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Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies;
Galician-Asturian Galician–Asturian or Eonavian (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or infraspecific name ...
: ''Principao d'Asturias''), is an
autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

autonomous community
in northwest
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. It is coextensive with the
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
of Asturias and contains some of the territory that was part of the larger
Kingdom of Asturias The Kingdom of Asturias ( la, Asturum Regnum; ast, Reinu d'Asturies) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous commun ...
in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. Divided into eight
''comarcas''
''comarcas''
(counties), the autonomous community of Asturias is bordered by
Cantabria Cantabria (, also , ) is an autonomous community in northern Spain with Santander, Cantabria, Santander as its capital city. It is recognized as a Nationalities and regions of Spain, historic community and is bordered on the east by the Basque ...
to the east, by León (
Castile and León Castile and León (, ; es, Castilla y León ) (Leonese dialect Leonese (Leonese: ''Llionés'', ast, Lleonés) is a set of vernacular Romance languages, Romance language varieties currently spoken in northern and western portions of the ...
) to the south, by
Lugo Lugo ( , ; la, Lucus Augusti) is a city in northwestern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image ...
(
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...
) to the west, and by the
Bay of Biscay The Bay of Biscay (; french: Golfe de Gascogne, es, Golfo de Vizcaya, eu, Bizkaiko Golkoa, oc, Golf de Gasconha, br, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn) is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower openi ...
(
Cantabrian sea The Cantabrian Sea; french: Mer Cantabrique, gl, Mar Cantábrico, ast, Mar Cantábricu, eu, Kantauri. is the southern part of the Bay of Biscay. It is the coastal sea of the Atlantic Ocean that washes the northern coast of Spain and the south ...
) to the north. Asturias is situated in a mountainous setting with vast greenery and lush vegetation, making it part of
Green Spain Green Spain (direct translation into English of the Spanish ''España Verde'', even if in Spanish that expression is not that common and ''cornisa cantábrica'' is preferred) is the name given to a lush natural region A natural region (landscape ...
. The region has a
maritime climate Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps it, Alpi Marittime , photo=Maritime Alps.jpg , photo_caption=Maritime Alps , country_type= Countries , country= , subdivision1_type= Regions, Régions , subdivision1= , parent= Alps , bor ...
. It receives plenty of annual rainfall and little sunshine by Spanish standards and has very moderated seasons, most often averaging in the lower 20s
celsius The degree Celsius is a unit of temperature on the Celsius scale, a temperature scale Scale of temperature is a methodology of calibrating the physical quantity temperature in metrology. Empirical scales measure temperature in relation to conv ...

celsius
. Heatwaves are rare due to mountains blocking southerly winds. Winters are very mild for the latitude, especially near sea level. The most important cities are the communal capital,
Oviedo Oviedo (, , ; ast, Uviéu ) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian G ...

Oviedo
(''Uviéu''), the seaport and largest city
Gijón Gijón (, , ) or () is a city in north-western Spain. It is the largest city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdic ...

Gijón
(''Xixón''), and the industrial town of
Avilés Avilés () is a town in Asturias, Spain. Avilés is with Oviedo and Gijón, one of the main cities in the Principality of Asturias. The town occupies the flattest land in the municipality, in a land that belonged to the sea, surrounded by small pr ...

Avilés
. Other
municipalities in Asturias Image:Asturias_-_Mapa_municipal.svg, 250px, Municipal Map of Asturias, thumb This is a list of the 78 municipalities in the provinces of Spain, province and autonomous community of Asturias, Spain, with their areas, populations and the Comarcas of A ...
include
Cangas de Onís Cangas de Onís ( Asturian: ''Cangues d'Onís'' "valleys of Onís"'':wikt:canga#Asturian, Canga'' (plural ''cangues'') is an Asturian word for "valley, canyon".) is a municipality in the eastern part of the province and autonomous community of ...

Cangas de Onís
(''Cangues d'Onís''),
Cangas del Narcea Cangas del Narcea is the oldest Municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Principality of Asturias in Spain. It is also the largest municipality in Asturias. It is in the southwest of Asturias, on the Asturian border with León (province), L ...

Cangas del Narcea
, Gozón,
Grado Grado may refer to: People * Cristina Grado (1939–2016), Italian film actress * Jonathan Grado (born 1991), American entrepreneur and photographer * Francesco De Grado (floruit, fl. 1694–1730), Italian engraver * Gaetano Grado, Italian mafios ...
(''Grau'' or ''Grao''),
Langreo Langreo (; ast, Llangréu) is a municipality and town of northern Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto ...

Langreo
(''Llangréu''), Llanera,
Laviana
Laviana
(''Llaviana''),
Lena Lena or LENA may refer to: Places * Léna Department, Burkina Faso * Lena, Manitoba, Canada * Lena, Norway * Lena, Asturias, Spain Russia * Lena (river), Siberia * Lena, Russia, name of several rural localities * Lena Plateau United States * Lena ...
(''Ḷḷena''),
Llanes Llanes (the ''Concejo de Llanes'', ''Conceyu de Llanes'' in Asturian language) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality of the province of Asturias, in northern Spain. Stretching for about 30 km along the coast at the extreme east of the p ...

Llanes
,
Mieres Mieres is a municipality of Asturias, northern Spain, with approximately 38,000 inhabitants. The municipality of Mieres is made up of the capital, Mieres del Camino and the villages of Baiña, Figaredo, Cenera, Loredo, La Peña, La Rebollada, Sa ...
,
Siero Siero is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...

