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Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of
varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
of the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
native to
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. Australian English is the country's national and ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' common language. English is the first language of the majority of the population, being the only language spoken in the home for approximately 72.7% of the population. It is also the main language used in compulsory education, as well as federal, state and territorial legislatures and courts. Australian English began to diverge from
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...
and
Irish English Hiberno-English (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the pow ...
after the
First Fleet The First Fleet was a fleet of 11 ships A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, r ...
established the
Colony of New South Wales The Colony of New South Wales was a colony In , a colony is a subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ...
in 1788. Australian English arose from a dialectal 'melting pot' created by the intermingling of early settlers who were from a variety of dialectal regions of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. By the 1820s, the native-born colonists' speech was recognisably distinct from that of British Isles speakers. Australian English differs from other varieties of English in its
phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lan ...

phonology
,
pronunciation Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful d ...
,
lexicon A lexicon is the vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, pra ...

lexicon
,
idiom An idiom is a phrase In syntax and grammar, a phrase is a group of words which act together as a grammatical unit. For instance, the English language, English expression "the very happy squirrel" is a noun phrase which contains the adjective phra ...
,
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
and
spelling Spelling is a set of conventions that regulate the way of using grapheme In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken ...

spelling
. Australian English is relatively consistent across the continent, however it encompasses numerous regional and sociocultural varieties. 'General Australian' describes the ''de-facto''
standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety In sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural Norm (sociology ...
which is perceived to be free of pronounced regional or sociocultural markers and which is often used in the media.


History

The earliest Australian English was spoken by the first generation of native-born colonists in the
Colony of New South Wales The Colony of New South Wales was a colony In , a colony is a subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ...
from the end of the
18th century The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 (Roman numerals, MDCCI) to December 31, 1800 (Roman numerals, MDCCC). The term is often used to refer to the 1700s, the century between January 1, 1700 and December 31, 1799. During the 18th centu ...
. These native-born children were exposed to a wide range of dialects from across the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
.. The process of dialect levelling and koineisation which ensued produced a relatively homogenous new variety of English which was easily understood by all.
Peter Miller Cunningham Peter Miller Cunningham (1789–1864) was a Scottish naval surgeon and pioneer in Australia. Life Peter Miller Cunningham was the fifth son of John Cunningham, land steward and farmer (1743–1800), and brother of Thomas Mounsey Cunningham (1776 ...
's 1827 book ''Two Years in New South Wales'' described the distinctive accent and vocabulary that had developed among the native-born colonists. The dialects of
South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of the counties of england, ...
, including most notably the traditional
Cockney A Cockney is a certain type of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at ...
dialect of
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
, were particularly influential on the development of the new variety and constituted 'the major input of the various sounds that went into constructing' Australian English. All the other regions of England were represented among the early colonists. A large proportion of early convicts and colonists were from Ireland, and spoke
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
as a sole or
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) ...
. They were joined by other non-native speakers of English from
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
and
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
. The first of the
Australian gold rushes During the Australian gold rushes, starting in 1851, significant numbers of workers moved from elsewhere in Australia and overseas to where gold Gold is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic ...
in the 1850s began a large wave of
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
, during which about two percent of the population of the United Kingdom emigrated to the colonies of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
and
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
. The Gold Rushes brought immigrants and linguistic influences from many parts of the world. An example was the introduction of vocabulary from
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
, including some terms later considered to be typically Australian, such as ''bushwhacker'' and ''squatter''. This American influence was continued with the popularity of American films from the early 20th century and the influx of American military personnel during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
; seen in the enduring persistence of such universally-accepted terms as ''
okay ''OK'' (spelling variations include ''okay'', ''O.K.'', ''ok'' and ''Ok'') is an English word (originally American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the ...

okay
'' and ''guys''. The publication of
Edward Ellis Morris Edward Ellis Morris (25 December 1843 – 1 January 1902) was an English educationist and miscellaneous writer and latterly in colonial Australia. Morris was born at Madras Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities a ...
's ''Austral English: A Dictionary Of Australasian Words, Phrases And Usages'' in 1898, which extensively catalogued Australian English vocabulary, started a wave of academic interest and codification during the 20th century which resulted in Australian English becoming established as an endonormative variety with its own internal norms and standards. This culminated in publications such as the 1981 first edition of the
Macquarie Dictionary The ''Macquarie Dictionary'' () is a dictionary of Australian English. It is generally considered by universities and the legal profession to be the authoritative source on Australian English. It also pays considerable attention to New Zealand Eng ...
, a major English language dictionary based on Australian usage, and the 1988 first edition of
The Australian National Dictionary ''The Australian National Dictionary: Australian Words and Their Origins'' is a historical dictionary of Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English lan ...
, a historical dictionary documenting the history of Australian English vocabulary and idiom.


