of researches and studies in Avicennian Cardiac Drugs along with English translation of Risalah al Adwiya al Qalbiyah), Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Aligarh, India, 2020
Philosophy* Amos Bertolacci, ''The Reception of Aristotle's Metaphysics in Avicenna's Kitab al-Sifa'. A Milestone of Western Metaphysical Thought'', Leiden: Brill 2006, (Appendix C contains an ''Overview of the Main Works by Avicenna on Metaphysics in Chronological Order''). * , ''Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works'', Leiden, Brill 2014, second revised and expanded edition (first edition: 1988), including an inventory of Avicenna' Authentic Works. * Andreas Lammer: ''The Elements of Avicenna’s Physics. Greek Sources and Arabic Innovations''. Scientia graeco-arabica 20. Berlin / Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2018. * Jon McGinnis and David C. Reisman (eds.) ''Interpreting Avicenna: Science and Philosophy in Medieval Islam: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Avicenna Study Group'', Leiden: Brill, 2004. * Michot, Jean R., ''La destinée de l'homme selon Avicenne'', Louvain: Aedibus Peeters, 1986, . * Nader El-Bizri, ''The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger'', Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000 (reprinted by SUNY Press in 2014 with a new Preface). * Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna and Essentialism," ''Review of Metaphysics'', Vol. 54 (June 2001), pp. 753–778. * Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna's ''De Anima'' between Aristotle and Husserl," in ''The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming'', ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2003, pp. 67–89. * Nader El-Bizri, "Being and Necessity: A Phenomenological Investigation of Avicenna's Metaphysics and Cosmology," in ''Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm'', ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2006, pp. 243–261. * Nader El-Bizri, 'Ibn Sīnā's Ontology and the Question of Being', ''Ishrāq: Islamic Philosophy Yearbook'' 2 (2011), 222–237 * Nader El-Bizri, 'Philosophising at the Margins of 'Sh'i Studies': Reflections on Ibn Sīnā's Ontology', in ''The Study of Sh'i Islam. History, Theology and Law'', eds. F. Daftary and G. Miskinzoda (London: I.B. Tauris, 2014), pp. 585–597. * Reisman, David C. (ed.), ''Before and After Avicenna: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group'', Leiden: Brill, 2003.
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