Name and spellingIn standard , the word " " is spelled with a ''u''. However, the political party uses the spelling "Labor", without a ''u''. There was originally no standardised spelling of the party's name, with "Labor" and "Labour" both in common usage. According to Ross McMullin, who wrote an official history of the Labor Party, the title page of the proceedings of Federal Conference used the spelling "Labor" in 1902, "Labour" in 1905 and 1908, and then "Labor" from 1912 onwards. In 1908, put forward a motion at Federal Conference that "the name of the party be the Australian Labour Party", which was carried by 22 votes to two. A separate motion recommending state branches to adopt the name was defeated. There was no uniformity of party names until 1918, when Federal Conference resolved that state branches should adopt the name "Australian Labor Party", now spelled without a ''u''. Each state branch had previously used a different name, due to their different origins. Despite the ALP officially adopting the spelling without a ''u'', it took decades for the official spelling to achieve widespread acceptance. According to McMullin, "the way the spelling of 'Labor Party' was consolidated had more to do with the chap who ended up being in charge of printing the federal conference report than any other reason". Some sources have attributed the official choice of "Labor" to influence from , who was born in the United States and was reputedly an advocate of ; the spelling without a ''u'' is the standard form in . It has been suggested that the adoption of the spelling without a ''u'' "signified one of the ALP's earliest attempts at modernisation", and served the purpose of differentiating the party from the as a whole and distinguishing it from other British Empire labour parties. The decision to include the word "Australian" in the party's name, rather than just " " as in the United Kingdom, has been attributed to "the greater importance of nationalism for the founders of the colonial parties".
HistoryThe Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree (the " Tree of Knowledge") in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891. The 1891 shearers' strike is credited as being one of the factors for the formation of the Australian Labor Party. On the 9 September 1892 the ''Manifesto of the Queensland Labour Party'' was read out under the well known Tree of Knowledge at Barcaldine following the Great Shearers' Strike. The now holds the manifesto, in 2008 the historic document was added to UNESCO's Memory of the World Australian Register and in 2009, the document was added to UNESCO's Memory of the World International Register. The Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in and , 1893 in Queensland, and later in the other colonies. The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates (then called the Labor Electoral League of New South Wales) won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the and parties and Labour held the balance of power. It offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions. The United Labor Party (ULP) of South Australia was founded in 1891, and three candidates were that year elected to the . The first successful candidate was at the 1892 East Adelaide by-election. Richard Hooper however was elected as an Independent Labor candidate at the 1891 Wallaroo by-election, while he was the first "labor" member of the House of Assembly he was not a member of the newly formed ULP. At the 1893 South Australian elections the ULP was immediately elevated to balance of power status with 10 of 54 lower house seats. The liberal government of was formed with the support of the ULP, ousting the conservative government of . So successful, less than a decade later at the 1905 state election, formed the world's first stable Labor government. led Labor to form the state's first of many s at the 1910 state election. In 1899, formed a minority Labour government in , the first in the world, which lasted one week while the regrouped after a split. The colonial Labour parties and the trade unions were mixed in their support for the . Some Labour representatives argued against the proposed constitution, claiming that the Senate as proposed was too powerful, similar to the anti-reformist colonial upper houses and the . They feared that federation would further entrench the power of the conservative forces. However, the first Labour leader and Prime Minister was a supporter of federation. Historian Celia Hamilton, examining New South Wales, argues for the central role of Irish Catholics. Before 1890, they opposed Henry Parkes, the main Liberal leader, and of free trade, seeing them both as the ideals of Protestant Englishmen who represented landholding and large business interests. In the strike of 1890 the leading Catholic, Sydney's Archbishop was sympathetic toward unions, but Catholic newspapers were negative. After 1900, says Hamilton, Irish Catholics were drawn to the Labour Party because its stress on equality and social welfare fitted with their status as manual labourers and small farmers. In the 1910 elections Labour gained in the more Catholic areas and the representation of Catholics increased in Labour's parliamentary ranks.