Phonology and pronunciation

The most obvious way in which Australian English is distinctive from other varieties of English is through its unique pronunciation. It shares most similarity with
New Zealand English New Zealand English (NZE) is the dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a of a ...
. Like most dialects of English, it is distinguished primarily by its vowel
phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lan ...

phonology
.


Vowels

The vowels of Australian English can be divided according to length. The long vowels, which include
monophthong A monophthong ( ; , ) is a pure vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writ ...
s and
diphthong A diphthong ( ; , ), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of spe ...
s, mostly correspond to the tense vowels used in analyses of
Received Pronunciation Received Pronunciation (often abbreviated as RP) is the accentAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (phonetics), prominence given to ...
(RP) as well as its centring diphthongs. The short vowels, consisting only of monophthongs, correspond to the RP lax vowels. There exist pairs of long and short vowels with overlapping vowel quality giving Australian English phonemic length distinction, which is also present in some regional south-eastern dialects of the UK and eastern seaboard dialects in the US. An example of this feature is the distinction between ''ferry'' and ''fairy'' . As with New Zealand English and General American English, the weak-vowel merger is complete in Australian English: unstressed is merged into (
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as t ...
), unless it is followed by a velar consonant. Examples of this feature are the following pairings, which are pronounced identically in Australian English: ''Rosa's'' and ''roses'', as well as ''Lennon'' and ''Lenin''. Other examples are the following pairs, which rhyme in Australian English: ''abbott'' with ''rabbit'', and ''dig it'' with ''bigot''. Most varieties of Australian English exhibit only a partial trap-bath split. The words ''bath'', ''grass'' and ''can't'' are always pronounced with the "long" of ''father''. Conversely, throughout the majority of the country, the "flat" of ''man'' is the dominant pronunciation for the ''a'' vowel in the following words: ''dance'', ''advance'', ''plant'', ''example'' and ''answer''. The exception is the state of
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
, where a more advanced trap-bath split has taken place, and where the dominant pronunciation of all the preceding words incorporates the "long" of ''father''.


Consonants

There is little variation in the sets of
consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...
s used in different English dialects but there are variations in how these consonants are used. Australian English is no exception. Australian English is uniformly
non-rhotic Rhoticity in English is the pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthography, orthographically by symbols derived from ...
; that is, the sound does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant. As with many non-rhotic dialects, linking can occur when a word that has a final in the spelling comes before another word that starts with a vowel. An intrusive may similarly be inserted before a vowel in words that do not have in the spelling in certain environments, namely after the long vowel and after word final . This can be heard in "law-r-and order," where an intrusive R is voiced after the W and before the A. As with North American English,
Intervocalic alveolar flapping Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or ''t''-voicing, is a phonological Phonology is a branch of that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of ...
is a feature of Australian English: prevocalic and surface as the
alveolar tap Alveolus (pl. alveoli, adj. alveolar) is a general anatomical term for a concave cavity or pit. Alveolus may refer to: In anatomy and zoology in general * Pulmonary alveolus A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin ''alveolus'', "littl ...
after
sonorant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pro ...
s other than as well as at the end of a word or morpheme before any vowel in the same breath group. Examples of this feature are that the following pairs are pronounced similarly or identically: ''latter'' and ''ladder'', as well as ''rated'' and ''raided''. ''Yod''-dropping generally occurs after , , , but not after , and . Accordingly, ''suit'' is pronounced as , ''lute'' as , ''Zeus'' as and ''enthusiasm'' as ; however ''tune'' is pronounced as , ''dew'' as and ''new'' as . Other cases of and , along with and , have coalesced to , , and respectively for many speakers. is generally retained in other
consonant cluster In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the met ...
s. In common with most varieties of
Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classe ...
and
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
, the phoneme is pronounced as a "dark" (velarised) ''l'' () in all positions, unlike other dialects such as
Received Pronunciation Received Pronunciation (often abbreviated as RP) is the accentAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (phonetics), prominence given to ...
and Hiberno (Irish) English, where a light ''l'' (i.e. a non-velarised ''l'') is used in many positions. The wine–whine merger is complete in Australian English.


