HOME

TheInfoList




The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
an
multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more nat ...
great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the
realms of the Habsburgs
realms of the Habsburgs
. During its existence, it was the third most populous
empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and w ...

empire
after the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
in Europe. Along with
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
, it was one of the two major powers of the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common Histo ...

German Confederation
. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire (621,538 square kilometres; 239,977 sq mi). Proclaimed in response to the
First French Empire The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, also known as the Napoleonic Empire, was the empire ruled by Napoleon, Napoleon Bonaparte, who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th cen ...
, it partially overlapped with the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
until the latter's dissolution in 1806. The
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920) and existed for almost a millennium. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christ ...
—as Regnum Independens—was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the
Austro-Prussian War The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War, known in Germany as ("German War") and by a variety of other names, was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was ...
of 1866, the
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 300px, Photo of the coronation oath in Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) ">Inner City Parish Church in Pest">Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (german: Ausgleich, hu, Kiegyezés) established th ...
was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
.


History


Foundation

Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in
Rastatt Rastatt () is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...
(1797–1799) and
Regensburg Regensburg or is a city in eastern Bavaria, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River, Regen rivers. It is capital of the Upper Palatinate subregion of the state in the south of Germany. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regens ...

Regensburg
(1801–1803). On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess (german: Reichsdeputationshauptschluss) was declared, which reduced the number of
ecclesiastical state Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polytheistic relig ...
s from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire. Taking this significant change into consideration, the
Holy Roman Emperor Francis II
Holy Roman Emperor Francis II
created the title
Emperor of Austria The Emperor of Austria ( German: '' Kaiser von Österreich'') was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A hereditary imperial title and office proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of th ...
, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
Francis II, who was also ruler of the lands of the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "u ...

Habsburg Monarchy
, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a
composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger in 1975 and popularised by Sir John H. Elliott, that describes early modern states consisting of several countries under one ruler, sometimes ...
for about three hundred years. He did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French; Francis II eventually abandoned the title of German-Roman Emperor later in 1806. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of
Emperor of Austria The Emperor of Austria ( German: '' Kaiser von Österreich'') was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A hereditary imperial title and office proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of th ...
. Apart from now being included in a new " Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804. This was especially demonstrated by the status of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920) and existed for almost a millennium. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christ ...
, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status that was affirmed by Article X, which was added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a ''Regnum Independens''. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions (King and Diet) as they had been beforehand. Thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and
dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred ''de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practic ...
was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General
Karl Mack von Leiberich Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich (25 August 1752 – 22 December 1828) was an Austrian soldier. He is best remembered as the commander of the Austrian forces that capitulated to Napoleon I of France, Napoleon's ''Grande Armée'' in the Battle of Ul ...

Karl Mack von Leiberich
was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The French victory resulted in the capture of 20,000 Austrian soldiers and many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at
Austerlitz
Austerlitz
on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805. The French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire. On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the
prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
and
Duke of Bavaria The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria The history of Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat B ...
, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg
Frederick IIIFrederick III may refer to: * Frederick III, Duke of Upper Lorraine (died 1033) * Frederick III, Duke of Swabia (1122–1190) * Friedrich III, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1220–1297) * Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1240–1302) * Frederick III of Sici ...
on 11 December. Charles Frederick,
Margrave of Baden The Margraviate of Baden (german: Markgrafschaft Baden) was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Spread along the east side of the Upper Rhine River in southwestern Kingdom of Germany, Germany, it was named a margrave, margraviate in 1 ...
, was given the title of
Grand Duke Grand Duke (feminine: Grand Duchess) is a European hereditary title, used either by certain monarchs or by members of certain monarchs' families. In status, a Grand Duke traditionally ranks in order of precedence below an emperor, king or archd ...
on 12 December. Each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg (today
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the off ...