Early decades at the federal levelThe federal parliament in 1901 was contested by each state Labour Party. In total, they won 14 of the 75 seats in the House of Representatives, collectively holding the balance of power, and the Labour members now met as the Federal Parliamentary Labour Party (informally known as the ) on 8 May 1901 at , the meeting place of the first federal Parliament. The caucus decided to support the incumbent in , while the formed the . It was some years before there was any significant structure or organisation at a national level. Labour under doubled its vote at the 1903 federal election and continued to hold the balance of power. In April 1904, however, Watson and fell out over the issue of extending the scope of industrial relations laws concerning the and Bill to cover state public servants, the fallout causing Deakin to resign. Free Trade leader declined to take office, which saw Watson become the first Labour , and the world's first Labour head of government at a national level ( had led a short-lived Labour government in Queensland in December 1899), though his was a that lasted only four months. He was aged only 37, and is still the youngest Prime Minister in Australia's history. George Reid of the adopted a strategy of trying to reorient the party system along Labour vs. non-Labour lines prior to the 1906 federal election and renamed his Free Trade Party to the Anti-Socialist Party. Reid envisaged a spectrum running from socialist to anti-socialist, with the in the middle. This attempt struck a chord with politicians who were steeped in the Westminster tradition and regarded a as very much the norm. Although Watson further strengthened Labour's position in 1906, he stepped down from the leadership the following year, to be succeeded by who formed a minority government lasting seven months from late 1908 to mid 1909. At the 1910 federal election, Fisher led Labor to victory, forming Australia's first elected federal , Australia's first elected majority, the world's first majority government at a national level, and after the 1904 minority government the world's second Labour Party government at a national level. It was the first time a Labour Party had controlled any house of a legislature, and the first time the party controlled both houses of a bicameral legislature. The state branches were also successful, except in , where the strength of liberalism inhibited the party's growth. The state branches formed their first majority governments in and in 1910, in 1911, in 1915 and in 1925. Such success eluded equivalent social democratic and labour parties in other countries for many years. Analysis of the early NSW Labor caucus reveals "a band of unhappy amateurs", made up of blue collar workers, a squatter, a doctor, and even a mine owner, indicating that the idea that only the socialist working class formed Labor is untrue. In addition, many members from the working class supported the liberal notion of free trade between the colonies; in the first grouping of state MPs, 17 of the 35 were free-traders. In the aftermath of and the of 1917, support for socialism grew in trade union ranks, and at the 1921 All-Australian Trades Union Congress a resolution was passed calling for "the socialisation of industry, production, distribution and exchange." The 1922 Labor Party National Conference adopted a similarly worded "socialist objective," which remained official policy for many years. The resolution was immediately qualified, however, by the " amendment," which said that "socialisation" was desirable only when was necessary to "eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features." In practice the socialist objective was a dead letter. Only once has a federal Labor government attempted to nationalise any industry ( 's bank nationalisation of 1947), and that was held by the to be unconstitutional. The commitment to nationalisation was dropped by , and 's government carried out many free market reforms including the floating of the dollar and of state enterprises such as airways and the . The Labor Party is commonly described as a party, and its constitution stipulates that it is a party. The party was created by, and has always been influenced by, the trade unions, and in practice its policy at any given time has usually been the policy of the broader labour movement. Thus at the first federal election 1901 Labor's platform called for a , a citizen army and compulsory arbitration of industrial disputes. Labor has at various times supported high s and low tariffs, and , White Australia and , and , and internationalism. Historically, Labor and its affiliated unions were strong defenders of the White Australia policy, which banned all non-European migration to Australia. This policy was partly motivated by 19th century theories about " " and by fears of economic competition from low-wage overseas workers which was shared by the vast majority of Australians and all major political parties. In practice the Labor party opposed all migration, on the grounds that immigrants competed with Australian workers and drove down wages, until after , when the launched a major immigration program. The party's opposition to non-European immigration did not change until after the retirement of as leader in 1967. Subsequently, Labor has become an advocate of , although some of its trade union base and some of its members continue to oppose high immigration levels.