Siero
, Valdés,
Vegadeo
Vegadeo
(''A Veiga''), and Villaviciosa (''see also List of municipalities and
comarcas in Asturias
comarcas in Asturias
''). Asturias is also home of the
Princess of Asturias Awards The Princess of Asturias Awards ( es, Premios Princesa de Asturias, links=no, ast, Premios Princesa d'Asturies, links=no), formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981 to 2014 ( es, Premios Príncipe de Asturias, links=no), are a series of a ...
.


History

Asturias was inhabited, first by ''
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread s ...

Homo erectus
'', then by
Neanderthals Neanderthals (, also Neandertals, ''Homo neanderthalensis'' or ''Homo sapiens neanderthalensis'') are an extinct species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an org ...
. Since the
Lower Paleolithic The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek wikt:παλαιός, palaios - old, lithos - stone) ...
era, and during the
Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the is the third and last subdivision of the or Old . Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and years ago (the beginning of the ), according to some theories coinciding with the ...
, Asturias was characterized by cave paintings in the eastern part of the area. In the
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
period, a native culture developed, that of the ''Asturiense'', and later, with the introduction of the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
,
megalith A megalith is a large Rock (geology), stone that has been used to construct a prehistoric structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, located widely from Sweden to the Mediterranean ...

megalith
s and
tumuli A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound A mound is a heaped pile of earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of co ...

tumuli
were constructed. In the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
, the territory came under the cultural influence of the
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples The Indo-European languages ar ...

Celts
; the local Celtic peoples, known as the
Astur The Astures or Asturs, also named Astyrs, were the Hispano-Celtic inhabitants of the northwest area of Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania w ...

Astur
es, were composed of tribes such as the ''Luggones'', the ''Pesicos'', and others, who populated the entire area with '' castros'' (fortified hill-towns). Today the
Astur The Astures or Asturs, also named Astyrs, were the Hispano-Celtic inhabitants of the northwest area of Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania w ...

Astur
Celtic influence persists in
place names Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of '' toponyms'' (proper names A proper noun is a noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literally ''name'') is a word that functio ...
, such as those of rivers and mountains. With the conquest of Asturias by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
under
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
(29–19 BC), the region entered into recorded history. The Astures were subdued by the Romans but were never fully conquered. After several centuries without foreign presence, they enjoyed a brief revival during the Germanic invasions of the late 4th century AD, resisting
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Since the 19th century, they have traditionally been d ...
and
Visigoth The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...
raids throughout the 5th Century AD, ending with the Moorish invasion of Spain. However, as it had been for the Romans and Visigoths, the Moors did not find mountainous territory easy to conquer, and the lands along Spain's northern coast never fully became part of
Islamic Spain
Islamic Spain
. Rather, with the beginning of the Moorish conquest in the 8th century, this region became a refuge for Christian nobles, and in 722, a ''de facto'' independent kingdom was established, the '' Regnum Asturorum'', which was to become the cradle of the incipient ''
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
'' (Reconquest). In the 10th century, the Kingdom of Asturias gave way to the
Kingdom of León The Kingdom of León (, ; ; ast, Reinu de Llión; es, Reino de León; gl, Reino de León; pt, Reino de Leão; la, Regnum Legionense; mwl, Reino de Lhion) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula ...
, and during the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
the geographic isolation of the territory made historical references scarce. Through the rebellion of Prince Henry (the later
Henry II of Castile Henry II (13 January 1334 – 29 May 1379), called Henry of Trastámara or the Fratricidal (''el Fratricida''), was the first king of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara The House of Trastámara ( es, Casa de Trastámara) was a dyn ...

Henry II of Castile
) in the 14th century, the Principality of Asturias was established. The most famous proponents of independence were Gonzalo Peláez and Queen Urraca, who, while achieving significant victories, were ultimately defeated by
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...

Castilian
troops. After its integration into the
Kingdom of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
, Asturias provided the Spanish court with high-ranking aristocrats and played an important role in the colonisation of America. Since 1388, the heir to the Castilian (later Spanish) throne has been styled
Prince of Asturias Prince or Princess of Asturias ( es, link=no, Príncipe/Princesa de Asturias) is the main substantive title A substantive title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify ...
. In the 16th century, the population reached 100,000 for the first time, and within another century that number would double due to the arrival of American
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American English, North American and Australian English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas, indige ...

corn
. In the 18th century, Asturias was one of the centres of the Spanish Enlightenment. The renowned
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...
thinker Benito de Feijóo settled in the
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
Monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical l ...

Monastery
of San Vicente de Oviedo.
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (born Gaspar Melchor de Jove y Llanos, 5 January 1744 – 27 November 1811) was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain. Life and influence of h ...

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
, a
polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific pro ...

polymath
and prominent reformer and politician of the late 18th century, was born in the seaside town of
Gijón Gijón (, , ) or () is a city in north-western Spain. It is the largest city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdic ...