Pronunciation

Differences in stress, weak forms and standard pronunciation of isolated words occur between Australian English and other forms of English, which while noticeable do not impair intelligibility. The affixes ''-ary'', ''-ery'', ''-ory'', ''-bury'', ''-berry'' and ''-mony'' (seen in words such as ''necessary, mulberry'' and ''matrimony'') can be pronounced either with a full vowel or a schwa. Although some words like ''necessary'' are almost universally pronounced with the full vowel, older generations of Australians are relatively likely to pronounce these affixes with a schwa while younger generations are relatively likely to use a full vowel. Words ending in unstressed ''-ile'' derived from Latin adjectives ending in ''-ilis'' are pronounced with a full vowel (), so that ''fertile'' sounds like ''fur tile'' rather than rhyming with ''turtle''. In addition, miscellaneous pronunciation differences exist when compared with other varieties of English in relation to various isolated words. For example, as with American English, the vowel in ''yoghurt'' and the prefix ''homo-'' (as in ''homosexual'' or ''homophobic'') is pronounced as ("long o") rather than ("short o"); ''vitamin'', ''migraine'' and ''privacy'' are pronounced with (as in ''mine'') rather than , and respectively; the prefix ''paedo-'' (as in ''paedophile'') is pronounced with /e/ (as in ''red'') rather than ; many loanwords with in British English (e.g. ''pasta'') are pronounced with ; ''urinal'' is stressed on the first syllable and pronounced with
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as t ...
rather than the second syllable and ("long i"); ''harass'' and ''harassment'' are pronounced with the stress on the second, rather than the first syllable; and the suffix ''-sia'' (as in ''
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
'', ''
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
'' and ''
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a ...

Polynesia
'') is pronounced rather than , and the word ''foyer'' is pronounced /ˈfoɪə/, rather than /ˈfoɪæɪ/. As with British English, ''advertisement'' is stressed on the second syllable and pronounced with ; ''tomato'' and ''vase'' are pronounced with (as in ''father'') instead of ; ''zebra'' is pronounced with /e/ (as in ''red'') rather than ; ''basil'' is pronounced with ("short a") rather than ("long a"); and ''buoy'' is pronounced as (as in ''boy'') rather than . Examples of miscellaneous pronunciations which contrast with both standard American and British usages are ''data'', which is pronounced with ("dah") instead of ("day"); ''maroon'' (colour), pronounced with ("own") as opposed to ("oon"); and ''cache'', pronounced with as opposed to .


Variation

Relative to many other national dialect groupings, Australian English is relatively homogenous across the country. Some relatively minor regional differences in pronunciation exist. A limited range of word choices is strongly regional in nature. Consequently, the geographical background of individuals may be inferred if they use words that are peculiar to particular Australian states or territories and, in some cases, even smaller regions. In addition, some Australians speak
creole languages A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has linguistic evolution, evolved naturally in hu ...
derived from Australian English, such as
Australian Kriol Australian Kriol is an English-based creole language that developed from a pidgin A pidgin , or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in c ...
,
Torres Strait Creole Torres Strait Creole ( tcs, Yumplatok), also known as Torres Strait Pidgin, Brokan/Broken, Cape York Creole, Lockhart Creole, Kriol, Papuan, Broken English, Blaikman, Big Thap, Pizin, and Ailan Tok, is an English-based creole language An Engl ...
and
Norfuk Norfuk ( pih, Norfuk) (increasingly spelt Norfolk) or Norf'k is the language spoken on Norfolk Island (in the Pacific Ocean) by the local residents. It is a blend of 18th-century English and Tahitian language, Tahitian, originally introduced by ...
. Academic research has also identified notable
sociocultural Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and Society, societies change over time. Whereas sociocultural development traces processes that te ...

sociocultural
variation within Australian English, which is mostly evident in phonology.


