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Australian hip hop traces its origins to the early 1980s and is largely inspired by hip hop and other urban musical genres from the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
. As the form matured, Australian hip hop has become a commercially viable style of music which is no longer restricted to the creative underground, with artists such as
The Kid LAROI Charlton Kenneth Jeffrey Howard (born 17 August 2003), known professionally as the Kid Laroi (stylised as the Kid LAROI), is an Australian rapper, singer and songwriter. He originally gained recognition from his association and friendship with A ...
, Manu Crooks, ONEFOUR,
Iggy Azalea Amethyst Amelia Kelly (born 7 June 1990), known professionally as Iggy Azalea (), is an Australian rapper. At the age of 16, Azalea moved from Australia to the United States in order to pursue a career in music. Azalea earned public recognitio ...
,
Hilltop Hoods Hilltop Hoods is an Australian hip hop group that formed in 1996 in Blackwood, South Australia, Blackwood, Adelaide, South Australia. They are regarded as pioneers of the "larrikin-like" style of Australian hip hop. The group was founded by Suff ...
, Bliss n Eso and Youngn Lipz, having achieved notable fame. Australian hip hop is still primarily released through
independent record label An independent record label (or indie label) is a record label that operates without the funding or distribution of major record labels; they are a type of small and medium-sized enterprise, small- to medium-sized enterprise, or SME. The labels ...
s, which are often owned and operated by the artists themselves. Despite its genesis as an offshoot of American hip hop, Australian hip hop has developed a distinct personality that reflects its evolution as an Australian musical style.


History


Early years (1980s)

In 1982, the
music video A music video is a video of variable duration, that integrates a music song or a music album with imagery that is produced for promotion (marketing), promotional or musical artistic purposes. Modern music videos are primarily made and used as a m ...
for
Malcolm McLaren Malcolm Robert Andrew McLaren (22 January 1946 – 8 April 2010) was an English impresario, visual artist, singer, songwriter, musician, clothes designer and boutique owner, notable for combining these activities in an inventive and provoc ...
's track, " Buffalo Gals", was shown on the Australian television music show ''
Sound Unlimited Sound Unlimited, formerly known as Sound Unlimited Posse and Westside Posse, was an Australian hip hop Australian hip hop traces its origins to the early 1980s and is largely inspired by hip hop and other urban musical genres from the Uni ...
''. The music show was broadcast on Network Seven. The clip was staged in a
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City, is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five Boroughs of New York City, boroughs of New York City. The borough is also coextensive with New York County, one of the List of co ...
basketball court and featured images of
graffiti Graffiti (plural; singular ''graffiti'' or ''graffito'', the latter rarely used except in archeology) is art that is written, painted or drawn on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from s ...
and break dancers. The video left an impression on Australian teenagers, who began to copy the dancers' moves. The first Australian hip hop record released was " 16 Tons" / "Humber Mania Time" by Mighty Big Crime via
Virgin Records Virgin Records is a record label owned by Universal Music Group. It originally founded as a British independent record label in 1972 by entrepreneurs Richard Branson, Simon Draper, Nik Powell, and musician Tom Newman (musician), Tom Newman. It ...
and Criteria Productions in 1987 (Catalogue number VOZC 026). The
Melbourne Melbourne ( ; Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung/Woiwurrung–Taungurung language, Woiwurrung: ''Narrm'' or ''Naarm'') is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most populous city of the St ...
-based duo (Gumpy Phillips and Tricky J a.k.a. Justin Lodge) soon disbanded. In 1991, both were members of
flower power Flower power was a slogan A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political slogan, political, Advertising slogan, commercial, religious, and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of pe ...
group, Freaked Out Flower Children. Gerry Bloustein wrote in the book ''Musical Visions'' that Blaze claimed the first "true hip hop" release was, "Combined Talent" / "My Destiny" in 1988 by Just Us (consisting of Maltese DJ Case and Mentor). In 1988, the first compilation of Australian rap, ''Down Under by Law'' (Virgin), was released. It included tracks by Westside Posse, Mighty Big Crime, Swoop, Sharline and Fly Girl 3. Two Western Australian hip hop bands, Def Threat and Gangstarr, both released recordings in 1987. The Def Threat's EP, ''Girls Never learn'', reached No. 4 in the WA Independent music charts. Def Threat played a number of gigs over the next 12 months, and then disbanded. Gangstarr survived for a few more years.


Major label releases (1990s)

In the late 1980s, Sound Unlimited Posse signed with
Sony Music Sony Music Entertainment (SME), also known as simply Sony Music, is an American multinational Music industry, music company. Being owned by the parent conglomerate (company), conglomerate Sony, Sony Group Corporation, it is part of the Sony Musi ...
, thereby becoming the first Australian hip hop group signed on to a major
record label A record label, or record company, is a brand or trademark of Sound recording and reproduction, music recordings and Music video, music videos, or the company that owns it. Sometimes, a record label is also a Music publisher (popular music), pub ...
. In 1992, they released the first major-label Australian hip hop album titled ''A Postcard from the Edge of the Under-side''. In 1991, a 16-year-old Sydney-based solo artist named KIC was signed to Columbia/SME Records. His first single, "Bring Me On", was popular in Australia, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Also in 1992, independent label company Random Records released Def Wish Cast's album '' Knights of the Underground Table''. After 1992, independent CDs and tapes were released by various artists, primarily from the western suburbs of Sydney, a largely immigrant-populated area largely known as a working class, underprivileged, and crime-ridden area. MC Opi (a.k.a. Opi Nelson) was an underground hip hop and
dancehall Dancehall is a genre of Jamaican popular music that originated in the late 1970s. Initially, dancehall was a more sparse version of reggae than the roots reggae, roots style, which had dominated much of the 1970s.Barrow, Steve & Dalton, Peter ( ...
artist who rose to national success after her performance on
Christine Anu Christine Anu (born 15 March 1970) is an Australian singer, songwriter and actress. She gained popularity with the cover song In popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences th ...
and Paul Kelly's 1994 ARIA-nominated single " Last Train", released by
Mushroom A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore-bearing Sporocarp (fungi), fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source. ''Toadstool'' generally denotes one poisonous to humans. The standard for the na ...
/EMI (White Label). Prior to this, MC Opi co-produced ''Women on the Rhyme'', the first national radio documentary about Australian female hip hop artists, created at the
Australian Broadcasting Corporation The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is the Public broadcasting, national broadcaster of Australia. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian Government and is administered by ABC Board, a government-appointed boar ...
(ABC). MC Opi contributed to Anu's debut album ''Stylin' Up'', which attained platinum status in Australia and won the ARIA Award for Best Indigenous Album. Following the winning of the award, Anu invited MC Opi to perform with her on the first "Australian Jail Tour" as part of NAIDOC (National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee) Week in 1993 in order to raise awareness about indigenous deaths in custody.