Gijón
. During the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, Asturias was the first Spanish province to rise up against the French following the abdication of King
Ferdinand VII Ferdinand VII ( es, Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was the during the early- to mid-19th century. He reigned over the Spanish Kingdom in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death in 1833. He was known to his supporters as ' (the De ...
on 10 May 1808. Riots began in Oviedo and on 25 May the local government formally declared war on
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
with 18,000 men called to arms to resist invasion. The
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
came to Asturias after 1830 with the discovery and systematic exploitation of coal mines and iron factories at the mining basins of Nalón and
Caudal Caudal may refer to: Anatomy * Caudal (anatomical term) Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure o ...
. At the same time, there was significant migration to
the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North' ...

the Americas
(especially
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
,
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
and
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
); those who succeeded overseas often returned to their native land much wealthier. These entrepreneurs were known collectively as 'Indianos', for having visited and made their fortunes in the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
and beyond. The heritage of these wealthy families can still be seen in Asturias today: many large 'modernista' villas are dotted across the region, as well as cultural institutions such as free schools and public libraries. Asturias played an important part in the events that led up to the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
. In October 1934 Asturian miners and other workers staged an armed uprising (see Revolution of Asturias) to oppose the coming to power of the right-wing CEDA party, which had obtained three ministerial posts in the centralist government of the
Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 Apri ...
. For a month, a Popular Front Committee exercised control in southern Asturias, while local workers committees sprang up elsewhere in the region. A war committee dominated by
anarcho-syndicalist Anarcho-syndicalism is a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. It ...
supporters took power in Oviedo . Troops under the command of a then unknown general named
Francisco Franco Bahamonde
Francisco Franco Bahamonde
were brought from
Spanish Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A con ...
to suppress the revolt. Franco applied tactics normally reserved for overseas colonies, using troops of the
Spanish Legion Spain had already for centuries recruited foreign soldiers to its army, creating the Foreign Regiments (''Infantería de línea extranjera'') - such as the Regiment of Hibernia, formed in 1709 from Irishmen who fled their own country in t ...
and
Moroccan troops
Moroccan troops
: ferocious oppression followed. As a result, Asturias remained loyal to the republican government during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
, and was the scene of an extraordinary defence in extreme terrain, the
Battle of El Mazuco The Battle of El Mazuco was fought between 6 and 22 September 1937, between the Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually as ...
. With Franco eventually gaining control of all Spain, Asturias — traditionally linked to the
Spanish Crown , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg , incumbent = Feli ...
— was known merely as the "Province of Oviedo" from 1939 until Franco's death in 1975. The province's name was restored fully after the return of democracy to Spain, in 1977. In the 50s and 60s the industrial progress of Asturias continued with the constitution of national enterprises like Ensidesa and Hunosa, but the 80s was the decade of a dramatic
industrial restructuring Economic restructuring is used to indicate changes in the constituent parts of an economy in a very general sense. In the western world, it is usually used to refer to the phenomenon of urban areas shifting from a manufacturing to a service sector e ...
. On 30 December 1981, Asturias became an autonomous community within the decentralised territorial structure established by the Constitution of 1978. Rafael Luis Fernández Álvarez, who had previously served as the President of the Regional Council since 1978, became the first
President of the Principality of Asturias The president of the Principality of Asturias ( es, Presidente del Principado de Asturias) is the head of Government of the Principality of Asturias, government of the Spanish Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Asturias. The ...
, upon the adoption of autonomy. The Government of the Principality of Asturias, Asturian regional government holds comprehensive competencies in important areas such as health, education and protection of the environment. The current president, elected in 2019, Adrián Barbón (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, PSOE).


Administrative and territorial division

Asturias is organised territorially into 78 Municipality, municipalities, further subdivided into Parroquia (Spain), parishes. Asturias is also divided into eight ''Comarcas of Asturias, comarcas'', which are not administrative divisions. They are only used as a system to homogenize the statistical data made by the Principality.


Municipalities of Asturias


Parishes

The parroquia or parish is the subdivision of the Asturian municipalities. Currently, there are 857 parishes integrating the 78 municipalities in the region, and they usually coincide with the ecclesiastic divisions.


Geography and climate

The Cantabrian Mountains (''Cordillera Cantábrica'') form Asturias's natural border with the province of León (province), León to the south. In the eastern range, the Picos de Europa National Park contains the highest and arguably most spectacular mountains, rising to at the Torrecerredo peak. Other notable features of this predominantly limestone range are the Redes Natural Park, Parque Natural de Redes in the central east, the central Ubiñas south of
Oviedo Oviedo (, , ; ast, Uviéu ) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian G ...

Oviedo
, and the Somiedo Natural Park, Parque Natural de Somiedo in the west. The Cantabrian mountains offer opportunities for activities such as climbing, walking, skiing and caving, and extend some in total, as far as
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...
province to the west of Asturias and
Cantabria Cantabria (, also , ) is an autonomous community in northern Spain with Santander, Cantabria, Santander as its capital city. It is recognized as a Nationalities and regions of Spain, historic community and is bordered on the east by the Basque ...
province to the east. Similar opportunities are available for the traveler of Asturias interested in Caldoveiro Peak. The Asturian coastline is extensive, with hundreds of beaches, coves and natural sea caves. Notable examples include the Playa del Silencio (''Beach of Silence'') near the fishing village of Cudillero (west of
Gijón Gijón (, , ) or () is a city in north-western Spain. It is the largest city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdic ...