World War II and beyondThe Curtin and Chifley governments governed Australia through the latter half of the and initial stages of transition to peace. Labor leader became prime minister in October 1941 when two independents crossed the floor of Parliament. Labor, led by Curtin, then led Australia through the years of the . In December 1941, Curtin announced that "Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom", thus helping to establish the Australian-American alliance (later formalised as ANZUS by the Menzies Government (1949–66), Menzies Government). Remembered as a strong war time leader and for a landslide win at the 1943 Australian federal election, 1943 federal election, Curtin died in office just prior to the end of the war and was succeeded by . Chifley Labor won the 1946 Australian federal election, 1946 federal election and oversaw Australia's initial transition to a peacetime economy. Labor was defeated at the 1949 Australian federal election, 1949 federal election. At the conference of the New South Wales Labor Party in June 1949, Chifley sought to define the labour movement as follows: "We have a great objective – the light on the hill – which we aim to reach by working for the betterment of mankind. [...] [Labor would] bring something better to the people, better standards of living, greater happiness to the mass of the people." To a large extent, Chifley saw centralisation of the economy as the means to achieve such ambitions. With an increasingly uncertain economic outlook, after his attempt to nationalise the banks and a strike by the Communist-dominated Australian Coal and Shale Employees' Federation, Miners' Federation, Chifley lost office in 1949 to Robert Menzies' Liberal-National Coalition. Labor commenced a 23-year period in opposition. The party was primarily led during this time by H. V. Evatt and . Various ideological beliefs were factionalised under reforms to the ALP under , resulting in what is now known as the Labor Left, Socialist Left who tend to favour a more interventionist economic policy and more progressivism, socially progressive ideals, and Labor Right, the now dominant faction that tends to be more economically liberal and focus to a lesser extent on social issues. The Whitlam Labor government, marking a break with Labor's socialist tradition, pursued policies rather than democratic socialist policies. In contrast to earlier Labor leaders, Whitlam also cut s by 25 percent. Whitlam led the Federal Labor Party back to office at the 1972 Australian federal election, 1972 and 1974 Australian federal election, 1974 federal elections, and passed a large amount of legislation. The Whitlam Government lost office following the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis and dismissal by Governor-General of Australia, Governor-General John Kerr (governor-general), John Kerr after the Coalition blocked Loss of supply, supply in the Senate after a series of political scandals, and was defeated at the 1975 Australian federal election, 1975 federal election. Whitlam remains the only Prime Minister to have his commission terminated in that manner. Whitlam also lost the 1977 Australian federal election, 1977 federal election and subsequently resigned as leader. Bill Hayden succeeded Whitlam as leader in the 1980 Australian federal election, 1980 federal election the party managed to gain more seats however they still lost. In 1983, became leader of the party after Hayden resigned to avoid a leadership spill. led Labor back to office at the 1983 Australian federal election, 1983 federal election and the party won 4 elections under Hawke. In December 1991 Paul Keating defeated Bob Hawke in a leadership spill. The Party then won the 1993 Australian federal election, 1993 federal election. The Hawke–Keating Government was in power for 13 years with 5 terms until defeated by John Howard at the 1996 Australian federal election, 1996 federal election. This was the longest period the party was in Government. Kim Beazley led the party to the 1998 Australian federal election, 1998 federal election, winning 51 percent of the two-party-preferred vote but falling short on seats, and lost ground at the 2001 Australian federal election, 2001 federal election. Mark Latham led Labor to the 2004 Australian federal election, 2004 federal election but lost further ground. Beazley replaced Latham in 2005. Beazley in turn was challenged by Kevin Rudd. Rudd went on to defeat John Howard at the 2007 Australian federal election, 2007 federal election with 52.7 percent of the two-party vote. The Rudd Government (2007–2010), Rudd Government ended prior to the 2010 Australian federal election, 2010 federal election with the replacement of Rudd as leader of the Party by deputy leader Julia Gillard. The Gillard Government was commissioned to govern in a hung parliament following the election with a one-seat parliamentary majority and 50.12 percent of the two-party vote. The Gillard government lasted until 2013 when Gillard lost a leadership spill with Rudd becoming leader once again. The party subsequently lost the 2013 Australian federal election, 2013 federal election. After the 2013 election, Rudd resigned as leader and Bill Shorten became leader of the party. The party narrowly lost the 2016 Australian federal election, 2016 federal election however it gained 14 seats and was 7 seats away from majority Government. It remained in opposition after the 2019 Australian federal election, 2019 federal election despite