Regional variation

Although Australian English is relatively homogeneous, there are some regional variations. The dialects of English spoken in the various
states and territories of Australia The states and territories are federated administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many simila ...
differ slightly in vocabulary and phonology. Most regional differences are in word usage. Swimming clothes are known as ''cossies'' (pronounced "cozzies") or ''swimmers'' in New South Wales, ''togs'' in Queensland, and ''bathers'' in Victoria, Tasmania, Western Australia and South Australia. What Queensland and New South Wales call a ''stroller'' is usually called a ''pram'' in Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania.Pauline Bryant (1985): Regional variation in the Australian English lexicon, Australian Journal of Linguistics, 5:1, 55–66 Preference for some synonymous words also differ between states. ''Garbage'' (i.e., garbage bin, garbage truck) dominates over ''rubbish'' in New South Wales and Queensland, while ''rubbish'' is more popular in Victoria, Tasmania, Western Australia and South Australia. Additionally, the word ''footy'' generally refers to the most popular football code in an area; that is,
rugby league Rugby league football, commonly known as just rugby league or simply league, rugby, football, or footy, is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Fi ...
or
rugby union Rugby union, commonly known simply as rugby, is a Contact sport#Terminology, close-contact team sport that originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the Comparison of rugby league and rugby union, two codes of rugby f ...
depending on the local area, in most of New South Wales and Queensland, and
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a roup_(disambiguation),_group_of_individuals_(human_or_non-human)_working_...
_elsewhere._In_some_pockets_of_Melbourne_&_Western_Sydney_it_will_refer_to_Association_football._Beer_glasses_are_also_Australian_English_vocabulary#Alcohol.html" "title="Association_football.html" ;"title="roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
elsewhere. In some pockets of Melbourne & Western Sydney it will refer to Association football">roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
elsewhere. In some pockets of Melbourne & Western Sydney it will refer to Association football. Beer glasses are also Australian English vocabulary#Alcohol">named differently
named differently
in different states. Distinctive grammatical patterns exist such as the use of the interrogative ''eh'' (also spelled ''ay'' or ''aye''), which is particularly associated with Queensland. ''Secret Santa'' and ''Kris Kringle'' are used in all states, with the former being more common in Queensland. ;South Australia The most pronounced variation in phonology is between
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
and the other states and territories. The
trap–bath split The ''trap''–''bath'' split (also – split) is a Phonological change#Phonemic splits, vowel split that occurs mainly in southern accents of English English, English in England (including Received Pronunciation), in New Zealand English, Indian ...
is more complete in South Australia, in contrast to the other states and territories in which it more complete. Accordingly, words such as ''dance'', ''advance'', ''plant'', ''example'' and ''answer'' are pronounced with (as in ''father'') far more frequently in South Australia while the older (as in ''mad'') is dominant elsewhere in Australia. ''L''-vocalisation is also more common in South Australia than other states. ;Centring diphthongs In Western Australian and Queensland English, the vowels in ''near'' and ''square'' are typically realised as centring diphthongs ("nee-ya"), whereas in the other states they may also be realised as monophthongs. ;Salary-celery merger A feature common in Victorian English is salary–celery merger, whereby a Victorian pronunciation of ''Ellen'' may sound like ''Alan'' and Victoria's capital city ''
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
'' may sound like ''Malbourne'' to speakers from other states. There is also regional variation in before (as in ''school'' and ''pool''). ;Full-fool allophones In some parts of Australia, notably Victoria, a fully backed allophone of , transcribed , is common before . As a result, the pairs full/fool and pull/pool differ phonetically only in vowel length for those speakers. The usual allophone for is further forward in Queensland and New South Wales than Victoria and the aforementioned pairs do not rhyme.


Sociocultural

The General Australian accent serves as the
standard variety A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. The term ''standard langua ...
of English across the country. According to linguists, it emerged during the 19th century. General Australian is the dominant variety across the continent, and is particularly so in urban areas. The increasing dominance of General Australian reflects its prominence on radio and television since the latter half of the 20th century. Recent generations have seen a comparatively smaller proportion of the population speaking with the ''Broad'' sociocultural variant, which differs from General Australian in its phonology. The Broad variant is also founds across the continent and is relatively more prominent in rural and outer-suburban areas. A largely historical ''Cultivated'' sociocultural variant, which adopted features of British
Received Pronunciation Received Pronunciation (often abbreviated as RP) is the accentAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (phonetics), prominence given to ...
and which was commonplace in official media during the early 20th century, had become largely extinct by the onset of the 21st century.
Australian Aboriginal English Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) is a dialect of Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to Australia. Australian English is ...
is made up of a range of forms which developed differently in different parts of Australia, and are said to vary along a continuum, from forms close to Standard Australian English to more non-standard forms. There are distinctive features of accent, grammar, words and meanings, as well as language use. Academics have also noted the emergency of numerous ethnocultural dialects of Australian English that are spoken by people from some minority non-English speaking backgrounds. These ethnocultural varieties contain features of General Australian English as adopted by the children of immigrants blended with some non-English language features, such as
Afro-Asiatic Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...

Afro-Asiatic
languages and
languages of Asia A wide variety of languages are spoken throughout Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and ...
.
Samoan English
Samoan English
is also influencing Australian English.


Vocabulary


Intrinsic traits

Australian English has many words and idioms which are unique to the dialect and have been written on extensively. Internationally well-known examples of Australian terminology include ''
outback The Outback is a remote, vast, sparsely populated area of Australia. The Outback is more remote than Australian bush, the bush, which includes any location outside the main urban areas. While often envisaged as being arid, the Outback regions ...