Later years (2000s)

The Melbourne hip hop group
1200 Techniques 1200 Techniques are an Australian hip hop group formed in 1997 in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung/Woiwurrung–Taungurung language, Woiwurrung: ''Narrm'' or ''Naarm'') is the List of Australian capital cities, c ...
was formed in 1997 by "old-school" 1980s B-boy/aerosol artist DJ Peril (founding member of Melbourne hip hop crew Island Boys).The group consisted of DJ Peril on production, turntables, and percussion; his brother Kem(Kemstar) on guitar; and N'fa on vocals. They released an EP in 2001 called ''Infinite Styles'' with the independent label company Rubber Records. 1200 Techniques later released one of the first hip hop crossover hits, a track called "Karma" (from the album '' Choose One''). The song spawned the first ARIA Award for a hip hop act in Australia even before there was a hip hop category. Additionally "Karma" won Michael Gracey an ARIA in the same year for Best Video. In 2003, the band released the first Australian hip hop DVD titled ''One Time Live'', which featured the band's music videos, live footage and two short documentaries. Their second album, '' Consistency Theory'', was released in 2004. By the early 2000s, the
Australian Record Industry Association The Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) is a trade association representing the Australian recording industry which was established in the 1970s by six major record companies, EMI, Festival Records (Australia), Festival, Sony Music ...
(ARIA) began to recognise the growing interest in hip-hop in Australia. In 2004, ARIA introduced a new category in its annual
awards An award, sometimes called a distinction, is something given to a recipient as a token of Recognition (sociology), recognition of excellence in a certain field. When the token is a medal, ribbon or other item designed for wearing, it is known a ...
: Best Urban Album (R&B, hip-hop, soul, funk, reggae and dancehall). The inaugural award was won by
Koolism ''Koolism'' is an Australian hip hop duo originating from Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The members are lyricist Hau Latukefu (born Langomi-e-Hau Latukefu, 1976, Queanbeyan, Australia) and producer/DJ/musician Danielsan Ichiban (born ...
for their album, ''Random Thoughts''. Koolism DJ Danielsan dedicated the award to the "Australian hip-hop community" and exclaimed: "Be yourselves, keep it real, enough of that American wannabe trash". At the
2006 File:2006 Events Collage V1.png, From top left, clockwise: The 2006 Winter Olympics open in Turin; Twitter is founded and launched by Jack Dorsey; The Nintendo Wii is released; Montenegro 2006 Montenegrin independence referendum, votes to declare ...
and
2007 File:2007 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Steve Jobs unveils Apple Inc., Apple's first iPhone (1st generation), iPhone; TAM Airlines Flight 3054 overruns a runway and crashes into a gas station, killing almost 200 people; Former Pakis ...
ARIA Awards, the Urban award was won by
Hilltop Hoods Hilltop Hoods is an Australian hip hop group that formed in 1996 in Blackwood, South Australia, Blackwood, Adelaide, South Australia. They are regarded as pioneers of the "larrikin-like" style of Australian hip hop. The group was founded by Suff ...
for its albums '' The Hard Road'' and '' The Hard Road: Restrung'', respectively. The ''Hard Road'' also became the first Australian hip hop album to rank number 1 on the ARIA Charts in 2006. Other artists who have won the award include Bliss n Eso, for their album '' Flying Colours'', and Melbourne artist
Illy Illycaffè S.p.A. (branded and stylised as illy) is an Italian coffee company specializing in espresso Espresso (, ) is a coffee-brewing method of Italian cuisine, Italian origin, in which a small amount of nearly boiling water (about ) i ...
, for his album ''Bring it Back'', released on the Obese Records label. Australian hip-hop artists have also received international recognition. Australians have been featured on albums by artists from the US and Europe. In October 2014, Australian artist K21 appeared on a song, titled "Pas rentable", by French hip hop artist LinkRust. Women in Australian hip-hop have largely been under-developed; however, many underground emcees have existed and thrived. Notable artists such as Sampa the Great are on the rise. For the
ARIA Music Awards of 2019 The ARIA Music Awards of 2019 are the 33rd Annual Australian Recording Industry Association The Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) is a trade association representing the Australian recording industry which was established in ...
, new categories of awards were created for Best Hip Hop Release and Best Soul/R&B Release, which were previously combined in the Best Urban Release category.


Style and influences

Australian hip hop artists are strongly influenced by African American and Latino rappers from the US, and continue to incorporate such influences into their music. Australian artists, however, still utilise an authentic and unique style in their own music. Like many hip hop scenes outside the US, some Australian hip hop artists have also been influenced by
funk Funk is a music genre that originated in African Americans, African American communities in the mid-1960s when musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of various music genres that were popular among African A ...
,
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African Americans, African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recog ...
and
dembow Dembow is a Dominican Republic, Dominican musical genre that can be traced to a riddim that originated in Jamaicans, Jamaican dancehall. When Shabba Ranks released "Dem Bow" in 1990, it did not take long for the dembow genre to form. Riddims we ...
. Indigenous Australian culture is also a strong influence for many hip hop artists. While hip hop artists in the US are predominantly African American, many Australian hip hop artists are of Anglo heritage. Numerous Australian hip hop artists, including N'fa, Remi, Sampa the Great, Diafrix,
Tkay Maidza Takudzwa Victoria Rosa "Tkay" Maidza ( ; born 17 December 1995) is a Zimbabwean-born Australian singer-songwriter and rapper. Biography Maidza was born in Harare, Zimbabwe. Her parents are Metallurgy, metallurgists. In 2001, her family moved ...
,
Miracle A miracle is an event that is inexplicable by physical laws, natural or scientific lawsOne dictionary define"Miracle"as: "A surprising and welcome event that is not explicable by natural or scientific laws and is therefore considered to be the ...
, Vida Sunshyne, KillaQueenz, are of African descent, which has influenced their music.