Bratislava
,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
) on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805), which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies—the
King of Bavaria King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary House of Wittelsbach, Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1805 until 1918, when the kingdom was abolished. It was the second time Bavaria was a king ...
, the King of Württemberg and the
Elector of Baden The Electorate of Baden was a Imperial State, State of the Holy Roman Empire from 1803 to 1806. In 1803, Napoleon bestowed the office of Prince-elector to Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden, Charles Frederick, but in 1806, Francis II, Holy Rom ...
. Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. On 12 July 1806, the
Confederation of the Rhine The Confederated States of the Rhine, simply known as the Confederation of the Rhine, was a confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common acti ...
was established, comprising 16 sovereigns and countries. This confederation, under French influence, put an end to the Holy Roman Empire. On 6 August 1806, even Francis recognized the new state of things and proclaimed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, as he did not want Napoleon to succeed him. This action was unrecognized by
George III of the United Kingdom George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III of the United Kingdom
who was also the Elector of Hanover and had also lost his German territories around
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...
to Napoleon. His claims were later settled by the creation of the
Kingdom of Hanover The Kingdom of Hanover (german: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Han ...
which was held by George's British heirs until
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
's accession, when it split into the British and Hanoverian royal families.


Metternich era

Klemens von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein( ; german: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859), was an Austrian diplomat who was at the center of ...
became Foreign Minister in 1809. He also held the post of Chancellor of State from 1821 until 1848, under both Francis II and his son
Ferdinand IFerdinand I or Fernando I may refer to: People * Ferdinand I of León, ''the Great'' (ca. 1000–1065, king from 1037) * Ferdinand I of Portugal and the Algarve, ''the Handsome'' (1345–1383, king from 1367) * Ferdinand I of Aragon and Sicily, ''of ...

Ferdinand I
. The period of 1815-1848 is also referred to as the " Age of Metternich".Sked, Alan. The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815-1918. London: Longman, 1989. Print. During this period, Metternich controlled the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "u ...

Habsburg Monarchy
's foreign policy. He also had a major influence in European politics. He was known for his strong conservative views and approach in politics. Metternich's policies were strongly against revolution and liberalism.Jelavich, Barbara. The Habsburg Empire in European Affairs: 1814-1918. Chicago: Rand Mcnally, 1969. Print. In his opinion, liberalism was a form of legalized revolution. Metternich believed that
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
was the only proper system of government. This notion influenced his anti-revolutionary policy to ensure the continuation of the Habsburg monarchy in Europe. Metternich was a practitioner of balance-of-power diplomacy.Sofka, James R. "Metternich's Theory of European Order: A Political Agenda for 'Perpetual Peace'." ''The Review of Politics'' 60.01 (1998): 115. Web. His foreign policy aimed to maintain international political equilibrium to preserve the Habsburgs' power and influence in international affairs. Following the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, Metternich was the chief architect of the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
in 1815. The Austrian Empire was the main beneficiary from the Congress of Vienna and it established an alliance with
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
,
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
, and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
forming the Quadruple Alliance. The Austrian Empire also gained new territories from the Congress of Vienna, and its influence expanded to the north through the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common Histo ...

German Confederation
and also into
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
. Due to the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Austria was the leading member of the German Confederation. Following the Congress, the major European powers agreed to meet and discuss resolutions in the event of future disputes or revolutions. Because of Metternich's main role in the architecture of the Congress, these meetings are also referred to as the "Metternich congress" or "Metternich system". Under Metternich as the Austrian foreign minister, other congresses would meet to resolve European foreign affairs. These included the Congresses of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), Carlsbad (1819), Troppau (1820), Laibach (1821), and Verona (1822). The Metternich congresses aimed to maintain the political equilibrium among the European powers and prevent revolutionary efforts. These meetings also aimed to resolve foreign issues and disputes without resorting to violence. By means of these meetings and by allying the Austrian Empire with other European powers whose monarchs had a similar interest in preserving conservative political direction, Metternich was able to establish the Austrian Empire's influence on European politics. Also, because Metternich used the fear of revolutions among European powers, which he also shared, he was able to establish security and predominance of the Habsburgs in Europe. Under Metternich,
nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
revolts in Austrian north Italy and in the German states were forcibly crushed. At home, he pursued a similar policy to suppress revolutionary and liberal ideals. He employed the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, which used strict
censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments ...