outback
'', meaning a remote, sparsely populated area, ''
the bush "The bush" is a term mostly used in the English vernacular of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian con ...
'', meaning either a native forest or a country area in general, and ''g'day'', a greeting. ''Dinkum'', or ''fair dinkum'' means "true" or "is that true?", among other things, depending on context and inflection. The derivative ''dinky-di'' means "true" or devoted: a "dinky-di Aussie" is a "true Australian".
Australian poetry Australian literature is the written or literary work produced in the area or by the people of the Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the main ...
, such as " The Man from Snowy River", as well as
folk songs Folk music includes #Traditional folk music, traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several wa ...
such as "
Waltzing Matilda "Waltzing Matilda" is a song developed in the Australian style of poetry and folk music called a bush ballad The bush ballad, bush song or bush poem is a style of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "mak ...
", contain many historical Australian words and phrases that are understood by Australians even though some are not in common usage today. Australian English, in common with British English, uses the word ''
mate Mate may refer to: Science * Mate, one of a pair of animals involved in: ** Mate choice, intersexual selection ** Mating * Multi-antimicrobial extrusion protein, or MATE, an efflux transporter family of proteins Person or title * Mate (colloqu ...
'' to mean ''friend'', as well as the word ''
bloody ''Bloody'', as an adverb An adverb is a word or an expression that modifies a verb A verb, from the Latin ''wikt:verbum#Latin, verbum'' meaning ''word'', is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ...
'' as a mild
expletive An expletive is a word or phrase inserted into a sentence that is not needed to express the basic meaning of the sentence. It is regarded as semantically null or a place holder. Expletives are not insignificant or meaningless in all senses; they ma ...
or intensifier. Several words used by Australians were at one time used in the United Kingdom but have since fallen out of usage or changed in meaning there. For example, ''creek'' in Australia, as in North America, means a stream or small river, whereas in the UK it is typically a watercourse in a marshy area; ''paddock'' in Australia means field, whereas in the UK it means a small enclosure for livestock; ''bush'' or ''scrub'' in Australia, as in North America, means a wooded area, whereas in England they are commonly used only in proper names (such as
Shepherd's Bush Shepherd's Bush is a district of West London West London is a popularly, but informally and inexactly defined part of London, England. The area lies north of the River Thames and extends from its historic and commercial core of Westminster a ...
and
Wormwood Scrubs Wormwood Scrubs, known locally as The Scrubs (or simply Scrubs), is an open space in Old Oak Common located in the north-eastern corner of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in west London. It is the largest open space in the borough, ...
). Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian English—mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example
dingo The dingo (''Canis familiaris'', ''Canis familiaris dingo'', ''Canis dingo'', or ''Canis lupus dingo'') is an ancient (Basal (phylogenetics), basal) lineage of dog found in Australia (continent), Australia. Its taxonomic classification is deba ...

dingo
) and local culture. Many such are localised, and do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as ''kangaroo'', ''boomerang'', ''budgerigar'', ''wallaby'' and so on have become international. Other examples are '' cooee'' and ''hard yakka''. The former is used as a high-pitched call, for attracting attention, (pronounced ) which travels long distances. ''Cooee'' is also a notional distance: ''if he's within cooee, we'll spot him''. ''Hard yakka'' means ''hard work'' and is derived from ''yakka'', from the Turrubal language, Jagera/Yagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region. Also of Aboriginal origin is the word ''bung'', from the Sydney pidgin English (and ultimately from the Sydney Aboriginal language), meaning "dead", with some extension to "broken" or "useless". Many towns or suburbs of Australia have also been influenced or named after Aboriginal words. The best-known example is the capital, Canberra, named after a local Ngunnawal language word meaning "meeting place". Litotes, such as "not bad", "not much" and "you're not wrong", are also used. Diminutives and Hypocorism, hypocorisms are common and are often used to indicate familiarity. Some common examples are ''arvo'' (afternoon), ''barbie'' (barbecue), ''smoko'' (cigarette break), ''Aussie'' (Australian) and ''Straya'' (Australia). This may also be done with people's names to create nicknames (other English speaking countries create English diminutive, similar diminutives). For example, "Gazza" from Gary, or "Smitty" from John Smith. The use of the suffix ''-o'' originates in ga, ó, which is both a postclitic and a suffix with much the same meaning as in Australian English. In informal speech, incomplete comparisons are sometimes used, such as "sweet as" (as in "That car is sweet as."). "Full", "fully" or "heaps" may precede a word to act as an intensifier (as in "The waves at the beach were heaps good."). This was more common in regional Australia and South Australia but has been in common usage in urban Australia for decades. The suffix "-ly" is sometimes omitted in broader Australian English. For instance, "really good" can become "real good". Australia's switch to the metric system in the 1970s changed most of the country's vocabulary of measurement from imperial units, imperial to metric measures. Since the switch to metric, heights of individuals are listed in centimetres on official documents such as a driver's licence and distances by road on signs are listed in terms of kilometres and metres.