Gijón
), as well as the many beaches surrounding the summer resort of Llanes, such as the Barro, Ballota and Torimbia (the latter a predominantly nudist beach). Most of Asturias's beaches are sandy, clean, and bordered by steep cliffs, on top of which it is not unusual to see grazing livestock. The key features of Asturian geography are its rugged coastal cliffs and the mountainous interior. The climate of Asturias is heavily marked by the gulf stream. Falling within the Cantabrian belt known as Green Spain it has high precipitations all year round. Summers are mild and, on the coast, winters also have relatively benign temperatures, rarely including frost. The cold is especially felt in the mountains, where snow is present from October till May. Both rain and snow are regular weather features of Asturian winters. In coastal or near-coastal areas, daytime high temperatures generally average around – during winter and – in summer.


Pollution

This part of Spain is one of the most well conserved in the entire country, and full of vegetation and wild spaces. It holds two of the most important natural parks in Spain, and is very renowned for the Picos de Europa and Somiedo areas. The Gijón area was marked and singled out as one of the pollution hotspots in Western Europe in a 2015 report from the International Institute for Applied Science Systems, where predictions for 2030 conditions were made. Gijón was marked much higher than any other Spanish metro area, in spite of the much larger populations in cities such as Madrid and Barcelona. This was attributed to heavy industrial activities. Since outdoor air pollution is a major cause of premature death in Europe, the excessive pollution is a major concern for Asturias. The majority of Asturias population live within a range from the port of Gijón, so pollution would be likely to heavily affect the population. A Spanish government study conducted in 2010 regarding life expectancy in relative communities, Asturias was ranked lowest (tied with Andalucia) for male life expectancy with 76.7 years from 2007 readings. However, female life expectancy was 84 years and normal among autonomous communities. However, even the male life expectancy is only just below Western European standards, and exaggerated by the high Spanish life expectancy. Considering that many Asturians live in relatively close proximity to Gijón's heavily industrial areas, these figures for especially female relative health still contribute to a position that Gijón is a safe location to live. The numbers for "disability-free" life expectancy has risen significantly both for males and females in the area since 1986, according to the report. Update: the coal fired electric generating plant, Aboño, completed a Spanish government/EU demand to install equipment to drastically reduce its emissions. Also, the other two major polluters - Arcelor Gijón and Arcelor Avilés - have announced an investment of 100 million euros to do the same. These factories have been a major cause of the area's high airborne pollution.


Demographics

According to the 2020 census, the region has a population of 1,018,784 which constitutes 2.1% of the population of Spain, with the population density numbering 96 people per square kilometre. Asturian population has the highest mortality rate in Spain and the lowest total fertility rate (1.03), the lowest in the European Union. Immigration is not as high as in other Spanish regions as immigrants only represent, according to the 2017 census, 3.65% of population.


Languages

The only official language in Asturias is Spanish language, Spanish. The Asturian language, also known as Bable, is also spoken, and is protected by law (''Ley 1/1998, de 23 de marzo, de uso y promoción del bable/asturiano'' — "Law 1/1998, of 23 March, of Use and Promotion of Bable/Asturian"). It is sometimes used by the Asturian civil service. In the western part of Asturias, Eonavian is also spoken, and its promotion also falls under the responsibility of Law 1/1998. Whether Eonavian is a dialect continuum or a variety of Galician language, however, is a subject of debate, and its use in the Asturian Administration is minor compared to the use of the Asturian language. Within Asturias, there is an ongoing process to establish place names in Asturian and Eonavian dialects.


Religion

In 2019, the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, Centre for Sociological Research carried a study showing the population of Asturias was 65.2% Catholic Church in Spain, Catholic (25.1% practicing), 13.5% Agnosticism, agnostic, and 12.8% Atheism, atheist.


Politics

The organisation and political structure of Asturias is governed by the Statute of Autonomy of the Principality of Asturias, in force since 30 January 1982. According to the Statute, the institutional bodies of the Principality of Asturias are three: the Council of Government of the Principality of Asturias, Council of Government, the General Junta of the Principality of Asturias, General Junta and President of the Principality of Asturias, President. The form of government of the Principality is Parliamentarism, Parliament: The General Junta is the legislature to choose, on behalf of the Asturian people, the President of the Principality of Asturias. The President is also the one of the Council of Government, the head of executive power, and politically answerable to the General Junta. The functions of the General Junta are the approval of budgets, and the direction and control of the action of the Council of Government. It is composed of 45 deputies, elected for four years through the universal suffrage within a system proportional representation that the allocation of deputies is based on D'Hondt method.


Results of the elections to the General Junta


Economy

For centuries, the backbone of the Asturian economy was agriculture and fishing. Milk production and its derivatives was also traditional, but its big development was a byproduct of the economic expansion of the late 1960s. Nowadays, products from the dairy cooperative Central Lechera Asturiana are being commercialised all over Spain. The main regional industry in modern times, however, was coal mining and steel production: in the times of Francisco Franco's dictatorship, it was the centre of Spain's steel industry. The then state-owned ENSIDESA steel company is now part of the privatised Aceralia, now part of the ArcelorMittal Group. The industry created many jobs, which resulted in significant migration from other regions in Spain, mainly Extremadura, Andalusia and
Castile and León Castile and León (, ; es, Castilla y León ) (Leonese dialect Leonese (Leonese: ''Llionés'', ast, Lleonés) is a set of vernacular Romance languages, Romance language varieties currently spoken in northern and western portions of the ...
. The steel industry is now in decline when measured in terms of number of jobs provided, as is the mining. The reasons for the latter are mainly the high costs of production to extract the coal compared to other regions. Regional economic growth is below the broader Spanish rate, though in recent years growth in service industries has helped reduce Asturias's high rate of unemployment. Large out-of-town retail parks have opened near the region's largest cities (Gijón and Oviedo), whilst the ever-present Spanish construction industry appears to continue to thrive. Asturias has benefited extensively since 1986 from European Union investment in roads and other essential infrastructure, though there has also been some controversy regarding how these funds are spent, for example, on miners' pensions. The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the autonomous community was 23.3 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 1.9% of Spanish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 24,400 euros or 81% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 98% of the EU average. This makes the region the 10th richest in Spain, a big decrease from the 1970s/1980s - the heyday of the Spanish mining industry, when Asturias was commonly regarded as one of the most prosperous regions in Southern Europe. Asturias has been growing below the Spanish national average since the decline of the mining industry, and grew just 0.82% in 2008, the lowest of all regions in Spain. On the plus side, unemployment in Asturias is below the average of Spain; it stood at 13.7% in 2017.