censorship
of education, press and speech to repress revolutionary and liberal concepts. Metternich also used a wide-ranging spy network to dampen down unrest. Metternich operated very freely with regard to foreign policy under Emperor Francis II's reign. Francis died in 1835. This date marks the decline of Metternich's influence in the Austrian Empire. Francis' heir was his son Ferdinand I, but he suffered from an intellectual disability. Ferdinand's accession preserved the Habsburg dynastic succession, but he was not capable of ruling. The leadership of the Austrian Empire was transferred to a state council composed of Metternich, Francis II's brother Archduke Louis, and , who later became the first Minister-President of the Austrian Empire. The liberal
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire The Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire were a set of revolutions that took place in the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of E ...
forced Metternich's resignation. Metternich is remembered for his success in maintaining the status quo and the Habsburg influence in international affairs. No Habsburg foreign minister following Metternich held a similar position within the empire for such a long time nor held such a vast influence on European foreign affairs. Historians often remember the Metternich era as a period of stagnation: the Austrian Empire fought no wars nor did it undergo any radical internal reforms.Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. New York: Viking, 1963. Print. However, it was also thought of as a period of economic growth and prosperity in the Austrian Empire. The population of Austria rose to 37.5 million by 1843. Urban expansion also occurred and the population of Vienna reached 400,000. During the Metternich era, the Austrian Empire also maintained a stable economy and reached an almost balanced budget, despite having a major deficit following the Napoleonic Wars.


Revolutions of 1848

From March 1848 through November 1849, the Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements, most of which were of a nationalist character. Besides that, liberal and even socialist currents resisted the empire's longstanding conservatism. Although most of the revolution plans failed, some changes were made; significant lasting reforms included the abolition of
serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems. It was a condition of debt bondage and indentured servitude with similarities to and differences from slavery, which developed ...
, cancellation of
censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments ...

censorship
and a promise made by
Ferdinand I of Austria en, Ferdinand Charles Leopold Joseph Francis Marcelin , image = Kaiser Ferdinand I.jpg , caption = Portrait by Eduard Edlinger (1843) , succession = Emperor of Austria The Emperor of Austria ( German: '' Kaiser von Öste ...

Ferdinand I of Austria
said to implement a
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
throughout the whole Empire.


The Bach years

After the death of
Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg Felix Ludwig Johann Friedrich, Prince of Schwarzenberg (german: Felix Ludwig Johann Friedrich Prinz zu Schwarzenberg; cs, Felix Ludvík Jan Bedřich princ ze Schwarzenbergu; 2 October 1800 – 5 April 1852) was a Bohemian nobleman and an A ...
in 1852, the Minister of the Interior
Baron Alexander von Bach Baron Alexander von Bach (German: ''Alexander Freiherr von Bach''; 4 January 1813, Loosdorf, Austria – 12 November 1893, Schöngrabern, Austria) was an Austrian Empire, Austrian politician. His most notable achievement was instituting a system of ...
largely dictated policy in Austria and Hungary. Bach centralized administrative authority for the Austrian Empire, but he also endorsed
reactionary In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such a ...
policies that reduced
freedom of the press Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being w ...
and abandoned public trials. He later represented the Absolutist (or ''Klerikalabsolutist'') direction, which culminated in the concordat of August 1855 that gave the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
control over education and family life. This period in the history of the Austrian Empire would become known as the era of neo-absolutism, or Bach's absolutism. The pillars of the so-called Bach system (''Bachsches System'') were, in the words of
Adolf Fischhof Adolf Fischhof (Hungarian: Fischhof Adolf) (8 December 1816 – 23 March 1893) was a Hungarian- Austrian writer and politician of Jewish descent. After studying medicine (1836–1844) he was appointed physician at the Vienna en, Viennes ...