American influence

U.S. artists cited as key inspirations of Australian hip-hop artists include
Public Enemy "Public enemy" is a Terminology, term which was first widely used in the United States in the 1930s to describe individuals whose activities were seen as criminal and extremely damaging to society, though the phrase had been used for centuries ...
,Shapiro, Michael J. 2004. "Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject." Routledge.
A Tribe Called Quest A Tribe Called Quest was an American Hip hop music, hip hop group formed in Queens, New York City, in 1985,Q-Tip< ...
, and Nas. Following the release of ''Drinking From The Sun'' in 2012, Hilltop Hoods included
Organized Konfusion Organized Konfusion (OK) is an alternative hip hop Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a subgenre of hip hop music that encompasses a wide range of styles that are not typically identified as mainstream. AllMusic defines ...
, Kraz, and
De La Soul De La Soul () is an American hip hop music, hip hop Trio (music), trio formed in 1988 in the Amityville area of Long Island, New York. They are best known for their eclectic sampling, quirky lyrics, and their contributions to the evolution of th ...
in its ideal festival line-up. In Australia, dance moves associated with hip hop, such as krumping, footworking, locking, and
popping Popping is a street dance adapted out of the earlier Boogaloo (funk dance) cultural movement in Oakland, California, Oakland, California. As Boogaloo spread, it would be referred to as Robottin in Richmond, California, Richmond, California, Stru ...
, have drawn public interest to hip hop, and contributed to its dynamic popularity. However, these dance moves have been criticized as not being original and a sign that Australia suffers from a lack of its own hip hop identity.


United Kingdom influence

In more recent years (2000s onwards), Australian Hip Hop has seen a strong emergence of UK genres such as Grime and
Afrobeats Afrobeats (not to be confused with Afrobeat Afrobeat is a Nigerian music genre that involves the combination of West African musical styles (such as traditional Yoruba music and highlife) and American funk, jazz, and soul music, soul infl ...
. Although these genres have been around for years, their worldwide popularity and acceptance in the mainstream is relatively new. The genre of ' Australian grime' has been marked by viral artists like HAZRD. Adelaide-based producer Strict Face hosted his own show on the now-defunct London's Radar Radio.


Drill music scene

A
drill music Drill is a subgenre of hip hop music that originated in Chicago streets in the early 2010s. It is sonically similar to the trap music subgenre and lyrically similar to the gangsta rap subgenre. Drill music progressed into the American mainstrea ...
scene derivative and heavily influenced by UK drill music developed in Australia in the late 2010s. ONEFOUR, a Samoan Australian Drill group from
Mount Druitt Mount Druitt is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located west of the Sydney central business district, in the Local government in Australia, local government area of the City of Blacktown, and is part of t ...
, have been recognised as the first Drill group in the country, according to VICE.


Australian identity

Although hip hop originated in the US, some Australian rappers see their hip hop scene as having its own unique character. Dialectrix has described it as a "mongrel mutation" of Afrocentric and Australian culture. According to the lyrics of Def Wish Cast, it is "down under, comin' up."Mitchell, Tony. "World Music and the Popular Music Industry: An Australian View." ''Ethnomusicology,'' Vol. 37, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 309–338. Australian hip hop has been localised with the introduction of aspects such as the Australian accent, Australian slang, political views, and references to localities and matters of Australian cultural identity. The lyrics of early Western Sydney artists like 046, Def Wish Cast and the White Boys represent the process of localising Australian hip hop. Additionally, the non-Anglo immigrants of these areas were attracted to hip hop because it tackles the theme of racial opposition, as in African American and Chicano hip hop. Australian hip hop has been described as rich with Australian character, but also as inspirational for immigrants, providing "a voice and a purpose for those making their home anew in Australia." For example, Diafrix use migrant experiences in some of their songs, although this is not their main focus. Numerous Australian hip-hop artists have expressed concern that sections of Australia's hip hop fan base seem to espouse a "
redneck ''Redneck'' is a derogatory term chiefly, but not exclusively, applied to white Americans perceived to be crass and unsophisticated, closely associated with rural whites of the Southern United States.Harold Wentworth, and Stuart Berg Flexner, '' ...
" mentality that is ignorant of the culture's international influences. In a 2009 interview, Cross Bred Mongrels member Flak explained: "I don't go for that. nly listening to Australian hip hopI think that is a little narrow-minded. If it is dope hip hop, it is dope hip hop. If it is from Germany, Japan or Compton, and it is dope, I go for it." Over time, Australian hip hop diversified, absorbing influences from New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the Caribbean. For example, Def Wish described his style as influenced by
reggae Reggae () is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term also denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its Jamaican diaspora, diaspora. A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals, "Do the Reggay" was the first popu ...
from
London London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary dow ...
, rather than
North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Car ...
rap, while also acknowledging
Afro-Caribbean Afro-Caribbean people or African Caribbean are Caribbean people who trace their full or partial ancestry to Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of the modern African-Caribbeans descend from Indigenous peoples of Africa, Africans taken as slaves to ...
roots of that scene. Kamaludeen Mohamed Nasir's book, ''Globalized Muslim Youth in the Asia Pacific: Popular Culture in Singapore and Sydney'' discusses how Muslim hip-hoppers like Matuse and The Brothahood have added their voices to what it means to be Australian. In their songs, The Brothahood talks about "their piety in the face of everyday life in Australia post-September 11", while in Matuse's track, "Sydney vs Everybody", he raps about "being singled out by a section of white Australia for his ethnic background rather than his lyrical skills".