Comparison with other varieties

Where American and British English differences, British and American English vocabulary differs, in different circumstances Australian English favours: * A usage which is different from both varieties, as with ''footpath'' (US: ''sidewalk'' UK: ''pavement''); ''capsicum'' (US: ''bell pepper'' UK: ''green/red pepper''); ''lollies'' (US: ''candy'' UK: ''sweets''); ''doona'' (US: ''comforter'' UK: ''duvet''); or ''ice block''/''icy pole'' (US: ''Ice pop, popsicle'' UK: ''ice lolly'') * A usage which is shared with British English, as with ''mobile phone'' (US: ''cellular phone''); or (vehicle) ''Hood (vehicle), bonnet'' (US: ''hood'') * A usage which is shared with American English, as with ''truck'' (UK: ''lorry''); or ''eggplant'' (UK: ''aubergine'') There are also terms shared by British and American English but not commonly found in Australian English, which include:"The Macquarie Dictionary", Fourth Edition. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd, 2005. In addition to the large number of uniquely Australian idioms in common use, there are instances of idioms taking different forms in Australian English than in other varieties, for instance: * ''A drop in the ocean'' (as with UK usage) as opposed to US ''a drop in the bucket'' * ''A way to go'' (as with UK usage) as opposed to US ''a ways to go'' * ''Home away from home'' (as with US usage) as opposed to UK ''home from home'' * ''Take with a grain of salt'' (as with US usage) as opposed to UK ''take with a pinch of salt'' * ''Touch wood'' (as with UK usage) as opposed to US ''knock on wood'' * ''Wouldn't touch with a ten-foot pole'' (as with US usage) as opposed to UK ''wouldn't touch with a barge pole''


Terms ascribed different meanings in Australian English

There also exist words in Australian English which are ascribed different meanings from those ascribed in other varieties of English, for instance: * ''Asian'' in Australian and US usage commonly refers to people of East Asian ancestry, while in British English it commonly refers to people of South Asian ancestry * ''Biscuit'' in Australian and UK usage refers to both US ''cookie'' and ''cracker'', while in American English it refers to a biscuit (bread), leavened bread product * (potato) ''Chips'' refers both to UK ''crisps'' (which is not commonly used in Australian English) and to US ''French fries'' (which is used alongside ''hot chips'') * ''Football'' in Australian English refers to
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
, Rugby league or Rugby union. UK ''football'' is commonly referred to as ''soccer'', while US ''football'' is referred to as ''American football, gridiron'' * ''Gammon'' in both forms ostensibly refers to a Gammon (meat), cut of pork, but in British English slang it is synonymous with a middle aged redneck; in Australian English slang it is used to indicate irony or sarcasm. * ''Pants'' in Australian and US usage refers to UK ''trousers'', but in British English refer to Australian English ''underpants'' * ''Public school'' in Australian and US usage refers to a state school. Australian (in common with US) English uses ''private school'' to mean a non-government or independent school, in contrast with British English which uses ''public school'' to refer to the same thing. * ''Pudding'' in Australian and US usage refers to a particular sweet dessert, while in British English it can refer to dessert (the course (food), food course) in general * ''Prawn'' in Australian English refers both to large and small crustaceans, while in British English it refers to large crustaceans (with small crustaceans referred to as ''shrimp'') and in American English the term ''shrimp'' is used universally for large and small crustaceans * ''Thong'' in both US and UK usage refers to Australian English ''G-string'' (underwear), while in Australian English it refers to US and UK ''flip-flop'' (footwear) * ''Vest'' in Australian and US usage refers to UK ''waistcoat'' but in British English refers to Australian English ''singlet'' * ''Wanker'' in Australian English refers to a pretentious person while in British English it refers to an obnoxious person


British English terms not commonly used in Australian English

A non-exhaustive selection of British English terms not commonly used in Australian English include:


American English terms not commonly used in Australian English

A non-exhaustive list of American English terms not commonly found in Australian English include:


Grammar

The general rules of English Grammar which apply to Australian English are described at English grammar. Grammatical differences between varieties of English are minor relative to differences in phonology and vocabulary and do not generally affect intelligibility. Examples of grammatical differences between Australian English and other varieties include: *Collective nouns are generally singular in construction, e.g., ''the government was unable to decide'' as opposed to ''the government were unable to decide'' or ''the group was leaving'' as opposed to ''the group were leaving''. This is in common with
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
. *The past tense and past participles of the verbs ''learn'', ''spell'' and ''smell'' are often irregular (''learnt'', ''spelt'', ''smelt'') in Australian English. This also the case in British English. *Australian English has an 'extreme distaste' for the modal verbs ''shall'' (in non-legal contexts), ''shan't'' and ''ought'' (in place of ''will'', ''won't'' and ''should'' respectively), which are encountered in British English. *Using ''should'' with the same meaning as ''would'', e.g. ''I should like to see you'', encountered in British English, is almost never encountered in Australian English. *''River'' follows the name of the river in question, e.g., ''Brisbane River'', rather than the British convention of coming before the name, e.g., ''River Thames''. This is also the case in North American English. In South Australian English however, the reverse applies when referring to the following three rivers: Murray River, Murray, Darling River, Darling and River Torrens, Torrens. *While prepositions before days may be omitted in American English, i.e., ''She resigned Thursday'', they are retained in Australian English: ''She resigned on Thursday''. This is shared with British English. *The institutional nouns ''hospital'' and ''university'' do not take the definite article: ''She's in hospital'', ''He's at university''. This is in contrast to American English where ''the'' is required: ''In the hospital'', ''At the university''. *''On the weekend'' is used in favour of the British ''at the weekend'' which is not encountered in Australian English. *Ranges of dates use ''to'', i.e., ''Monday to Friday'', rather than ''Monday through Friday''. This is shared with British English and is in contrast to American English. *When speaking or writing out numbers, ''and'' is always inserted before the tens, i.e., ''one hundred and sixty-two'' rather than ''one hundred sixty-two''. This is in contrast to American English. *The preposition ''to'' in ''write to'' (eg ''I'll write to you'') is always retained, as opposed to American usage where it may be dropped. *Australian English does not share the British usage of ''read'' (v) to mean ''study'' (v). Therefore it may be said that ''He studies medicine'' but not that ''He reads medicine''. *When referring to time, Australians will refer to 10:30 as ''half past ten'' and do not use the British ''half ten''. Similarly, ''a quarter to ten'' is used for 9:45 rather than ''(a) quarter of ten'', which is sometimes found in American English. *Australian English does not share the British English meaning of ''sat'' to include ''sitting'' or ''seated''. Therefore uses such as ''I've been sat here for an hour'' are not encountered in Australian English. *To ''have a shower'' or ''have a bath'' are the most common usages in Australian English, in contrast to American English which uses ''take a shower'' and ''take a bath''. *The past participle of ''saw'' is ''sawn'' (eg ''sawn-off shotgun'' in Australian English, in contrast to the American English ''sawed''. *The verb ''visit'' is transitive in Australian English. Where the object is a person or people, American English also uses ''visit with'', which is not found in Australian English. *An outdoor event which is cancelled due to inclement weather is ''rained out'' in Australian English. This is in contrast to British English where it is said to be ''rained off''. *In informal speech, sentence-final ''but'' may be used, eg ''I dont want to go but'' in place of ''But I don't want to go''. This is also found in
Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classe ...
. *In informal speech, the discourse markers ''yeah no'' (or ''yeah nah'') and ''no yeah'' (or ''nah yeah'') may be used to mean ''no'' and ''yes'' respectively.


Spelling and style

As in all English-speaking countries, there is no central authority that prescribes official usage with respect to matters of orthography, spelling, grammar, punctuation or style.


Spelling

There are several dictionaries of Australian English which adopt a linguistic description, descriptive approach. The ''
Macquarie Dictionary The ''Macquarie Dictionary'' () is a dictionary of Australian English. It is generally considered by universities and the legal profession to be the authoritative source on Australian English. It also pays considerable attention to New Zealand Eng ...
'' is most commonly used by University, universities, governments and courts as the standardization (linguistics), standard for Australian English spelling. The Australian Oxford Dictionary is another commonly-used dictionary of Australian English. Australian spelling is significantly closer to American and British English spelling differences, British than American and British English spelling differences, American spelling, as it did not adopt the systematic spelling reform, reforms promulgated in Noah Webster's Webster's Dictionary, 1828 Dictionary. Notwithstanding, the Macquarie Dictionary often lists various American spellings as acceptable secondary variants. The minor systematic differences which occur between Australian and American spelling are summarised below:"The Macquarie Dictionary", 8th Edition. Macquarie Dictionary Publishers, 2020. * French-derived words which in American English end with or, such as ''color'', ''honor'' and ''labor'', are spelt with our in Australian English: ''colour'', ''honour'' and ''labour''. An exception is the Australian Labor Party which uses the or spelling. * Words which in American English end with ize, such as ''realize'', ''recognize'' and ''organize'' are spelt with ise in Australian English: ''realise'', ''recognise'' and ''organise''. The British Oxford spelling, which uses the ize endings, is not used in Australian English. * Words which in American English end with yze, such as ''analyze'', ''paralyze'' and ''catalyze'' are spelt with yse in Australian English: ''analyse'', ''paralyse'' and ''catalyse''. * French-derived words which in American English end with er, such as ''fiber'', ''center'' and ''meter'' are spelt with re in Australian English: ''fibre'', ''centre'' and ''metre''. * Words which end in American English end with log, such as ''catalog'', ''dialog'' and ''monolog'' are usually spelt with logue in Australian English: ''catalogue'', ''dialogue'' and ''monologue'', however the ''Macquarie Dictionary'' lists the log spelling as the preferred variant for ''analog''. * Ae and oe are often maintained in words such as ''oestrogen'' and ''paedophilia'', in contrast to the American English practice of using e alone (as in ''estrogen'' and ''pedophilia''). The ''Macquarie Dictionary'' has noted a shift within Australian English towards using e alone, and now lists some words such as ''encyclopedia'' and ''fetus'' with the e spelling as the preferred variant. * A double-consonant l is retained in Australian English when adding suffixes to words ending in ''l'' where the consonant is unstressed, contrary to American English. Therefore Australian English favours ''cancelled'', ''counsellor'', and ''travelling'' over American ''canceled'', ''counselor'' and ''traveling''. * Where American English uses a double-consonant ll in the words ''skillful'', ''willful'', ''enroll'', ''distill'', ''enthrall'' and ''fulfill'', Australian English uses a single consonant: ''skilful'', ''wilful'', ''enrol'', ''distil'', ''enthral'', and ''fulfil''. * The American English ''defense'' and ''offense'' are spelt ''defence'' and ''offence'' in Australian English. * In contrast with American English, which uses ''practise'' and ''license'' for both nouns and verbs, ''practice'' and ''licence'' are nouns while ''practise'' and ''license'' are verbs in Australian English. Examples of individual words where the preferred spelling is listed by the ''Macquarie Dictionary'' as being different from current British spellings include ''program'' (in all contexts) as opposed to ''programme'', ''analog'' as opposed to ''analogue'', ''livable'' as opposed to ''liveable'', ''guerilla'' as opposed to ''guerrilla'', ''verandah'' as opposed to ''veranda'', ''burqa'' as opposed to ''burka'', and ''pastie'' (noun) as opposed to ''pasty''."The Macquarie Dictionary", 8th Edition. Macquarie Dictionary Publishers, 2020. Unspaced forms such as ''onto'', ''anytime'', ''alright'' and ''anymore'' are also listed as being equally as acceptable as their spaced counterparts."The Macquarie Dictionary", 8th Edition. Macquarie Dictionary Publishers, 2020. Different spellings have existed throughout Australia's history. What are today regarded as American spellings were popular in Australia throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the Victorian Department of Education endorsing them into the 1970s and ''The Age'' newspaper until the 1990s. This influence can be seen in the spelling of the Australian Labor Party and also in some place names such as Victor Harbor, South Australia, Victor Harbor. The ''Concise Oxford English Dictionary'' has been attributed with re-establishing the dominance of the British spellings in the 1920s and 1930s. For a short time during the late 20th century, Harry Lindgren's 1969 spelling reform proposal (SR1, ''Spelling Reform 1'' or ''SR1'') gained some support in Australia and was adopted by the Australian Teachers' Federation.