Adolf Fischhof
, four "armies": ''a standing army of soldiers, a sitting army of office holders, a kneeling army of priests and a fawning army of sneaks''. Prisons were full of political prisoners, like
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
nationalist journalist and writer
Karel Havlíček Borovský Karel Havlíček Borovský (; Borová, today ''Havlíčkova Borová;'' 31 October 1821 – 29 July 1856) was a Czech people, Czech writer, poet, critic, politician, journalist, and publisher. Early life and education He lived and studied at the ...
who was forcibly expatriated (1851–1855) to
Brixen Brixen (; it, Bressanone ; lld, Porsenù or ) is a town in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about north of Bolzano. Geography First mentioned in 901, Brixen is the third largest city and oldest town in the province, and the artistic and ...
. This exile undermined Borovský's health and he died soon afterwards. This affair earned Bach a very bad reputation amongst Czechs and subsequently led to the strengthening of the Czech national movement. However, Bach's relaxed ideological views (apart from the neo-absolutism) led to a great rise in the 1850s of
economic freedom Economic freedom, or economic liberty, is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions. This is a term used in economic and policy debate Policy debate is a form of debate competition in which teams of two advocate for and against ...
. Internal
customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that u ...
duties were abolished, and peasants were emancipated from their feudal obligations. In her capacity as leader of the German Confederation, Austria participated with volunteers in the
First War of Schleswig Roll of honour for the War in the cathedral of Schleswig The First Schleswig War (german: Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War ( da, Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark Denmark ( da, ...
(1848–1850).Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850–1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...
allied itself with
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
for the conquest of Lombardy–Venetia. Austria was defeated in the 1859 armed conflict. The Treaties of
Villafranca Villafranca (Basque language, Basque: ''Alesbes'') is a town and Municipalities of Spain, municipality located in the province and the autonomous community (Comunidad Foral) of Navarre, northern Spain. References External links Villafranca in t ...
and
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...
removed Lombardy, except for the part east of the Mincio river, the so-called Mantovano.


After 1859

The Constitution of 1861 created a House of Lords () and a House of Deputies (). But most nationalities of the monarchy remained dissatisfied. After the second war with Denmark in 1864, Holstein came under Austrian, Schleswig and Lauenburg under Prussian administration. But the internal difficulties continued. Diets replaced the parliament in 17 provinces, the
Hungarians Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has ...
pressed for autonomy, and Venetia was attracted by the now unified Italy. After Austria was defeated in the
Austro-Prussian War The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War, known in Germany as ("German War") and by a variety of other names, was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was ...
of 1866 and the German Confederation was dissolved, the
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 300px, Photo of the coronation oath in Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) ">Inner City Parish Church in Pest">Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (german: Ausgleich, hu, Kiegyezés) established th ...
was adopted. By this act, the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria as two separate entities joined together on an equal basis to form the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The frequent abbreviation K.u.K. (''Kaiserliche und Königliche'', "Imperial and Royal") does not refer to that dual monarchy but originated in 1745, when the "royal" part referred to the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary. File:Imperial Standard of the Austrian Empire (1815-1866).svg, Imperial standard of the Austrian Empire with the lesser coat of arms (used until 1915 for Austria-Hungary) File:Austrian Imperial Standard - Infantry pattern mix early 19th century.svg, Imperial standard of the Austrian Empire with the medium coat of arms (used until 1915 for Austria-Hungary) File:Austria-Hungary-flag-1869-1914-naval-1786-1869-merchant.svg, Merchant ensign from 1786 until 1869 and naval and war ensign from 1786 until 1915 (''de jure'', ''de facto'' until 1918)