Gutter rap

Completely distinguishing itself from most Australian hip-hop at the time, that rap about
Middle-class The middle class refers to a Social class, class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy, often defined by job, occupation, income, education, or social status. The term has historically been associated with modernity, capitalism and poli ...
lifestyle and issues (such as breakups, skating, going to the RSL), a new scene originating from Australia's infamous Housing Commission estates began emerging in the late 2000s called Gutter rap (sometimes known as Lad rap). Gutter rap artists such as Campbelltown's Kerser,
Hurstville Hurstville is a suburb in Southern Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is 16 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district, Sydney CBD and is part of the St George, New South Wales, St George area. Hurstville is the adminis ...
's Skeamo and Nter, and
Blacktown Blacktown is a suburb A suburb (more broadly suburban area) is an area within a metropolitan area, which may include Commercial area, commercial and mixed-use development, mixed-use, that is primarily a residential area. A suburb ca ...
's Fortay rap primarily about Australian Lower-class lifestyle and issues (such as crime, drug addictions, financial struggles), similar to traditional American
Gangsta rap Gangsta rap or gangster rap, initially called reality rap, emerged in the mid- to late 1980s as a controversial hip-hop subgenre whose lyrics assert the culture and values typical of American street gangs and street hustlers. Many gangsta rappe ...
, which resulted it in being branded an Australian version of the American music genre. Unlike most other Australian hip hop scenes, which have proper mainstream presence and support, gutter rap remains underground on the internet, but that didn't stop artists from the genre gaining mainstream recognition and success, an example being Kerser's second album ''No Rest for the Sickest'' reaching No. 15 on the ARIA albums chart,.


Indigenous Australian hip hop

Since the early 1980s, many indigenous crews have used hip hop as an outlet to vent their frustration against racial injustice and discrimination. Though not at the forefront of the Australian hip hop scene, Aboriginal rappers such as Brothablack, the South West Syndicate, Local Knowledge, Lez Beckett and the
Native Ryme Syndicate Native Ryme Syndicate is an Australian hip hop group formed in Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital and most populous city of the states and territories of Australia, Australian state of Queensland, and the list of cities in Australia by ...
produce songs that address the cultural situation of
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians or Australian First Nations are people with familial heritage from, and membership in, the ethnic groups that lived in Australia before History of Australia (1788–1850), British colonisation. They consist of two distin ...
. One of their musical influences is the American hip hop group,
Public Enemy "Public enemy" is a Terminology, term which was first widely used in the United States in the 1930s to describe individuals whose activities were seen as criminal and extremely damaging to society, though the phrase had been used for centuries ...
. Munkimuk works on community-based educational hip hop projects around Australia, such as 1999's Desert Rap, conducted with Brothablack from South West Syndicate and Morganics. The Desert Rap project was organised with Tony Collins from
Triple J Triple J (stylised in all lowercase) is a government-funded, national Australian Radio in Australia, radio station intended to appeal to listeners of alternative music, which began broadcasting in January 1975. The station also places a greate ...
, which made an ABC TV documentary. Munkimuk also hosts a nationally syndicated weekly radio program called "Indij Hip Hop Show", which is produced by Koori Radio in Sydney. Briggs, a Yorta Yorta man from the rural location of
Shepparton Shepparton () (Yorta Yorta language, Yortayorta: ''Kanny-goopna'') is a city located on the floodplain of the Goulburn River (Victoria), Goulburn River in northern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, approximately north-northeast of Mel ...
, became a prominent feature of the Australian hip hop scene since he began his career as an independent artist in 2005. In August 2014, he released his sophomore studio album, ''Sheplife'', on the Golden Era Records label, owned by Hilltop Hoods. As of 2012, Briggs has been the recipient of two
Deadly Awards The Deadly Awards, commonly known simply as The Deadlys, was an annual celebration of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander achievement in music, sport, entertainment and community. The event was held from 1995 to 2013. Description T ...
nominations and received the "Best New Talent" award at the 2014 National Indigenous Music Awards (NIMA). Indigenous producer and MC Daniel Rankine (
Trials In law, a trial is a coming together of Party (law), parties to a :wikt:dispute, dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence (law), evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate claims or d ...
), of the Adelaide trio Funkoars and Golden Era Records, also releases his own work, including occasional solo work. Rankine's production credits include
Drapht Paul Reid, formerly Paul Gary James Ridge, (born 4 September 1982), better known by the stage name Drapht, is an Australian hip hop Australian hip hop traces its origins to the early 1980s and is largely inspired by hip hop and other urba ...
, Vents, Reason, Cross Bred Mongrels and K21, while he has provided guest verses for Purpose, Hilltop Hoods, and the Golden Era mixtapes. Trials and Briggs performed together at the "Beat The Drum" event for the Triple J Radio station on 16 January 2015, and released their debut album as the group A.B. Original, titled '' Reclaim Australia,'' in 2016.


Media


Radio

Radio, particularly community radio, plays a significant role in the dissemination of hip hop within Australia. Additionally, the Australian Government funds projects, such as the Australian Music Radio Airplay Project (AMRAP), which seeks to promote Australian music nationwide.
3RRR 3RRR (pronounced "Three Triple R", or simply "Triple R") is an Australian community radio station, based in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung/Woiwurrung–Taungurung language, Woiwurrung: ''Narrm'' or ''Naarm'') i ...
was the first radio station to present an international hip-hop act to the city—Run-D.M.C.'s 1987 Australian tour—and it highlighted international hip hop culture as well as the local scene. * 3MDR (97.1FM): "The Bourne Collective" hosted by Bastian Killjoy *
3RRR 3RRR (pronounced "Three Triple R", or simply "Triple R") is an Australian community radio station, based in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung/Woiwurrung–Taungurung language, Woiwurrung: ''Narrm'' or ''Naarm'') i ...
: "Hood Pass" hosted by Carlos Turner and Rob Steezy *106.7 3PBSFM: "Hippopotamus rex" hosted by Ronin Hamill; "Fresh Produce" hosted by Cosi; "B.P.M." hosted by PBS DJs and guests; "tHE bLEND" hosted by Bevin Campbell *
Triple J Triple J (stylised in all lowercase) is a government-funded, national Australian Radio in Australia, radio station intended to appeal to listeners of alternative music, which began broadcasting in January 1975. The station also places a greate ...
: " Hip Hop Show" hosted by Hau Latukefu * Edge 96.1 (96.1 FM): "K-Sera & The Dirty Dozen" hosted by K-Sera * 2SER (107.3FM): "Hardcore Classic" hosted by Thomas Rock, Ran-Dee and Raine Supreme *
4ZZZ 4ZZZ (pronounced "Four Triple Zed" or simply "Triple Zed") is an independent community radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency b ...
(102.1 FM): "Phat Tape" hosted by DJ Katch, DJ Fib, Frenzie, Chubba Dubbed, Complex, Dj Dcide and Seany B. Just 2 Def hosted by Jigzaw and Busy B * Three D Radio (93.7FM): "Hazy Tones" hosted by Anders; "Episodes in Space" hosted by Sam & TimeSpace * Kiss FM (Australia) (87.6–88.0FM): "StrictlyOZ HipHop Show" hosted by DJ Cook & Big Dip + Lil Marc. * Fresh FM (92.7FM): "The Lesson" hosted by DJ Sanchez & Lotek1200 + (Lesson Crew) Sam, Dan, DJ Cal Haslam, Apollo & Ckur. *
RTRFM RTRFM (call sign: 6RTR) is a not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO) or non-profit organisation, also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated ...
(92.1FM): "Down Underground" hosted by Nick Sweepah; "Full Frequency" (Monday and Friday) hosted by Micah and Philly Blunt (Monday) and Rok Riley (Friday) * Radio Skid Row (88.9FM): "Local Flows" hosted by riverkid * Community Radio Network: "BRL" hosted by Gavin Crossley; * SYN (90.7FM): "Hip Hop Night" hosted by Christopher Palmer which included "StrictlyOZ HopHop show" from 2009 to 2010 * 2GLF: 'Shots and Hits' Hosted by Adam Spinz * 2RRR (88.5FM): "The Funk Soul Brother Show" hosted by DJ Swanrock and "Hippa To Da Hoppa" hosted by Lachie Hilder