having been ahead in opinion polls for 2 years. The party lost some of the seats it had gained at the previous election. After the 2019 election, Shorten stood down as leader. Anthony Albanese was elected as leader unopposed. Between the 2007 federal election and the 2008 Western Australian state election, Labor was in government nationally and in all eight state and territory legislatures. This was the first time any single party or any coalition had achieved this since the ACT and the NT gained self-government. Labor narrowly lost government in Western Australia at the 2008 state election and Victoria at the 2010 Victorian state election, 2010 state election. These losses were further compounded by landslide defeats in New South Wales in 2011 New South Wales state election, 2011, Queensland in 2012 Queensland state election, 2012, the Northern Territory in 2012 Northern Territory general election, 2012, Federally in 2013 Australian federal election, 2013 and Tasmania in 2014 Tasmanian state election, 2014. Labor secured a good result in the Australian Capital Territory in 2012 Australian Capital Territory general election, 2012 and, despite losing its majority, the party retained government in South Australia in 2014 South Australian state election, 2014. However, most of these reversals proved only temporary with Labor returning to government in Victoria in 2014 Victorian state election, 2014 and in Queensland in 2015 Queensland state election, 2015 after spending only one term in opposition in both states. Furthermore, after winning the 2014 Fisher state by-election, 2014 Fisher by-election by nine votes from a 7.3 percent swing, the Labor government in South Australia went from minority to majority government. Labor won landslide victories in the 2016 Northern Territory general election, 2016 Northern Territory election, the 2017 Western Australian state election, 2017 Western Australian election and the 2018 Victorian state election. However, Labor lost the 2018 South Australian state election after 16 years in government. Despite favourable polling, the party also did not return to government in the 2019 New South Wales state election or the 2019 federal election. The latter has been considered a historic upset due to Labor's consistent and significant polling lead; the result has been likened to the Coalition's loss in the 1993 federal election, with 2019 retrospectively referred to as "unloseable election".
National platformThe policy of the Australian Labor Party is contained in its National Platform, which is approved by delegates to Labor's National Conference, held every three years. According to the Labor Party's website, "The Platform is the result of a rigorous and constructive process of consultation, spanning the nation and including the cooperation and input of state and territory policy committees, local branches, unions, state and territory governments, and individual Party members. The Platform provides the policy foundation from which we can continue to work towards the election of a federal Labor Government." The platform gives a general indication of the policy direction which a future Labor government would follow, but does not commit the party to specific policies. It maintains that "Labor's traditional values will remain a constant on which all Australians can rely." While making it clear that Labor is fully committed to a market economy, it says that: "Labor believes in a strong role for national government – the one institution all Australians truly own and control through our right to vote." Labor "will not allow the benefits of change to be concentrated in fewer and fewer hands, or located only in privileged communities. The benefits must be shared by all Australians and all our regions." The platform and Labor "believe that all people are created equal in their entitlement to dignity and respect, and should have an equal chance to achieve their potential." For Labor, "government has a critical role in ensuring fairness by: ensuring equal opportunity; removing unjustifiable discrimination; and achieving a more equitable distribution of wealth, income and status." Further sections of the platform stress Labor's support for equality and human rights, labour rights and democracy. In practice, the platform provides only general policy guidelines to Labor's federal, state and territory parliamentary leaderships. The policy Labor takes into an election campaign is determined by the Cabinet (if the party is in office) or the Shadow Cabinet (if it is in opposition), in consultation with key interest groups within the party, and is contained in the parliamentary Leader's policy speech delivered during the election campaign. When Labor is in office, the policies it implements are determined by the Cabinet, subject to the platform. Generally, it is accepted that while the platform binds Labor governments, how and when it is implemented remains the prerogative of the parliamentary caucus. It is now rare for the platform to conflict with government policy, as the content of the platform is usually developed in close collaboration with the party's parliamentary leadership as well as the factions. However, where there is a direct contradiction with the platform, Labor governments have sought to change the platform as a prerequisite for a change in policy. For example, privatisation legislation under the Hawke government occurred only after holding a special national conference to debate changing the platform.
National executive and secretariatThe Australian Labor Party National Executive is the party's chief administrative authority, subject only to Labor's Australian Labor Party National Conference, national conference. The executive is responsible for organising the triennial national conference; carrying out the decisions of the conference; interpreting the national constitution, the national platform and decisions of the national conference; and directing federal members. The party holds a national conference every three years, which consists of delegates representing the state and territory branches (many coming from affiliated trade unions, although there is no formal requirement for unions to be represented at the national conference). The national conference decides the party's platform, elects the national executive and appoints office-bearers such as the national secretary, who also serves as national campaign director during elections. The current national secretary is Paul Erickson (trade unionist), Paul Erickson. The most recent national conference was the 48th conference held in December 2018. The head office of the ALP, the national secretariat, is managed by the national secretary. It plays a dual role of administration and a national campaign strategy. It acts as a permanent secretariat to the national executive by managing and assisting in all administrative affairs of the party. As the national secretary also serves as national campaign director during elections, it is also responsible for the national campaign strategy and organisation.
Federal Parliamentary Labor PartyThe elected members of the Labor party in both houses of the national Parliament meet as the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party, also known as the Australian Labor Party Caucus (see also Caucus#Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, caucus). Besides discussing parliamentary business and tactics, the Caucus also is involved in the election of the federal parliamentary leaders.
Federal parliamentary leadersUntil 2013, the parliamentary leaders were elected by the Caucus from among its members. The leader has historically been a member of the House of Representatives. Since October 2013, a ballot of both the Caucus and by the Labor Party's rank-and-file members determined the party leader and the deputy leader. When the Labor Party is in government, the party leader is the Prime Minister of Australia, Prime Minister and the deputy leader is the Deputy Prime Minister of Australia, Deputy Prime Minister. If a Labor prime minister resigns or dies in office, the deputy leader acts as prime minister and party leader until a successor is elected. The deputy prime minister also acts as prime minister when the prime minister is on leave or out of the country. Members of the Ministry are also chosen by Caucus, though the leader may allocate portfolios to the ministers. Anthony Albanese is the leader of the federal Labor party, serving since 30 May 2019. The deputy leader is Richard Marles, also serving since 30 May 2019.
State and territory branchesThe Australian Labor Party is a federal party, consisting of eight branches from each state and territory. While the National Executive is responsible for national campaign strategy, each state and territory are an autonomous branch and are responsible for campaigning in their own jurisdictions for federal, state and local elections. State and territory branches consist of both individual members and affiliated trade unions, who between them decide the party's policies, elect its governing bodies and choose its candidates for public office. Members join a state branch and pay a membership fee, which is graduated according to income. The majority of Australian labour movement, trade unions in Australia are affiliated to the party at a state level. Union affiliation is direct and not through the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Affiliated unions pay an affiliation fee based on the size of their membership. Union affiliation fees make up a large part of the party's income. Other sources of funds for the party include political funding in Australia, political donations, Elections in Australia#Public funding, public funding and the Chinese Communist Party, via its Old Communist Cadres Activity Centre in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China. Members are generally expected to attend at least one meeting of their local branch each year, although there are differences in the rules from state to state. In practice only a dedicated minority regularly attend meetings. Many members are only active during election campaigns. The members and unions elect delegates to state and territory conferences (usually held annually, although more frequent conferences are often held). These conferences decide policy, and elect state or territory executives, a state or territory president (an honorary position usually held for a one-year term), and a state or territory secretary (a full-time professional position). However, Australian Labor Party (Australian Capital Territory Branch), ACT Labor directly elects its president. The larger branches also have full-time assistant secretaries and organisers. In the past the ratio of conference delegates coming from the branches and affiliated unions has varied from state to state, however under recent national reforms at least 50% of delegates at all state and territory conferences must be elected by branches. In some states it also contests local government elections or endorses local candidates. In others it does not, preferring to allow its members to run as non-endorsed candidates. The process of choosing candidates is called preselection. Candidates are preselected by different methods in the various states and territories. In some they are chosen by ballots of all party members, in others by panels or committees elected by the state conference, in still others by a combination of these two. The state and territory Labor branches are the following:
Country LaborCountry Labor is a subsection of the ALP, and is used as a designation by candidates contesting elections in rural areas. The Country Labor Party is registered as a separate party in New South Wales, and is also registered with the Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) for federal elections.Current register of political parties
Australian Young LaborAustralian Young Labor is the youth wing of the Australian Labor Party, where all members under age 26 are automatically members. It is the peak youth body within the ALP. Former presidents of AYL have included former NSW Premier Bob Carr, Federal Manager of Opposition Business Tony Burke, former Special Minister of State Senator John Faulkner, former Australian Workers Union National Secretary, current Member for Maribyrnong and former Federal Labor Leader Bill Shorten as well as dozens of State Ministers and MPs. The current National President is Jason Byrne from South Australia.