Foreign policy

The
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
dominated Austrian foreign policy from 1804 to 1815. The Austrian army was one of the most formidable forces the French had to face. After
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
signed a peace treaty with France on 5 April 1795, Austria was forced to carry the main burden of war with
Napoleonic France The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (; ), was the empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an e ...
for almost ten years. This severely overburdened the Austrian economy, making the war greatly unpopular. Emperor Francis II therefore refused to join any further war against Napoleon for a long time. On the other hand, Francis II continued to intrigue for the possibility of revenge against France, entering into a secret military agreement with the Russian Empire in November 1804. This convention was to assure mutual cooperation in the case of a new war against France. Austrian unwillingness to join the Third Coalition was overcome by British subsidies, but the Austrians withdrew from the war yet again after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz. Although the Austrian
budget A budget is a financial plan In general usage, a financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values and withdrawal p ...

budget
suffered from wartime expenditures and its international position was significantly undermined, the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg provided plenty of time to strengthen the army and economy. Moreover, the ambitious
Archduke Charles Archduke Charles Louis John Joseph Laurentius of Austria, Duke of Teschen (german: link=no, Erzherzog Karl Ludwig Johann Joseph Lorenz von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen; 5 September 177130 April 1847) was an Austrian Empire, Austrian field-mars ...
and
Johann Philipp von StadionImage:JPvStadion.jpg, Johann Philipp von Stadion Johann Philipp Carl Joseph, Graf von Stadion-Warthausen (18 June 1763 – 15 May 1824). Born in Mainz, he was a statesman, foreign minister, and diplomat who served the Habsburg empire during the Napol ...

Johann Philipp von Stadion
never abandoned the goal of further war with France. Archduke Charles of Austria served as the Head of the Council of War and Commander in Chief of the Austrian army. Endowed with the enlarged powers, he reformed the Austrian Army to preparedness for another war. Johann Philipp von Stadion, the foreign minister, personally hated Napoleon due to an experience of confiscation of his possessions in France by Napoleon. In addition, the third wife of Francis II,
Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este Maria may refer to: People * Maria (given name), a popular given name in many languages Placenames Extraterrestrial *170 Maria, a Main belt S-type asteroid discovered in 1877 *Lunar maria (plural of ''mare''), large, dark basaltic plains on Eart ...
, agreed with Stadion's efforts to begin a new war.
Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein( ; german: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859), was an Austrian diplomat who was at the center of ...
, located in Paris, called for careful advance in the case of the war against France. The defeat of French army at the
Battle of Bailén The Battle of Bailén was fought in 1808 between the Spanish Army of Andalusia, led by Generals Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén, Francisco Castaños and Theodor von Reding, and the First French Empire, Imperial French Army's II co ...
in Spain on 27 July 1808 triggered the war. On 9 April 1809, an Austrian force of 170,000 men attacked
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...
. Despite military defeats—especially the Battles of ,
Ulm Ulm () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It c ...
, Austerlitz and —and consequently lost territory throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (the Treaties of
Campo Formio Campoformido ( fur, Cjampfuarmit) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the ...
in 1797, Luneville in 1801, Pressburg in 1806, and Schönbrunn in 1809), Austria played a decisive part in the overthrow of Napoleon in the campaigns of 1813–14. It participated in a second invasion of France in 1815, and put an end to Murat's regime in south Italy. The latter period of Napoleonic Wars featured
Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein( ; german: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859), known as Klemens von Metternich or Duke Metternich, ...
exerting a large degree of influence over foreign policy in the Austrian Empire, a matter nominally decided by the Emperor. Metternich initially supported an alliance with France, arranging the marriage between Napoleon and Francis II's daughter, Marie-Louise; however, by the 1812 campaign, he had realised the inevitability of Napoleon's downfall and took Austria to war against France. Metternich's influence at the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
was remarkable, and he became not only the premier statesman in Europe but the virtual ruler of the Empire until 1848—the Year of Revolutions—and the rise of
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals ...

liberalism
equated to his political downfall. The result was that the Austrian Empire was seen as one of the great powers after 1815, but also as a reactionary force and an obstacle to national aspirations in Italy and Germany. During this time, Metternich was able to maintain an elaborate balance between Prussia, the lesser German states, and Austria in the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common Histo ...