Television

The first appearance of an Australian hip hop act on Australian television was in November 1988, when Skippy The Butcher performed live on the ABC's "The Factory" during the Run DMC tour. The first Australian hip hop documentary, ''Basic Equipment'', was made in 1996 and released in 1997. Narrated by Paul Westgate (a.k.a. Sereck) from Def Wish Cast, the documentary examined the Sydney hip hop culture. It was created by
Paul Fenech Paul Fenech (born 21 November 1972) is an Australian filmmaker, film and television actor, director, producer and writer. He is best known for writing, directing, producing and starring in the television series ''Pizza Pizza (, ) is a ...
(creator of SBS' ''
Pizza Pizza (, ) is a Dish (food), dish of Italian cuisine, Italian origin consisting of a usually round, flat base of Leavening agent, leavened wheat-based dough topped with tomatoes, cheese, and often various other ingredients (such as various ...
'' series) and featured artists such as MC Trey, Def Wish Cast, DJ Bonez, DJ Ask. During the 1990s, SBS TV's '' MC Tee Vee,'' the first Australian dance music show became a hit. In 1992, following an invitation from Annette Shun Wah from the alternative arts show, ''The Noise'', MC Opi became the first hip hop artist to become a reporter and assistant producer for ''MC Tee Vee''. ''MC Tee Vee'' is notable for being the first national Australian music program dedicated to dance, rap and house music. In August 2006, the ABC program ''
Compass A compass is a device that shows the cardinal directions used for navigation and geographic orientation. It commonly consists of a magnetized needle or other element, such as a compass card or compass rose, which can pivot to align itself with ...
'' showed a documentary entitled ''The Mistery of Hip Hop'', which explored the cultural movement and popularity of hip hop in Australia. The film followed one of the "founding fathers" of the Sydney hip hop scene Matthew "Mistery" Peet. Mistery works full-time as
graffiti Graffiti (plural; singular ''graffiti'' or ''graffito'', the latter rarely used except in archeology) is art that is written, painted or drawn on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from s ...
artist and is also emcee/rapper in the group Brethren. The 28-minute documentary looked at the "four elements of hip hop":
breakdancing Breakdancing, also called breaking or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance originating from the African Americans, African American and Puerto Rican Americans, Puerto Rican communities in the United States. While diverse ...
,
DJing A disc jockey, more commonly abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays recorded music for an audience. Types of DJs include Radio personality, radio DJs (who host programs on music radio stations), club DJs (who work at a nightclub or music f ...
,
rapping Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular". It is performed or chanted, usually over a backing beat or musical accompaniment. The ...
, and graffiti. It features interviews with the then-host of Triple J's hip hop show Maya Jupiter, and the other half of Brethren: Wizdm and
DJ Kool Herc Clive Campbell (born April 16, 1955), better known by his stage name DJ Kool Herc, is a Jamaican-American disc jockey, DJ who is credited with contributing to the development of hip hop music in the Bronx, New York City, in the 1970s through hi ...
. In December 2007, ABC Television aired the documentary ''Words from the City'', which includes interviews with a number of high-profile Australian hip hop artists, including:
Hilltop Hoods Hilltop Hoods is an Australian hip hop group that formed in 1996 in Blackwood, South Australia, Blackwood, Adelaide, South Australia. They are regarded as pioneers of the "larrikin-like" style of Australian hip hop. The group was founded by Suff ...
,
Koolism ''Koolism'' is an Australian hip hop duo originating from Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The members are lyricist Hau Latukefu (born Langomi-e-Hau Latukefu, 1976, Queanbeyan, Australia) and producer/DJ/musician Danielsan Ichiban (born ...
, Downsyde,
TZU TZU (pronounced "Tee Zed Yoo") were an Australian hip hop group, formed in 1999 by Joelistics, Yeroc, Seed MC and Paso Bionic. They used instruments in live performances, giving their shows a rock-infused feeling. Duzy What joined in 2005. TZ ...
,
MC Layla Layla Rose Hanbury (born 5 October 1982), known mononymously A mononym is a name composed of only one word. An individual who is known and addressed by a mononym is a mononymous person. In some cases, a mononym selected by an individual may ha ...
, Bliss n Eso, MC Trey, Wire MC, and Jupiter.


Film

In 2004, independent film-maker Oriel Guthrie debuted her documentary "'' Skip Hop''" at the
Melbourne International Film Festival The Melbourne International Film Festival (MIFF) is an annual film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region. Increasingly, film f ...
(MIFF). The film includes live footage of freestyle battles and prominent gigs around Australia, as well as interviews with Def Wish Cast, DJ Peril,
Hilltop Hoods Hilltop Hoods is an Australian hip hop group that formed in 1996 in Blackwood, South Australia, Blackwood, Adelaide, South Australia. They are regarded as pioneers of the "larrikin-like" style of Australian hip hop. The group was founded by Suff ...
,
Koolism ''Koolism'' is an Australian hip hop duo originating from Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The members are lyricist Hau Latukefu (born Langomi-e-Hau Latukefu, 1976, Queanbeyan, Australia) and producer/DJ/musician Danielsan Ichiban (born ...
, Blades of Hades, Maya Jupiter, The Herd and Wicked Force Breakers. "Out4Fame presents 2003 MC Battle For Supremacy" was the first (documented) national MC tournament and was responsible for supporting the careers of many MCs across Australia. The following year, MCs were invited to enter the tournament for the chance to compete in New Zealand. MCs who have competed in Battle For Supremacy tournaments include
Weapon X Weapon X is a fictional clandestine government genetic research facility project appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. They are conducted by List of government agencies in Marvel Comics, Department K, which turns willing ...
, 360, Anecdote, Nfa, Justice, Dragonfly, Robby Bal Boa, Kaos, Tyna, Surreal, Cyphanetics, Delta. Guthrie also documented the 2004 and 2005 events and released them on DVDs. MC Justice went on to win 2005 "
Scribble Jam Scribble Jam was an annual hip hop music festival A music festival is a community event with performances of singing and instrument playing that is often presented with a theme such as musical genre A music genre is a conventional categor ...
MC Battle" in the US and is the first Australian to win the competition. In 2007 "Words from the City", a feature documentary on Australian Hip Hop culture from Writers/Directors Natasha Gadd and Rhys Graham was released by The Australian Film Commission and ABC TV. Focusing on the lyrical artistry of Australian Hip Hop, the film documented some of the countries foremost crews such as Hilltop Hoods, Bliss and Eso, and Koolism, as well up and coming artists TZU, Downsyde, Layla, Maya Jupiter, MC Trey, Nick Toth, and Wire MC. Words From The City was nominated for five AFI Awards for Best Documentary, Best Direction in Documentary, Best Cinematography in Documentary, Best Editing in Documentary, and Best Sound in Documentary.


Publications

One of the oldest hip hop magazines in the world, ''Vapors'', is an Australian publication and is produced by Blaze. '' Stealth Magazine'' debuted in 1999 and was distributed worldwide via
Tower Records Tower Records is an international retail franchising, franchise and online music store that was formerly based in Sacramento, California, United States. From 1960 until 2006, Tower operated retail stores in the United States, which closed when ...
. Notable
zines A zine ( ; short for ''magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication, generally published on a regular schedule (often weekly or monthly), containing a variety of content (media), content. They are generally finan ...
include ''Hype'', ''Zest'', ''Raptanite'', ''Arfek'', ''Damn Kids'', ''Artillery'', ''Blitzkrieg'' and ''Slingshot''. Following the popular ''Out4Fame: Battle For Supremacy'' tournaments, ''Out4Fame Magazine'' was launched as a free publication. ''Out4Fame Magazine'' was later relaunched as ''Out4Fame presents ACCLAIM Magazine'', which then became ''ACCLAIM Magazine''. ''ACCLAIM Magazine'' is distributed throughout Australia, as well as other countries including New Zealand, Singapore and the UK.