Transportation


Air

Asturias is served by Asturias Airport, Asturias International Airport (OVD), from Oviedo, near the northwest coast and the industrial town of Avilés. * Several national carriers link Asturias to Madrid and Barcelona, Alicante, London, Paris and others. ** Iberia Airlines, Iberia ** Volotea ** Vueling Eastern Asturias is also easily accessible from Santander Airport. Recent improvements introduced in the road network permit flying into Santander, Cantabria, Santander and later driving into Asturias, which can be entered in less than an hour's drive. The Irish airline Ryanair operates flights to Santander Airport from Frankfurt Hahn, Liverpool, Dublin, Edinburgh, London Stansted and Rome Ciampino.


Sea

El Musel (the Port of Gijón) is able to receive cruise ships of any size. Companies as P&O, Swan Hellenic or Hapag Lloyd choose the Port of Gijón every year for their calls in the Atlantic European Coast. The following areas are available for cruise vessels: * Moliner quay: 313 m berthing with 14 m draught. * 7ª Alignment: 326 m with 12 m draught. * Espigón II. South alignment. 360 m berth with 9 m draught. These locations allow a high degree of access control, with security guaranteed for both vessels and passengers alike. The city centre is only away and the Port Authority provides dedicated coach connection allowing passengers to take advantage of the cultural, gastronomy, gastronomic and commercial opportunities that Gijón has to offer. Between 2010 and 2014, the city of Gijón was connected by ferry with the French city of Nantes. This connection was also known as the "sea highway" and it had a frequency of two ferries per day in both directions. The route was cancelled in September 2014.


Train

Spain's national RENFE rail network also serves Asturias well; trains regularly depart to and from the Spanish interior. Major stops are the regional capital,
Oviedo Oviedo (, , ; ast, Uviéu ) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian G ...

Oviedo
, and the main coastal city,
Gijón Gijón (, , ) or () is a city in north-western Spain. It is the largest city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdic ...

Gijón
. Meanwhile, the FEVE rail company links the centre of the region with Eastern and Western Asturias. Under the Cantabrian Mountains, the Pajares Base Tunnel, is currently under construction, and will reduce the journey times from Madrid to Asturias from 5 hours to just 3 hours, paving the way for the arrival of AVE trains in the near future.


Bus

There is also a comprehensive bus service run by the ALSA (bus company), ALSA company. It links
Avilés Avilés () is a town in Asturias, Spain. Avilés is with Oviedo and Gijón, one of the main cities in the Principality of Asturias. The town occupies the flattest land in the municipality, in a land that belonged to the sea, surrounded by small pr ...

Avilés
,
Gijón Gijón (, , ) or () is a city in north-western Spain. It is the largest city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdic ...

Gijón
,
Oviedo Oviedo (, , ; ast, Uviéu ) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian G ...

Oviedo
and
Mieres Mieres is a municipality of Asturias, northern Spain, with approximately 38,000 inhabitants. The municipality of Mieres is made up of the capital, Mieres del Camino and the villages of Baiña, Figaredo, Cenera, Loredo, La Peña, La Rebollada, Sa ...
with Madrid and other major towns, several times a day. These include services to Barcelona, Salamanca, León (Spain), León, Valladolid, A Coruña, Bilbao, Seville, San Sebastián, Paris, Brussels and Nice, to name just a few.


Main sights


Key attractions

Oviedo Oviedo (, , ; ast, Uviéu ) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian G ...

Oviedo
is the capital city of Asturias and contains Santa María del Naranco and San Miguel de Lillo, a pre-Romanesque church and a palace respectively, which were built by the first Asturian kings on Mount Naranco, to the north of the city (World Heritage Site). In modern architecture, the ''Palacio de Congresos de Oviedo'' (or ''Modoo'') was designed by Santiago Calatrava. Gijon, the biggest city of Asturias, is a coastal city known for cultural and sports events, and a beach tourism centre in northern Spain. It also is known for the traditional Asturian gastronomy and for being an Asturian cider production spot. Museums in the city include the Universidad Laboral de Gijón, including a modern art museum and theatre.
Avilés Avilés () is a town in Asturias, Spain. Avilés is with Oviedo and Gijón, one of the main cities in the Principality of Asturias. The town occupies the flattest land in the municipality, in a land that belonged to the sea, surrounded by small pr ...