German Confederation
. Thanks to his efforts, Austria was seen as the senior partner with Prussia keeping watch over Germany as a whole. Further, Metternich opposed the weakening of France in the years after Napoleon, and viewed the new monarchy in Paris as an effective tool in keeping Russia at bay. From 1815 to 1848,
Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein( ; german: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859), known as Klemens von Metternich or Duke Metternich, ...
steered Austria Imperial foreign policy, and indeed the mood of Europe, and managed to keep peace on the continent despite the growing liberal and radical movements inside most major powers. His resignation in 1848, forced by moderates in the court, and
revolutionaries A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates a revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term ''revolutionary'' refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor. D ...
in the streets, may have caused the spread of the revolutions throughout the monarchy. It is stipulated that Metternich's departure emboldened liberal factions in Austria and Hungary, but this cannot be confirmed for certain. During the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
Austria maintained a policy of hostile neutrality towards
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
, and, while not going to war, was supportive of the Anglo-French coalition. Having abandoned its alliance with Russia, Austria was diplomatically isolated following the war, which contributed to Russia's non-intervention in the 1859 Franco-Austrian War, which meant the end of Austrian influence in Italy; and in the 1866
Austro-Prussian War The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War, known in Germany as ("German War") and by a variety of other names, was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was ...
, with the loss of its influence in most German-speaking land.


Constituent lands

Crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...
s of the Austrian Empire after the 1815
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
, including the local government reorganizations from the
Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
to the 1860
October Diploma The October Diploma was a constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth Eng ...
: *
Archduchy of Austria Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: ''Erzherzog'', feminine form: ''Erzherzogin'') was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de ...
(''Erzherzogtum Österreich'') **
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian w ...
(''Erzherzogtum Österreich unter der Enns'') **
Upper Austria Upper Austria (german: Oberösterreich ; bar, Obaöstareich) is one of the nine states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The Stat ...
(''Erzherzogtum Österreich ob der Enns'') *
Duchy of Salzburg The Duchy of Salzburg () was a Cisleithania Cisleithania (german: Cisleithanien, also ''Zisleithanien'', sl, Cislajtanija, hu, Ciszlajtánia, cz, Předlitavsko, sk, Predlitavsko, pl, Przedlitawia, hr, Cislajtanija, sr, Цислајтани ...
(''Herzogtum Salzburg''), 1815–1850
Salzach The Salzach (Austrian: saltsax ) is a river in Austria and Germany. It is a right tributary of the Inn (river), Inn and is in length, its flow eventually joins the Danube. Its drainage basin of comprises large parts of the Northern Limest ...

Salzach
District (''Salzachkreis'') of Upper Austria *
Duchy of Styria The Duchy of Styria (german: Herzogtum Steiermark; sl, Vojvodina Štajerska; hu, Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection ...
(''Herzogtum Steiermark'') * Princely County of Tyrol with
Vorarlberg Vorarlberg ( , ; gsw, label=Vorarlbergisch, Vorarlbearg, , or ) is the westernmost States of Austria, state () of Austria. It has the second-smallest geographical area after Vienna and, although it has the second-smallest population, it also has ...

Vorarlberg
(''Gefürstete Grafschaft Tirol mit dem Lande Vorarlberg)'', subdivided in 1861 *
Kingdom of Illyria The Kingdom of Illyria was a crown land of the Austrian Empire from 1816 to 1849, the successor state of the Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces, reconquered by Austria in the War of the Sixth Coalition and restored according to the Final Act of the Con ...
(''Königreich Illyrien''), subdivided in 1849/1850: **
Duchy of Carinthia The Duchy of Carinthia (german: Herzogtum Kärnten; sl, Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collectio ...