Rap in Australian politics

The earliest political discussion of hip hop in Australia questioned whether controversial rappers from overseas should be permitted to enter and perform in the country, as was the case with
Eminem Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), known professionally as Eminem (; often stylized as EMINƎM), is an American rapper and record producer. He is credited with popularizing hip hop in middle America and is critically acclai ...
in 2001. Australian hip hop artists have since used their platform to make political statements and drive political change; Urthboy and Thundamentals are among those whose lyrics often highlight and denounce inequality.
TZU TZU (pronounced "Tee Zed Yoo") were an Australian hip hop group, formed in 1999 by Joelistics, Yeroc, Seed MC and Paso Bionic. They used instruments in live performances, giving their shows a rock-infused feeling. Duzy What joined in 2005. TZ ...
and Quro both released music critical of the Howard Government, self-evident in the lyrics of "Recoil" and "Goodnight Mr. Howard" respectively. The latter release also featured the then Prime Minister on the cover. A.B. Original, the collaboration between Indigenous rappers Briggs and Trials, was crucial to initiating debate on changing the date of
Australia Day Australia Day is the official national day of Australia. Observed annually on 26 January, it marks the 1788 landing of the First Fleet at Sydney Cove and raising of the Flag of Great Britain, Union Flag by Arthur Phillip following days of ex ...
, particularly with their critical 2016 single "26 January". While professional musicians have gone on to enter Australian politics, most notably
Midnight Oil Midnight Oil (known informally as "The Oils") are an Australian rock band composed of Peter Garrett (vocals, harmonica), Rob Hirst (drums), Jim Moginie (guitar, keyboard) and Martin Rotsey (guitar). The group was formed in Sydney Syd ...
frontman
Peter Garrett Peter Robert Garrett (born 16 April 1953) is an Australian musician, environmentalist, activist and former politician. In 1973, Garrett became the lead singer of the Australian rock band Midnight Oil. As a performer he is known for his sign ...
, no hip hop artist has done so, although Briggs appeared to launch a campaign to enter
Parliament In modern politics, and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws, and overseeing ...
in 2018, and has been since referred to himself as Senator Briggs in jest. Elected politicians in Australia have also attempted to utilise rapping to reach a younger audience. In 2012, two Labor Party cabinet members in the Gillard Government briefly delivered original policy-related lyrics backed by music: Trade Minister
Craig Emerson Craig Anthony Emerson (born 15 November 1954) is an Australian economist and former Australian Labor Party politician. He served as the Australian House of Representatives Member for the Division of Rankin in Queensland from 1998 until 2013. E ...
commented on the
carbon tax A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon emissions required to produce goods and services. Carbon taxes are intended to make visible the "hidden" Social cost of carbon, social costs of carbon emissions, which are otherwise felt only in indire ...
by performing an adapted version of the chorus of rock song "
Horror Movie Horror is a film genre that seeks to elicit fear or disgust in its audience for entertainment purposes. Horror films often explore dark subject matter and may deal with Transgressive art, transgressive topics or themes. Broad elements includ ...
", referred to by some as the "No
Whyalla Whyalla was founded as "Hummocks Hill", and was known by that name until 1916. It is the fourth most populous city in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (commonly abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Aust ...
Wipeout" rap; while Arts Minister
Simon Crean Simon Findlay Crean (born 26 February 1949) is an Australian politician and trade unionist. He was the Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative in parliament of the people who live in their electoral district. ...
marked a visit to a
Parramatta Parramatta () is a suburb and major Central business district, commercial centre in Greater Western Sydney, located in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately west of the Sydney central business district on the ban ...
arts centre by recording rhyming lines in a duet with sound artist Tokyo Love-In over the beat of "
Ice Ice Baby "Ice Ice Baby" is a Hip hop music, hip hop song by American Rapping, rapper Vanilla Ice, K. Kennedy and DJ Earthquake. It was based on the bassline of the song "Under Pressure" by British Rock music, rock band Queen (band), Queen and British si ...
". Greens Senator Scott Ludlam appeared in the 2014 G20 Brisbane summit episode of ''
Juice Rap News ''Juice Rap News'' is an internet based satirical news show, created in Melbourne by The Juice Media. The show was the creation of a duo, Hugo Farrant and Giordano Nanni, based in Australia and consists of a rapped "news report" with social comm ...
'', rapping ten lines criticising the Abbott Government's mandatory data retention law. The performance of American rapper
Macklemore Benjamin Hammond Haggerty (born June 19, 1983), better known by his stage name Macklemore ( ; (formerly Professor Macklemore), is an American rapper and songwriter. A native of Seattle, Washington, he has collaborated with producer Ryan Lewi ...
at the October 2017 NRL Grand Final became a topic of political discussion, due to its inclusion of " Same Love" at a time when Australians were voting on whether same-sex marriage should be legalised. Prime Minister
Malcolm Turnbull Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian former politician and businessman who served as the 29th prime minister of Australia from 2015 to 2018. He held office as leader of the Liberal Party of Australia. Turnbull grad ...
was interviewed on '' The Project'' several days before the performance. When asked about his favourite hip hop artist, Prime Minister Turnbull initially claimed that he was "still grieving for
Tupac Tupac Amaru Shakur ( ; born Lesane Parish Crooks, June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996), also known as 2Pac and Makaveli, was an American rapper. He is widely considered one of the most influential rappers of all time. Shakur is among the Li ...
", later confessing that he finds much of hip hop music to sound the same. He then surprised the hosts by offering to rap, reciting two sport-related lines without backing music: " Waleed, you're the man, you're the
Tigers The tiger (''Panthera tigris'') is the largest living cat The cat (''Felis catus'') is a Domestication of the cat, domestic species of small carnivorous mammal. It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and is commo ...
fan / You can talk, the
Crows The Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) is a series of remote weapon station A remote controlled weapon station (RCWS), or remote weapon station (RWS), also known as a remote weapon system (RWS), is a remotely operated weaponized ...
can squawk". A few days later, Opposition Leader
Bill Shorten William Richard Shorten (born 12 May 1967) is an Australian politician currently serving as Minister for Government Services and Minister for the National Disability Insurance Scheme since 2022. He previously served as Leader of the Opposition ( ...
appeared on '' Fitzy and Wippa'' in a
rap battle Battle rap (also known as rap battling)Edwards, Paul, 2009, p. 25. is a type of rapping performed between two or more performers that incorporates boasts, insults and wordplay. Battle rap is often performed or freestyle rap, freestyled spontane ...
segment, rapping twelve lines over the instrumental of
50 Cent Curtis James Jackson III (born July 6, 1975), known professionally as 50 Cent, is an American rapper, actor, and businessman. Born in the South Jamaica, Queens, South Jamaica neighborhood of Queens, Jackson began pursuing a musical career in ...
's "
In da Club "In da Club" is a song by American rapper 50 Cent Curtis James Jackson III (born July 6, 1975), known professionally as 50 Cent, is an American rapper, actor, and businessman. Born in the South Jamaica, Queens, South Jamaica neighborhoo ...
" and concluding his verse by dabbing. While Shorten's opponents at the rap battle were radio hosts Ryan Fitzgerald and Ray Hadley, several of his lines were directed at Turnbull, such as "Our economy’s in debt but Malcolm’s just chillin' / Hey Malcolm, can you lend us a couple of million?". In the
2018 South Australian state election The 2018 South Australian state election to elect members to the 54th Parliament of South Australia was held on 17 March 2018. All 47 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly, House of Assembly or lower house, whose members were elected at ...
campaign, former Senator
Nick Xenophon Nick Xenophon ( Nicholas Xenophou; born 29 January 1959) is an Australian politician and lawyer who was a Australian Senate, Senator for South Australia from 2008 to 2017. He was the leader of two political parties: Centre Alliance, Nick Xenoph ...
released a two-minute musical advertisement for his newly formed
SA-Best SA-Best (stylised SA-BEST), formerly known as Nick Xenophon's SA-BEST, is a political party in South Australia. It was founded in 2017 by Nick Xenophon as a state-based partner to his Nick Xenophon Team party (renamed to Centre Alliance in early ...
party, centred upon himself rapping his party's concerns and policies for South Australia. In 2021, Deputy Prime Minister Michael McCormack briefly accepted an invitation to rap by
David Koch David Hamilton Koch ( ; May 3, 1940 – August 23, 2019) was an American businessman, political activist, philanthropist, and chemical engineer. In 1970, he joined the family business: Koch Industries, the second largest privately held ...
on ''
Sunrise Sunrise (or sunup) is the moment when the upper rim of the Sun appears on the horizon in the morning. The term can also refer to the entire process of the solar disk crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric optics, atmospheric effec ...
''. Having been made aware of a hip-hop music video promoting
COVID-19 vaccine A COVID19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19). Prior to the COVID19 pandemic, an esta ...
s in
Sichuan Sichuan (; zh, c=, labels=no, ; zh, p=Sìchuān; Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan; formerly also referred to as "West China" or "Western China" by Protestantism in Sichuan, Protestant missions) is a Prov ...
, McCormack stated "You know, you know, make sure you get the jab, you know" whilst dancing awkwardly.