Avilés
is the third largest city in Asturias, where "La villa del adelantado" (as locals call it, in reference of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés) is a meeting point. "Saint Nicholas of Bari" or "Capilla de los Alas" in Romanesque and Romanesque-Gothic style, respectively; Palacio de Balsera, in Modernist style or St. Thomas of Canterbury church (dating from the 13th century) are examples which show the historical patrimony to be found in the city. The Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre, Centro Niemeyer, designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer, is an example of contemporary architecture in Asturias. The Picos de Europa National Park, and other parts of the Asturian mountain range: The Picu Urriellu mountain (2519 m or 8262 ft), also known as ''El Naranjo de Bulnes'', is a molar-shaped peak which, reputedly, glows orange in the evening sun, hence its name. Weather permitting, it can be viewed from Camarmeña village, near Poncebos, south of Arenas de Cabrales. The shrine to the Virgin of Covadonga and the mountain lakes (''Lakes of Covadonga, Los Lagos''), near
Cangas de Onís Cangas de Onís ( Asturian: ''Cangues d'Onís'' "valleys of Onís"'':wikt:canga#Asturian, Canga'' (plural ''cangues'') is an Asturian word for "valley, canyon".) is a municipality in the eastern part of the province and autonomous community of ...

Cangas de Onís
: Legend has it that in the 8th century, the Our Lady of Covadonga, Virgin blessed Asturian Christian forces with a well-timed signal to attack Spain's Moorish conquerors, thereby taking the invaders by surprise in the Battle of Covadonga. The ''
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
'' and eventual unification of all Spain is therefore said to have started in this very location. The paleolithic art in the caves of Asturias is declared World Heritage Site with the Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain, Paleolithic Art of Northern Spain. Asturias also has examples of Industrial archaeology, industrial heritage as a consequence of its industrial activities in the 19th and 20th centuries. It had metallurgical and chemical factories, mines, bridges and railways, including in the towns of
Langreo Langreo (; ast, Llangréu) is a municipality and town of northern Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto ...

Langreo
, Mieres and
Avilés Avilés () is a town in Asturias, Spain. Avilés is with Oviedo and Gijón, one of the main cities in the Principality of Asturias. The town occupies the flattest land in the municipality, in a land that belonged to the sea, surrounded by small pr ...

Avilés
. The Asturian coast: especially the beaches in and around the summer resort of
Llanes Llanes (the ''Concejo de Llanes'', ''Conceyu de Llanes'' in Asturian language) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality of the province of Asturias, in northern Spain. Stretching for about 30 km along the coast at the extreme east of the p ...

Llanes
, the Playa del Silencio near Cudillero fishing village, or the "white" village of Luarca (Severo Ochoa hometown).


Other places of interest

* Ceceda village: east of
Oviedo Oviedo (, , ; ast, Uviéu ) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian G ...

Oviedo
along the N634 road. Of particular interest in this exemplary settlement are the traditional ''Hórreo, horreos'' (grain silos), raised on stilts so as to keep field mice from getting at the grain. * The Dobra (Sella), Dobra River: south of
Cangas de Onís Cangas de Onís ( Asturian: ''Cangues d'Onís'' "valleys of Onís"'':wikt:canga#Asturian, Canga'' (plural ''cangues'') is an Asturian word for "valley, canyon".) is a municipality in the eastern part of the province and autonomous community of ...

Cangas de Onís
, known for its unusual colour. * The ''senda costera'' (coastal way) between Pendueles and
Llanes Llanes (the ''Concejo de Llanes'', ''Conceyu de Llanes'' in Asturian language) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality of the province of Asturias, in northern Spain. Stretching for about 30 km along the coast at the extreme east of the p ...

Llanes
: This partly paved nature route takes in some of Asturias' most spectacular coastal scenery, such as the noisy ''bufones'' (blowhole (geology), blowholes) and the Playa de Ballota (Cudillero), Ballota. * Caldoveiro Peak, a scenic mountain hiking area * The unusual rock formation on the beach at Buelna village: east of
Llanes Llanes (the ''Concejo de Llanes'', ''Conceyu de Llanes'' in Asturian language) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality of the province of Asturias, in northern Spain. Stretching for about 30 km along the coast at the extreme east of the p ...

Llanes
. Best viewed at low tide.


Culture


Architecture

Asturias has a rich artistic legacy that emphasizes Romanesque art, Romanesque (''Asturias Arts'') indigenous architecture with monuments like Santa María del Naranco, Santa Cristina de Lena and San Miguel de Lillo. These monuments have a Ramirense Romanesque style (due to Ramiro I of Asturias, Ramiro I) or San Julián de los Prados, known as Santullano (
Oviedo Oviedo (, , ; ast, Uviéu ) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian G ...

Oviedo
) of the Alfonsino pre-Romanesque style (due to Alfonso II of Asturias, Alfonso II), which are all in Oviedo. Other examples of architecture are Villaviciosa's church, San Salvador de Valdediós (commonly known by the Asturians as "Conventín"), and the church of San Salvador de Priesca. Another example is Cabranes, Cabranes' San Julian de Viñón. The Romanesque architecture, Romanesque style is very present, since all Asturias is crossed by one of the Camino de Santiago routes, which highlights the Monastery of San Pedro de Villanueva (near Cangas de Onis), the churches of Church of San Esteban (Aramil), San Esteban de Aramil (
Siero Siero is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...

Siero
), Church of San Juan (Amandi), San Juan de Amandi ( Villaviciosa) and Santa María de Junco (Ribadesella). The Gothic architecture, Gothic style is not as abundant, but there are good examples of this style, such as the Oviedo Cathedral, Cathedral of San Salvador in Oviedo. The Baroque architecture, Baroque style is more present by means of palace architecture, with such notable examples as the Palace of Camposagrado and Velarde - the latter seat of Museum of Fine Arts of Asturias. The Baroque style stands out in public civil engineering and bridge tolls (Olloniego); the milestones, the chairs or seats present along the road to Madrid and the resort of Caldas de Priorio (Oviedo) building. In 1985, the UNESCO declared the pre-Romanesque monuments and the Oviedo Cathedral, Cathedral of Oviedo as World Heritage Sites. In popular architecture, the traditional granaries in Asturias, called ''hórreos'', are known for their demographic extension and their functional evolution, its basic characteristic being its mobility: it can be easily dismounted and transported to another location. The Panera is the evolution of the hórreo, with examples exceeding of area covered. The purpose of the horreo is to store objects and crops. With the arrival of maize and the beans, they were endowed with exterior corridors and railings for drying the harvests. Asturias is home to the only architectural work in Spain (as well as the largest in Europe) of the Brazilian architect and disciple of Le Corbusier; Oscar Niemeyer: the Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre. The architectural project was donated to the Principality by the architect, who was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award, Prince of Asturias Award for the Arts, in the XXV edition of these awards. Niemeyer's project combined several different elements, and projected an open space, a place for education, culture and peace. In the capital of the Principality stands one of the most representative buildings of modern architecture, the Palace of Congresses of Oviedo, by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, who also awarded the Prince of Asturias of Award for the Arts in 1999. Special importance has been placed in recent years on the recovery of industrial heritage through various routes and industrial museums, especially in the central area of the region.


Festivals and holidays

Some of the most famous festivals in Asturias are from the small town of
Llanes Llanes (the ''Concejo de Llanes'', ''Conceyu de Llanes'' in Asturian language) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality of the province of Asturias, in northern Spain. Stretching for about 30 km along the coast at the extreme east of the p ...

Llanes
. These festivals celebrate the important saints and the Virgin Mary adored by the town. The associations that prepare the festivals have a rivalry between them and each year they try to outdo each other with more impressive shows. The three most important are the festival of San Roque (St. Roque) held on the 16th of August, the festival of Nuestra Señora Virgen de La Guia (Our Lady, Virgin Mary, the Guide) held on the 8th of September, and the festival of Santa Maria Magdalena (St. Mary Magdalene) held on the 22nd of July. The Magdalena is well known for its impressive march of logs where boys as young as 3 and men carry logs through the town until they reach the end point and start a large bonfire.


Food and drink

While Asturias is especially known for its seafood, the most famous regional dish is ''Fabada Asturiana, fabada asturiana'', a rich stew typically made with large white broad bean, beans (''fabes''), shoulder of pork (''lacón''), black pudding (''morcilla''), and spicy sausage (''chorizo''). Apple groves foster the production of the region's traditional alcoholic drink, a natural cider (''sidra''). Since it is natural and bottled without gas, it produces a weak carbonation, and when Asturian cider is served, it is poured in a particular way, ''el escanciado'': the bottle is held above the head allowing for a long vertical pour, causing the cider to be aerated as it splashes into the glass below. After drinking most of the content, it is customary to splash a little out onto the ground, as a way to clean the glass of any lees (fermentation), lees for the next serving. Traditionally, the same glass is refilled and passed around, with everyone drinking from it in turn. Asturian cheeses, especially Cabrales cheese, Cabrales, are also eaten throughout Spain and beyond; Asturias is often called "the land of cheeses" (''el país de los quesos'').


Sport

Asturias has two main football teams: Real Sporting de Gijón, Sporting de Gijón and Real Oviedo, which have played over 35 seasons in La Liga. Other current notable sports teams are Oviedo CB (basketball) and AB Gijón Jovellanos (handball). Racecar driver Fernando Alonso is a two-time Formula One world champion, and races with Asturias' flag colours on his helmet. Also, cyclist Samuel Sánchez won a gold at the Olympic games. Football players from Asturias include World Cup winner David Villa as well as Quini, Luis Enrique (footballer), Luis Enrique, Juan Manuel Mata, and Santiago Cazorla, among others.


Literature

These are some notable people of Asturian Literature: * Antón de Marirreguera (17th century) *
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (born Gaspar Melchor de Jove y Llanos, 5 January 1744 – 27 November 1811) was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain. Life and influence of h ...

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
(1744–1811) * Ramón de Campoamor (1817–1901) * Leopoldo Alas, Leopoldo Alas, "Clarín" (1851–1901) * Armando Palacio Valdés (1853–1938) * Ramón Pérez de Ayala (1880–1962) * Alfonso Camín (1890–1982) * Alejandro Casona (1903–1965) * Carlos Bousoño (1923) * Ángel González Muñiz, Ángel González (1925–2008) * Corín Tellado (1927–2009) * Gonzalo Suárez (1934) * Rafael Reig (1963) * Aurelio González Ovies (1964) * Xuan Bello (1965) * Jorge Moreno (1973)


Music

The music of Asturias is varied. The most characteristic instrument in traditional music is the Gaita asturiana, Asturian bagpipe, or ''Gaita asturiana'', which has a single drone, in common with the traditional bagpipes of other Celtic nations such as Wales and Ireland. The bagpipe is often accompanied by the hand drum, whistles and accordion. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional folk music, and several music ensembles have gained regional and international recognition for their ethnomusicological study and presentation of indigenous Asturian music. Notable examples include traditional pipers such as Xuacu Amieva and Tejedor and fusionist José Ángel Hevia (whose music video provides views of both the gaita and the Asturian landscape), and the groups Llan de Cubel, Xera (band), Xera, Nuberu and Felpeyu. Additionally, numerous rock, ska and heavy metal groups have also found relative success within Asturias, many of which incorporate elements of traditional Asturian music into their sound.


Anthem

The Asturian anthem Asturias, patria querida (Asturias, beloved fatherland), which was a popular song adopted as the region's anthem and formalised by ''Ley 1/1984, de 27 de Abríl''.


Orquesta Sinfónica del Principado de Asturias

The Orquesta Sinfonica del Principado de Asturias, Orquesta Sinfónica del Principado de Asturias is the premier orchestra in the Principality of Asturias. It is based in the Auditorio Príncipe Felipe in Oviedo, but also performs in the main concert venues in Gijón and Avilés. Rossen Milanov is the Music Director.


Other

''Leyenda, Asturias'' is also the name of the fifth movement of the ''Suite Española, Op. 47'' by Spanish composer Isaac Albéniz. Nevertheless, the music has little in common with the region's own folklore. Another famous piece of classical music more authentically inspired by the Asturian musical heritage is Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's ''Capriccio Espagnol'', which prominently features a theme from an ''alborada'', a dance tune traditionally played to celebrate the rising of the sun.


Notable people

* Luis Enrique Martínez García, former FC Barcelona captain and manager. he has also been the manager of Spain national football team since July 9, 2018. * Juan Carreño de Miranda, court painter * Fernando Alonso, Formula One racing driver, 2005 and 2006 world champion * Leopoldo Alas "Clarín", 19th-century author of ''La Regenta'', a seminal work in the Spanish literary canon * Armando Palacio Valdés, 19th and 20th-century novelist and critic * Francisco Álvarez Cascos, minister in Spain's government 1996–2000 and 2000–2004 * Santi Cazorla, Arsenal F.C, Arsenal and Spain international football player, European Champion 2008 and 2012 * Torcuato Fernández-Miranda, key lawmaker during the Spanish transition to democracy * Ángel González Muñiz, Ángel González, major Spanish poet of the 20th century. *
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (born Gaspar Melchor de Jove y Llanos, 5 January 1744 – 27 November 1811) was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain. Life and influence of h ...

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
, philosopher, politician, Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment thinker * Pedro Rodríguez de Campomanes, statesman, economist, and Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment writer * Agustín Argüelles, liberal politician * Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Spanish explorer and founder of Saint Augustine, Florida * Gonzalo Méndez de Canço, governor of the Spanish Florida (1596-1603). * Queen Letizia of Spain, a native of
Oviedo Oviedo (, , ; ast, Uviéu ) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian G ...

Oviedo
and wife of Felipe VI of Spain, Felipe VI, King of Spain * Severo Ochoa, 1959 Nobel Prize winner for physiology or medicine * Rafael del Riego, general and liberal politician * Carmen Polo, wife of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco * Chechu Rubiera, cyclist * Victor Manuel, Spanish singer-songwriter * José Andrés, chef * Amalia Ulman, artist * David Villa, New York City FC and Spain international football star, European Champion 2008, World Champion 2010 * Juan Manuel Mata, Manchester United F.C. player, Spain international football star, World Champion 2010 and European Champion 2012 * Michu, former Swansea City and Rayo Vallecano player * Xaviel Vilareyo, national poet, writer and musician * Samuel Sánchez, cyclist, Olympic gold medalist * Melendi, is a Spanish pop singer-songwriter * Pablo Carreño, professional tennis player * Margarita Salas, scientist File:Don Pelayo.jpg, Pelagius of Asturias, Pelagius, first king of Asturias File:Jose Andres.jpg, José Andrés, famous chef File:Reina Letizia de España.jpg, Queen Letizia, current Queen consort of Spain File:Honda Racing Thanks Day 2015 - Alonso cropped.jpg, Fernando Alonso


Events

*
Princess of Asturias Awards The Princess of Asturias Awards ( es, Premios Princesa de Asturias, links=no, ast, Premios Princesa d'Asturies, links=no), formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981 to 2014 ( es, Premios Príncipe de Asturias, links=no), are a series of a ...
* Asturian miners' strike of 1934, Asturian Revolution (Asturian History) * Gijón International Film Festival (Entertainment) * Avilés International Cinema and Architecture Festival (Entertainment)


See also

* Asturian architecture between the years 711 to 925 * List of oldest church buildings * :Churches in Asturias, Churches in Asturias * Asturian cinema * Asturcón, Asturcón pony * :Asturian mythology * Arama 36/37: Association for the Recovery of Asturian Military Architecture 1936–1937


References


Bibliography

* Bowen-Jones, H. and W.B. Fisher. ''Spain: An Introductory Geography''. New York: Praeger, 1966. * Dresner, Denise, ed. ''Guide to the World''. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1998. S.v. "Asturias" * ''Encyclopedia Americana''. Danbury: Grolier, 2002. S.v. "Asturias" * ''Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary''. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1997. S.v. "Asturias"


External links

*
Official Tourism website of Asturias
{{Authority control Asturias, Coal mining regions in Spain Green Spain NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Autonomous communities of Spain