Duchy of Carinthia
(''Herzogtum Kärnten'') **
Duchy of Carniola The Duchy of Carniola ( sl, Vojvodina Kranjska, german: Herzogtum Krain, hu, Krajna) was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire, established under House of Habsburg, Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carnio ...
(''Herzogtum Krain'') **
Littoral The littoral zone or nearshore is the part of a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...
(''Küstenland'') ***
Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (german: Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; it, Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; sl, Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska), historically sometimes shortened to and spelled "G ...
(''Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca'') ***
Imperial Free City of Trieste Imperial is that which relates to an empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire ...
(''Triest'') *** Margravate of Istria (''Markgrafschaft Istrien'') *
Lands of the Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the Middle Ages, medieval and early modern periods connected by feudalism, feudal relations under the List of Bohemian monarchs, Bohemian kings. The cro ...
**
Kingdom of Bohemia The Kingdom of Bohemia ( cs, České království; german: link=no, Königreich Böhmen; la, link=no, Regnum Bohemiae), sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom, was a medieval In the history of Europe ...
(''Königreich Böhmen'') **
Margraviate of Moravia The Margraviate of Moravia ( cs, Markrabství moravské; german: Markgrafschaft Mähren) was one of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. ...
(''Markgrafschaft Mähren'') **
Duchy of Silesia The Duchy of Silesia ( pl, Księstwo śląskie, german: Herzogtum Schlesien) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385), Poland. Soon after it was formed under the P ...
(''Herzogtum Schlesien'') *
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Austrian Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crown land, crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy. It encompassed regions that were acquired by the First Partition of Poland. ...
(''Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien'') with **
Duchy of Bukovina The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary from 1867 until 1918. Name The name ''Bukovina'' came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the ...
(''Herzogtum Bukowina''), split off in 1850 *
Kingdom of Dalmatia The Kingdom of Dalmatia ( hr, Kraljevina Dalmacija; german: Königreich Dalmatien; it, Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). It encompassed the entir ...

Kingdom of Dalmatia
(''Königreich Dalmatien'') *
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...
(''Königreich Ungarn'') with ** (''Königreich Kroatien'') **
Kingdom of Slavonia The Kingdom of Slavonia ( hr, Kraljevina Slavonija, la, Regnum Sclavoniae, hu, Szlavón Királyság, german: Königreich Slawonien) was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy ...
(''Königreich Slawonien'') *
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia ( la, Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the "Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom" ( it, Regno Lombardo-Veneto, german: Königreich Lombardo-Venetien), was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empi ...
(''Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich''), lost in 1859/1866 *
Grand Principality of Transylvania Grand may refer to: People with the name * Grand (surname)Grand * Cedric Grand (born 1976), Swiss bobsledder * Gil Grand (born 1968), Canadian country music singer * Jean-Pierre Grand (born 1950), French politician * Pascale Grand (born 1967), Ca ...
(''Großfürstentum Siebenbürgen'') *
Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar The Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar or Serbian Voivodeship and the Banate of Temes (german: Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temeser Banat), known simply as the Serbian Voivodeship (), was a crownland of the Austrian Empire The Austr ...
(''Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temescher Banat''), from 1849, merged into Hungary and Slavonia in 1860 **
Serbian Vojvodina The Serbian Vojvodina ( sr, Српска Војводина, Srpska Vojvodina) was a short-lived self-proclaimed Serb autonomous province within the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') wa ...
, ''de facto'' autonomous entity 1848/49, not officially recognized **
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it ...