NetworksThe Australian Labor Party is beginning to formally recognise single interest groups within the party. The national platform currently encourages state branches to formally establish these groups known as policy action caucuses. Examples of such groups include the Labor Environment Action Network, Rainbow Labor, and Labor for Refugees. The Tasmanian Branch of the Australian Labor Party recently gave these groups voting and speaking rights at their state conference.
Ideology and factionsLabor's constitution has long stated: "The Australian Labor Party is a Democratic socialism, democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic Social ownership, socialisation of industry, production, distribution and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields".Wright, George (3 December 2011)
FactionsThe Labor Party has always had a left wing and a right wing, but since the 1970s it has been organised into formal factions, to which party members may belong and often pay an additional membership fee. The two largest factions are Labor Right and Labor Left. Labor Right generally supports free-market policies and the US alliance and tends to be conservative on some social issues. The Labor Left favours more state intervention in the economy, is generally less enthusiastic about the US alliance and is often more progressive on social issues. The national factions are themselves divided into sub-factions, primarily state-based such as Centre Unity in New South Wales and Labor Forum in Queensland. Some trade unions are affiliated with the Labor Party and are also factionally aligned. The largest unions supporting the right faction are the Australian Workers' Union (AWU), the Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees' Association (SDA) and the Transport Workers Union of Australia, Transport Workers Union (TWU). Important unions supporting the left include the Australian Manufacturing Workers Union (AMWU), United Workers Union, the Construction, Forestry, Maritime, Mining and Energy Union (CFMMEU) and the Community and Public Sector Union (CPSU). Preselections are usually conducted along factional lines, although sometimes a non-factional candidate will be given preferential treatment (this happened with Cheryl Kernot in 1998 and again with Peter Garrett in 2004). Deals between the factions to divide up the safe seats between them often take place. Preselections, particularly for safe Labor seats, can sometimes be strongly contested. A particularly fierce preselection sometimes gives rise to accusations of branch stacking (signing up large numbers of nominal party members to vote in preselection ballots), personation, multiple voting and, on occasions, fraudulent electoral enrolment. Trade unions were in the past accused of giving inflated membership figures to increase their influence over preselections, but party rules changes have stamped out this practice. Preselection results are sometimes challenged, and the Australian Labor Party National Executive, National Executive is sometimes called on to arbitrate these disputes.
Federal election results
DonorsFor the 2015–2016 financial year, the top ten disclosed donors to the ALP were the Health Services Union NSW ($389,000), Village Roadshow ($257,000), Electrical Trades Union of Australia ($171,000), National Automotive Leasing and Salary Packaging Association ($153,000), Westfield Corporation ($150,000), Randazzo C&G Developments ($120,000), Macquarie Telecom ($113,000), Woodside Energy ($110,000), ANZ Bank ($100,000) and Ying Zhou ($100,000), all significantly lower than the 2014 donation from Chinese businessman Zi Chung Wang. ($850,000) The Labor Party also receives undisclosed funding through several methods, such as "associated entities". John Curtin House, Industry 2020, IR21 and the Happy Wanderers Club are entities which have been used to funnel donations to the Labor Party without disclosing the source. A 2019 report found that the Labor Party received $33,000 from pro-gun groups during the 2011–2018 periods, threatening to undermine Australian gun control laws. However, the Coalition received over $82,000 in donations from pro-gun groups, almost doubling Labor's pro-gun donors.
Bibliography* Bramble, Tom, and Rick Kuhn. ''Labor's Conflict: Big Business, Workers, and the Politics of Class'' (Cambridge University Press; 2011) 240 pages. * Calwell, A. A. (1963). ''Labor's Role in Modern Society''. Melbourne, Lansdowne Press. * * *