Record labels

* House of Beige – Melbourne based label founded by artist Remi and producer Sensible J; other artists include Nfa Jones, Syreneyiscreamy and Man Made Mountain * Obese Records—their CEO is MC Pegz; artists include Thundamentals,
Illy Illycaffè S.p.A. (branded and stylised as illy) is an Italian coffee company specializing in espresso Espresso (, ) is a coffee-brewing method of Italian cuisine, Italian origin, in which a small amount of nearly boiling water (about ) i ...
, Dialectrix, Kerser and
M-Phazes Mark Landon (born 1 February 1983), better known by his stage name A stage name is a pseudonym A pseudonym (; ) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original ...
* CMDG—their CEO is Jelal Edmonds ( Lazy J); artists include Lazy J & Big Guy, and producers include Rockstarr Mechnnix * Basic Equipment—co-run by Sereck of Def Wish Cast; artists include Def Wish Cast * Crookneck Records—Melbourne-based label; artists include A-Love, Mnemonic Ascent, Lazy Grey and DJ Ransom *
Elefant Traks Elefant Traks is a record label based in Sydney, Australia, that predominantly releases Australian hip hop music. The label is distributed in Australia by Inertia Distribution. History 1998–2008: Formation, The Herd, Urthboy, Horrorshow Elef ...
—run by members of The Herd; artists include Urthboy, Astronomy Class,
Hermitude Hermitude is an Australian electronic music, electronic-Australian hip hop, hip hop duo, originating from the Blue Mountains (Australia), Blue Mountains, New South Wales. Biography Early years and ''Explanetary'' Multi-instrumentalists, Luke ...
, The Herd and Horrorshow * Golden Era Records—a label established by
Hilltop Hoods Hilltop Hoods is an Australian hip hop group that formed in 1996 in Blackwood, South Australia, Blackwood, Adelaide, South Australia. They are regarded as pioneers of the "larrikin-like" style of Australian hip hop. The group was founded by Suff ...
in 2008; artists include Hilltop Hoods, Vents, Funkoars and Briggs. * Hydrofunk Records—run by members of the
Resin Dogs Resin Dogs is an Australian hip hop group, formed in Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital and most populous city of the states and territories of Australia, Australian state of Queensland, and the list of cities in Australia by population, ...
; artists include Resin Dogs and Def Wish Cast. * IF? Records—originally Melbourne-based, now in
Tokyo Tokyo (; ja, 東京, , ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis ( ja, 東京都, label=none, ), is the capital and List of cities in Japan, largest city of Japan. Formerly known as Edo, its metropolitan area () is the most populous in the world, ...
; artists include Zen Paradox and Little Nobody. * I Forget, Sorry!—established in Sydney, the roster includes Mind Over Matter, Chris Romeo, Chance Waters (formerly known as Phatchance), Coptic Soldier, Johnny Utah and Smiles Again. * Inavada Records—established in Sydney in 2002; artists include Fdel,
Koolism ''Koolism'' is an Australian hip hop duo originating from Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The members are lyricist Hau Latukefu (born Langomi-e-Hau Latukefu, 1976, Queanbeyan, Australia) and producer/DJ/musician Danielsan Ichiban (born ...
, Katalyst and Flow Dynamics. * Illusive Sounds—Melbourne-based recording label formed in February 2003; artists include Bliss n Eso, Downsyde, Diafrix, Weapon X and Ken Hell. * Krosswerdz Recordings—artists include Mistery and Wizdm from Brethren also includes Dean DVS G. and Oakbridge. * Marlin Records—Melbourne-based recording label; artists include
Phrase In syntax and grammar, a phrase is a group of words or singular word acting as a grammatical unit. For instance, the English language, English expression "the very happy squirrel" is a noun phrase which contains the adjective phrase "very happy". ...
and Daniel Merriweather. * Method Recordings—Melbourne label, part of the Shock Records group; artists include Illzilla, The Last Kinection, Elf Tranzporter, Hykoo, Infallible. * Nurcha Records (now defunct)—founded by Shrekk in 2005, the label was based in Sydney until it closed in January 2009. The artist roster included
Mind Over Matter "Mind over matter" is a phrase that has been used in several contexts, such as mind-centric spirituality, spiritual doctrines, parapsychology, and philosophy. Merriam Webster Dictionary defines mind as "the element or complex of elements in an ...
, Last Credit, Phatchance, Coptic Soldier, Double & Big Lu, and Natural Causes. * Nuffsaid Records—Prowla, Mc Que, Menace, Dedlee, Raise, and Delta. * Payback Records—Melbourne-based label founded by Nathan Lovett-Murray and Cappa Atkinson. Artists include Tjimba and the Yung Warriors, Little G and Mr Morggs. * Soulmate Records—Melbourne-based label with a roster consisting of emcee's: 360,
Pez Pez (, ; stylised as PEZ) is the brand name of an Austrian candy and associated manual candy dispensers. The candy is a tableting, pressed, dry, straight-edged, curved-corner block 15 mm ( inch) long, 8 mm ( inch) wide and ...
,
Syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the study of how words and morphemes combine to form larger units such as phrases and sentence (linguistics), sentences. Central concerns of syntax include word order, grammatical relations, hierarchical sentence st ...
and producers: Stat D and Ante Escobar. * Unda K9 Records—established in Sydney, founded by Lui in 2002; artists include Bukkcity, Tycotic, 13th Son, Syntax, DirtBox Kings, Herb and DJ Crusador.


See also

*
Alternative hip hop Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a subgenre of hip hop music that encompasses a wide range of styles that are not typically identified as mainstream. AllMusic defines it as comprising "Hip hop music, hip hop groups that ref ...
*
Gangsta Rap Gangsta rap or gangster rap, initially called reality rap, emerged in the mid- to late 1980s as a controversial hip-hop subgenre whose lyrics assert the culture and values typical of American street gangs and street hustlers. Many gangsta rappe ...
*
Music of Australia The music of Australia has an extensive history made of music societies. Indigenous Australian music forms a significant part of the unique heritage of a 40,000- to 60,000-year history which produced the iconic didgeridoo. Contemporary fusions of ...
*
Political hip hop Political hip hop is a subgenre of hip hop music that was developed in the 1980s as a way of turning hip hop into a call for political and/or social action and a form of social and/or political activism. Inspired by 1970s political artists suc ...
* Grime (music genre)#Australian grime *
British hip hop British hip hop, also known as UK hip hop or UK rap, is a music genre, genre of music, and a culture that covers a variety of styles of hip hop music made in the United Kingdom. It is generally classified as one of a number of styles of urban mu ...
* New Zealand hip hop


References


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Australian Hip Hop