Banat
*
Military Frontier The Military Frontier (german: Militärgrenze, sh, Vojna krajina/Vojna granica, Војна крајина/Војна граница; hu, Katonai határőrvidék; ro, Graniță militară) was a borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg ...
(''Militärgrenze'') **
Croatian Military Frontier The Croatian Military Frontier ( hr, Vojna krajina or ') was a district of the Military Frontier The Military Frontier (german: Militärgrenze, sh, Vojna krajina/Vojna granica, Војна крајина/Војна граница; hu, Katonai ...
(''Kroatische Militärgrenze'') **
Slavonian Military Frontier The Slavonian Military Frontier ( hr, Slavonska vojna krajina or ; german: Slawonische Militärgrenze; sr, Славонска војна крајина; hu, Szlavón határőrvidék) was a district of the Military Frontier, a territory in the ...
(''Slawonische Militärgrenze'') **
Banat Military Frontier The Banat Military Frontier or simply Banat Frontier ( sr, Банатска крајина/Banatska krajina) was a district of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), ...
(''Banater Militärgrenze'') ** Transylvanian Military Frontier (''Siebenbürger Militärgrenze'') merged into Transylvania in 1853 The old Habsburg possessions of Further Austria (in today's France, Germany and Switzerland) had already been lost in the 1805 Peace of Pressburg. From 1850 ,
Kingdom of Slavonia The Kingdom of Slavonia ( hr, Kraljevina Slavonija, la, Regnum Sclavoniae, hu, Szlavón Királyság, german: Königreich Slawonien) was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy ...
and
Military Frontier The Military Frontier (german: Militärgrenze, sh, Vojna krajina/Vojna granica, Војна крајина/Војна граница; hu, Katonai határőrvidék; ro, Graniță militară) was a borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg ...
constitute a single land with disaggregated provincial and military administration, and representation.


Education

German was the primary language of higher education in the empire.Strauss, Johann. "Language and power in the late Ottoman Empire" (Chapter 7). In: Murphey, Rhoads (editor). ''Imperial Lineages and Legacies in the Eastern Mediterranean: Recording the Imprint of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Rule'' (Volume 18 of Birmingham Byzantine and Ottoman Studies). Routledge, 7 July 2016. , 9781317118442. Google Books]
PT196


Gallery

File:Weltliche Schatzkammer Wien (265).JPG, The 'hauskrone' of Rudolph II, later the imperial crown of the Austrian Empire File:Imperial Crown Orb and Sceptre of Austria (Imperial Treasury).jpg, The crown jewels of Austria File:Growth of Habsburg territories.jpg, Growth of the Habsburg Monarchy File:Vereinstaler Österreich.png, Vereinstaler of 1866 File:SKAWINA 1908 FranzI.jpg, Postage stamp depicting Francis I File:Austria 1910 10k Franz Josef.JPG, Postage stamp depicting Franz Joseph I File:Wien Kriegsministerium 5955.JPG, Double-headed eagle at the Ministry of War in Vienna


See also

*Former countries in Europe after 1815 *
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
*Cisleithania for the Austrian Empire after the
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 300px, Photo of the coronation oath in Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) ">Inner City Parish Church in Pest">Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (german: Ausgleich, hu, Kiegyezés) established th ...


References


Further reading

* Bassett, Richard. ''For God and Kaiser: The Imperial Austrian Army, 1619-1918'' (2016).
online
* Judson, Pieter M. ''The Habsburg Empire: A New History'' (2016
excerpt
* *
excerpt and text search
* * * Sked, Alan. "Explaining the Habsburg Empire, 1830–90." in Pamela Pilbeam, ed., ''Themes in Modern European History 1830-1890'' (Routledge, 2002) pp. 141–176. * * * Steed, Henry Wickham. ''The Hapsburg monarchy'' (1919
online
detailed contemporary account
excerpt and text search


External links





{{Use dmy dates, date=May 2014 Austrian Empire, Former empires Former monarchies of Europe House of Habsburg-Lorraine, * Hungary under Habsburg rule, . Croatia under Habsburg rule Germanic empires Serbia under Habsburg rule, . Habsburg Bohemia Former countries in the Balkans Kingdoms and countries of Austria-Hungary, * Modern history of Austria Modern history of Hungary Modern history of Italy Modern history of Slovenia States of the German Confederation States and territories established in 1804 1804 establishments in Europe 1804 establishments in the Austrian Empire, * States and territories disestablished in 1867 States and territories disestablished in 1919 1867 disestablishments in the Austrian Empire 19th century in Austria 19th century in Europe Christian states