Punctuation and style

Prominent general list of style guides, style guides for Australian English include the ''Cambridge Guide to Australian English Usage'', the ''Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers'', the ''Australian Handbook for Writers and Editors'' and the ''Complete Guide to English Usage for Australian Students''. Both Quotation mark, single and double quotation marks are in use, with single quotation marks preferred for use in the first instance, with double quotation marks reserved for quotes of speech within speech. Logical punctuation, Logical (as opposed to typesetter's) punctuation is preferred for punctuation marks at the end of quotations. For instance, ''Sam said he 'wasn't happy when Jane told David to "go away"'.'' is used in preference to ''Sam said he "wasn't happy when Jane told David to 'go away.'"'' The DD/MM/YYYY Calendar date, date format is followed and the 12-hour clock is generally used in everyday life (as opposed to service, police, and airline applications). With the exception of screen sizes, metric system units are used in everyday life, having supplanted Imperial units upon the country's switch to the metric system in the 1970s. In sports betting, betting, Odds#Gambling usage, decimal odds are used in favour of fractional odds, used in the United Kingdom, or moneyline odds, used in the United States.


Keyboard layout

There are British and American keyboards, two major English language keyboard layouts, the United States layout and the United Kingdom layout. Keyboards and keyboard software for the Australian market universally use the US keyboard layout, which lacks the pound sterling, Euro currency and negation symbols and uses a different layout for punctuation symbols than the UK keyboard layout.


See also

* ''
The Australian National Dictionary ''The Australian National Dictionary: Australian Words and Their Origins'' is a historical dictionary of Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English lan ...
'' * Australian English vocabulary *
New Zealand English New Zealand English (NZE) is the dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a of a ...
* South African English * Zimbabwean English * Falkland Islands English * Diminutives in Australian English * International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects * Strine


References


Citations


Works cited

*


Further reading

* * Mitchell, Alexander G. (1995). ''The Story of Australian English.'' Sydney: Dictionary Research Centre.


External links


Aussie English, The Illustrated Dictionary of Australian English

Australian National Dictionary Centre

free newsletter from the Australian National Dictionary Centre, which includes articles on Australian English

Australian Word Map
at the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC—documents regionalisms
R. Mannell, F. Cox and J. Harrington (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
Macquarie University
Aussie English for beginners
the origins, meanings and a quiz to test your knowledge at the National Museum of Australia. {{authority control Australian English, Languages attested from the 18th century Dialects of English Sociolinguistics Languages of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands