Assassination is the act of deliberately killing
a prominent or important person, such as heads of state
, heads of government
s, or CEO
s. An assassination may be prompted by political and military motives
, or done for financial gain
, to avenge
, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety
, or because of a military, security, insurgent or secret police
group's command to carry out the assassination. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times
, the individual responsible for the assassination
of United States President John F. Kennedy
on November 22, 1963. Oswald himself was murdered two days later by Jack Ruby
, the first such event to receive wide television coverage.
The word ''assassin'' is often believed to derive from the word ''hashshashin
'' (Arabic: حشّاشين, ħashshāshīyīn, also hashishin, hashashiyyin, or assassins), and shares its etymological roots with ''hashish
'' ( or ; from Arabic
[''The Assassins: a radical sect in Islam'' – Bernard Lewis, pp. 11–12]
It referred to a group of Nizari Ismailis
known as the Assassins
who worked against various political targets.
Founded by Hassan-i Sabbah
, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut
in Persia from the 8th to the 14th centuries, and later expanded into a ''de facto'' state
by acquiring or building many scattered strongholds. The group killed members of the Abbasid
, and Christian Crusader
elite for political and religious reasons.
Although it is commonly believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish
during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.
The earliest known use of the verb "to assassinate" in printed English was by Matthew Sutcliffe
in ''A Briefe Replie to a Certaine Odious and Slanderous Libel, Lately Published by a Seditious Jesuite'', a pamphlet printed in 1600, five years before it was used in ''Macbeth
'' by William Shakespeare
Use in history
Ancient to medieval times
thumbnail|''Jael and Sisera'', by Artemisia Gentileschi
Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics
. It dates back at least as far as recorded history.
In the Old Testament
, King Joash
was assassinated by his own servants; Joab
, King David
's son; and King Sennacherib
of Assyria was assassinated by his own sons.
(c. 350–283 BC) wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise ''Arthashastra
''. His student Chandragupta Maurya
, the founder of the Maurya Empire
, later made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great
's generals, Nicanor
Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon
(336 BC), the father of Alexander the Great, and Roman dictator Julius Caesar
(44 BC). Emperors of Rome
often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imam
s hundreds of years later. The practice was also well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke
's failed assassination of Qin
king Ying Zheng
in 227 BC. Whilst many assassinations were performed by individuals or small groups, there were also specialized units who used a collective group of people to perform more than one assassination. The earliest were the sicarii
in 6 AD, who predated the Middle Eastern assassins
and Japanese shinobi
s by centuries.
[Ross, Jeffrey Ian, ''Religion and Violence: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict from Antiquity to the Present'', Routledge (January 15, 2011), Chapter: Sicarii. 978-0765620484]
In the Middle Ages
was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire
. Strangling in the bathtub was the most commonly used method. With the Renaissance
—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir
(1089), dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantine
s against the Seljuk
Turks. This account is, however, contentious among historians, it being most commonly asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination. In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat
, the ''de facto
'' King of Jerusalem
, was killed by an assassin
The reigns of King Przemysł II
of Poland (1296), William the Silent
of the Netherlands (1584), and the French kings Henry III
(1589) and Henry IV
(1610) were all ended by assassins.
During the 16th and 17th century, international lawyers began to voice condemnation of assasssinations of leaders. Balthazar Ayala
has been described as "the first prominent jurist to condemn the use of assassination in foreign policy."
condemned assassinations in a 1598 publication where he appealed to the self-interest of leaders: (i) assassinations had adverse short-term consequences by arousing the ire of the assassinated leader's successor, and (ii) assassinations had the adverse long-term consequences of causing disorder and chaos.
's works on the law of war strictly forbade assassinations, arguing that killing was only permissible on the battlefield.
In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was also used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed
. In Russia
alone, two emperors, Paul I
and his grandson Alexander II
, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom
, only one Prime Minister
has been assassinated
on May 11, 1812.
[M. Gillen 1972 ''Assassination of the Prime Minister: the shocking death of Spencer Perceval''. London: Sidgwick & Jackson .]
In Japan, a group of assassins called the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu
killed a number of people, including Ii Naosuke
who was the head of administration for the Tokugawa shogunate, during the Boshin War
. Most of the assassinations in Japan were committed with bladed weaponry, a trait that was carried on into modern history. A video-record exists of the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma
, using a sword.
In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln
, James A. Garfield
, William McKinley
and John F. Kennedy
—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts
on U.S. presidents' lives. Huey Long
, a senator, was assassinated on September 10, 1935. Robert F. Kennedy
, a senator and a presidential candidate, was also assassinated
on June 6, 1968, in the United States.
In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg
in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, carried out by Gavrilo Princip
, a Serbian national and a member of the Serbia
n nationalist insurgents
(The Black Hand
), is blamed for igniting World War I
after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II
used operatives specifically trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich
died after an attack by British-trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid
, and knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the United States to carry out a targeted attack
, killing Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
while he was travelling by plane. The Polish Home Army
conducted a regular campaign of assassinations
against top Nazi German officials in occupied Poland. Adolf Hitler
was almost killed by his own officers
, and survived various attempts by other persons and organizations (such as Operation Foxley
, though this plan was never put into practice).
During the 1930s and 1940s, Joseph Stalin
carried out numerous assassinations outside of the Soviet Union, such as the killings of Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
leader Yevhen Konovalets
, Ignace Poretsky
, Fourth International
secretary Rudolf Klement, Leon Trotsky
, and the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM
) leadership in Catalonia
India's "Father of the Nation", Mahatma Gandhi
, was shot to death
on January 30, 1948, by Nathuram Godse
The African-American civil rights activist, Martin Luther King Jr.
, was assassinated
on April 4, 1968, at the Lorraine Motel (now the National Civil Rights Museum
) in Memphis, Tennessee
. Three years prior, another African-American civil rights activist, Malcolm X
, was assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom
on February 21, 1965. Two years prior, another African-American civil rights activist, Medgar Evers
, was assassinated on June 12, 1963. Fred Hampton
of the Black Panther Party
was assassinated on December 4, 1969.
Cold War and beyond
Liaquat Ali Khan
, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan
, was assassinated by Saad Akbar
, a lone assassin, in 1951. Conspiracy theorists believe his conflict with certain members of the Pakistani military (Rawalpindi conspiracy) or suppression of Communists and antagonism towards the Soviet Union
, were potential reasons for his assassination.
In 1960, Inejiro Asanuma
, Chairman of the Japanese Socialist Party
, was assassinated
in a stabbing by an extreme rightist.
The U.S. Senate Select Committee chaired by Senator Frank Church
(the Church Committee
) reported in 1975 that it had found "concrete evidence of at least eight plots involving the CIA to assassinate Fidel Castro from 1960 to 1965."
Most major powers repudiated Cold War assassination tactics, though many allege that this was merely a smokescreen for political benefit and that covert and illegal training of assassins continues today, with Russia, Israel
, the U.S., Argentina
, Paraguay, Chile
, and other nations accused of engaging in such operations. In 1986, U.S. President Ronald Reagan
(who survived an assassination attempt himself) ordered the Operation El Dorado Canyon
air raid on Libya
in which one of the primary targets was the home residence of Libyan ruler Muammar Gaddafi
. Gaddafi escaped unharmed; however, his adopted daughter Hanna
was claimed to be one of the civilian casualties.
In the Philippines
, the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr.
triggered the eventual downfall of the 20-year autocratic rule of President Ferdinand Marcos
. Aquino, a former Senator
and a leading figure of the political opposition, was assassinated in 1983 at the Manila International Airport
(now the Ninoy Aquino International Airport
) upon returning home from exile
. His death thrust his widow, Corazon Aquino
, into the limelight and, ultimately, the presidency following the peaceful 1986 EDSA Revolution
After the Iranian Revolution
of 1979, the new Islamic government of Iran began an international campaign of assassination that lasted into the 1990s. At least 162 killings in 19 countries have been linked to the senior leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran
. This campaign came to an end after the Mykonos restaurant assassinations
, because a German court publicly implicated senior members of the government and issued arrest warrants for Ali Fallahian
, the head of the Iranian Intelligence. Evidence indicates that Fallahian's personal involvement and individual responsibility for the murders were far more pervasive than his current indictment record represents.
, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (formerly President of the United Arab Republic), was assassinated October 6, 1981, during the annual parade celebrating Operation Badr
, the opening maneuver of the Yom Kippur War
Swedish prime minister Olof Palme
was murdered by a gun-wielding man close to midnight on February 28, 1986, after having visited a cinema with his wife. The couple was not accompanied by a bodyguard detail. In 2020 Swedish prosecutors named Stig Engström
as the killer.
On August 17, 1988, President of Pakistan
Gen. M. Zia ul Haq died alongside 31 others
including the Chief of Staff of the Pakistani Armed Forces, the US Ambassador to Pakistan and the chief of the US Military Mission to Pakistan when his C-130
transport plane mysteriously crashed. The crash is widely considered—in Pakistan—to be an act of political assassination.
In post-Saddam Iraq
, the Shiite-dominated government used death squads to perform extrajudicial executions
of radical Sunni
Iraqis, with some alleging that the death squads were trained by the U.S. Concrete allegations have since surfaced that the Iranian government has actively armed and funded Shia death-squads in post-Saddam Iraq.
In India, Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi
and her son Rajiv Gandhi
(neither of whom were related to Mahatma Gandhi
, who was assassinated in 1948), were assassinated in 1984 and 1991 respectively. The assassinations were linked to separatist
movements in Punjab
and northern Sri Lanka
, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin
was assassinated on November 4, 1995. Yigal Amir
confessed and was convicted of the crime.
Israeli tourist minister Rehavam Ze'evi
was assassinated on October 17, 2001, by Hamdi Quran
and three other members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
. The PFLP stated that the assassination was in retaliation for the August 27, 2001, killing of Abu Ali Mustafa
, the Secretary General of the PFLP, by the Israeli Air Force
under its policy of targeted killings
, the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri
on February 14, 2005, prompted an investigation by the United Nations. The suggestion in the resulting ''Mehlis report
'' that there was Syria
n involvement, prompted the Cedar Revolution
, which drove Syrian troops out of Lebanon.
, former prime minister and opposition leader Benazir Bhutto
was assassinated in 2007
, while running for re-election. Bhutto's assassination drew unanimous condemnation from the international community
In Guinea Bissau
, President João Bernardo Vieira
was assassinated in the early hours of March 2, 2009, in the capital, Bissau
. Unlike typical assassinations his death was not swift; he first survived an explosion at the Presidential Villa, was then shot and wounded, and was finally butchered with machete
s. His assassination was carried out by renegade soldiers who were apparently avenging the death of General Tagme Na Waie
, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Guinea Bissau, who was killed when a bomb exploded the day before.
As a military and foreign policy doctrine
Assassination for military purposes has long been espoused: Sun Tzu
, writing around 500 BC, argued in favor of using assassination in his book ''The Art of War
''. Nearly 2000 years later, in his book ''The Prince
also advises rulers to assassinate enemies whenever possible to prevent them from posing a threat. An army and even a nation might be based upon and around a particularly strong, canny, or charismatic leader
, whose loss could paralyze the ability of both to make war.
For similar and additional reasons, assassination has also sometimes been used in the conduct of foreign policy
. The costs and benefits of such actions are difficult to compute. It may not be clear whether the assassinated leader gets replaced with a more or less competent successor, whether the assassination provokes ire in the state in question, whether the assassination leads to souring domestic public opinion, and whether the assassination provokes condemnation from third-parties.
One study found that perceptual biases held by leaders often negatively affect decision making in that area, and decisions to go forward with assassinations often reflect the vague hope that any successor might be better.
In both military and foreign policy assassinations, there is the risk that the target could be replaced by an even more competent leader or that such a killing (or a failed attempt) will "martyr
" a leader and lead to greater support of his or her cause by showing the ruthlessness of the assassins. Faced with particularly brilliant leaders, that possibility has in various instances been risked, such as in the attempts to kill the Athenian Alcibiades
during the Peloponnesian War
. A number of additional examples from World War II
show how assassination was used as a tool:
* The assassination of Reinhard Heydrich
in Prague on May 27, 1942, by the British and Czechoslovak government-in-exile. That case illustrates the difficulty of comparing the benefits of a foreign policy goal (strengthening the legitimacy and influence of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile
in London) against the possible costs resulting from an assassination (the Lidice massacre
* The American interception of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
's plane during World War II after his travel route had been decrypted.
* Operation Gaff
was a planned British commando raid to capture or kill the German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel
, also known as "The Desert Fox".
[''Commando Extraordinary'' – Foley, Charles; Legion for the Survival of Freedom, 1992, page 155]
Use of assassination has continued in more recent conflicts:
* During the Vietnam War
, partly in response to Viet Cong
assassinations of government leaders, the US engaged in the Phoenix Program
to assassinate Viet Cong
leaders and sympathizers. It killed between 6,000 and 41,000 people, with official "targets" of 1,800 per month.
* With the January 3, 2020, Baghdad International Airport airstrike
, the US assassinated the commander of Iran's Quds Force
General Qasem Soleimani
and the commander of Iraq's Popular Mobilization Forces Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis
, along with eight other high-ranking military personnel. The assassination of the military leaders was part of escalating tensions between the US and Iran
and the American-led intervention in Iraq
As a tool of insurgents
Insurgent groups have often employed assassination as a tool to further their causes. Assassinations provide several functions for such groups: the removal of specific enemies and as propaganda tools to focus the attention of media and politics on their cause.
The Irish Republican Army
guerrillas in 1919 to 1921 killed many Royal Irish Constabulary
Police intelligence officers during the Irish War of Independence
. Michael Collins
set up a special unit, the Squad
, for that purpose, which had the effect of intimidating many policemen into resigning from the force. The Squad's activities peaked with the killing of 14 British agents in Dublin
on Bloody Sunday
The tactic was used again by the Provisional IRA
during the Troubles
in Northern Ireland (1969–1998). Killing Royal Ulster Constabulary
officers and assassination of unionist
politicians was one of a number of methods used in the Provisional IRA campaign 1969–1997
. The IRA also attempted to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
by bombing the Conservative Party Conference
in a Brighton
hotel. Loyalist paramilitaries
retaliated by killing Catholics at random and assassinating Irish nationalist
in Spain assassinated many security and political figures since the late 1960s, notably the president of the government of Spain, Luis Carrero Blanco
, 1st Duke of Carrero-Blanco Grandee of Spain, in 1973. In the early 1990s, it also began to target academics, journalists and local politicians who publicly disagreed with it.
The Red Brigades
in Italy carried out assassinations of political figures and, to a lesser extent, so did the Red Army Faction
in Germany in the 1970s and the 1980s.
In the Vietnam War
, communist insurgents routinely assassinated government officials and individual civilians deemed to offend or rival the revolutionary movement. Such attacks, along with widespread military activity by insurgent bands, almost brought the Ngo Dinh Diem
regime to collapse before the US intervened.
A major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century came to the conclusion that most prospective assassins spend copious amounts of time planning and preparing for their attempts. Assassinations are thus rarely cases "impulsive" actions.
However, about 25% of the actual attackers were found to be delusion
al, a figure that rose to 60% with "near-lethal approachers" (people apprehended before reaching their targets). That shows that while mental instability plays a role in many modern-assassinations, the more delusional attackers are less likely to succeed in their attempts. The report also found that around two thirds of attackers had previously been arrested, not necessarily for related offenses; 44% had a history of serious depression, and 39% had a history of substance abuse.
With the advent of effective ranged weaponry
and later firearms
, the position of an assassination target was more precarious. Bodyguards were no longer enough to hold back determined killers, who no longer needed to engage directly or even to subvert the guard to kill the leader in question. Moreover, the engagement of targets at greater distances dramatically increased the chances for assassins to survive since they could quickly flee the scene. The first heads of government to be assassinated with a firearm were James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray
, the regent of Scotland, in 1570, and William the Silent
, the Prince of Orange of the Netherlands, in 1584. Gunpowder
and other explosives also allowed the use of bombs or even greater concentrations of explosives for deeds requiring a larger touch.
Explosives, especially the car bomb
, become far more common in modern history, with grenades
and remote-triggered land mines also used, especially in the Middle East and the Balkans; the initial attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand
's life was with a grenade. With heavy weapons, the rocket-propelled grenade
(RPG) has become a useful tool given the popularity of armored cars (discussed below), and Israeli forces have pioneered the use of aircraft-mounted missiles, as well as the innovative use of explosive devices.
with a precision rifle is often used in fictional assassinations. However, certain pragmatic difficulties attend long-range shooting, including finding a hidden shooting position with a clear line of sight, detailed advance knowledge of the intended victim's travel plans, the ability to identify the target at long range, and the ability to score a first-round lethal hit at long range, which is usually measured in hundreds of meters. A dedicated sniper rifle
is also expensive, often costing thousands of dollars because of the high level of precision machining and handfinishing required to achieve extreme accuracy.
Iraqi insurgents using Austrian rifles from Iran
' – The Daily Telegraph, Tuesday February 13, 2007
Despite their comparative disadvantages, handguns are more easily concealable and so are much more commonly used than rifles. Of the 74 principal incidents evaluated in a major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century, 51% were undertaken by a handgun, 30% with a rifle or shotgun, 15% used knives, and 8% explosives (the use of multiple weapons/methods was reported in 16% of all cases).
In the case of state-sponsored assassination, poisoning can be more easily denied. Georgi Markov
, a dissident from Bulgaria
, was assassinated by ricin
poisoning. A tiny pellet containing the poison was injected into his leg through a specially designed umbrella
. Widespread allegations involving the Bulgarian government and the KGB
have not led to any legal results. However, after the fall of the Soviet Union, it was learned that the KGB had developed an umbrella that could inject ricin pellets into a victim, and two former KGB agents who defected stated that the agency assisted in the murder. The CIA
made several attempts to assassinate Fidel Castro
, many of the schemes involving poisoning his cigars. In the late 1950s, the KGB assassin Bohdan Stashynsky
killed Ukrainian nationalist leaders Lev Rebet
and Stepan Bandera
with a spray gun that fired a jet of poison gas from a crushed cyanide
ampule, making their deaths look like heart attacks. A 2006 case in the UK concerned the assassination of Alexander Litvinenko
who was given a lethal dose of radioactive polonium
-210, possibly passed to him in aerosol form sprayed directly onto his food. Litvinenko
, a former KGB agent, had been granted asylum in the UK in 2000 after he had cited persecution in Russia. Shortly before his death, he issued a statement accusing Russian President Vladimir Putin
of involvement in his assassination. Putin, a former KGB agent, denied any involvement in Litvinenko's death.
Targeted killing is the intentional killing by a government or its agents of a civilian or "unlawful combatant
" who is not in the government's custody. The target is a person asserted to be taking part in an armed conflict or terrorism, by bearing arms or otherwise, who has thereby lost the immunity from being targeted that he would otherwise have under the Third Geneva Convention
Note that it is a different term and concept from that of "targeted violence", as used by specialists who study violence.
On the other hand, Georgetown University Law Center
Professor Gary D. Solis
, in his 2010 book ''The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War'', wrote, "Assassinations and targeted killings are very different acts."
The use of the term "assassination" is opposed, as it denotes murder (unlawful killing), but the terrorists are targeted in self-defense, which is thus viewed as a killing but not a crime (justifiable homicide
Abraham D. Sofaer
Targeted killing is a necessary option
', Sofaer, Abraham D., Hoover Institution, March 26, 2004
, former federal judge for the US District Court for the Southern District of New York
, wrote on the subject:
When people call a targeted killing an "assassination," they are attempting to preclude debate on the merits of the action. Assassination is widely defined as murder, and is for that reason prohibited in the United States ... U.S. officials may not kill people merely because their policies are seen as detrimental to our interests... But killings in self-defense are no more "assassinations" in international affairs than they are murders when undertaken by our police forces against domestic killers. Targeted killings in self-defense have been authoritatively determined by the federal government to fall outside the assassination prohibition.
Author and former U.S. Army Captain Matthew J. Morgan argued that "there is a major difference between assassination and targeted killing... targeted killing s
not synonymous with assassination. Assassination... constitutes an illegal killing." Similarly, Amos Guiora
, a professor of law at the University of Utah
, wrote, "Targeted killing is... not an assassination." Steve David
, Professor of International Relations at Johns Hopkins University
, wrote, "There are strong reasons to believe that the Israeli policy of targeted killing is not the same as assassination." Syracuse Law
Professor William Banks and GW Law
Professor Peter Raven-Hansen wrote, "Targeted killing of terrorists is... not unlawful and would not constitute assassination." Rory Miller writes: "Targeted killing... is not 'assassination.'"
Associate Professor Eric Patterson and Teresa Casale wrote, "Perhaps most important is the legal distinction between targeted killing and assassination."
On the other hand, the American Civil Liberties Union
also states on its website, "A program of targeted killing far from any battlefield, without charge or trial, violates the constitutional guarantee of due process
. It also violates international law
, under which lethal force
may be used outside armed conflict zones only as a last resort to prevent imminent threats, when non-lethal means are not available. Targeting people who are suspected of terrorism for execution, far from any war zone, turns the whole world into a battlefield."
Yael Stein, the research director of B'Tselem
, the Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, also stated in her article "By Any Name Illegal and Immoral: Response to 'Israel's Policy of Targeted Killing'":
"The argument that this policy affords the public a sense of revenge and retribution could serve to justify acts both illegal and immoral. Clearly, lawbreakers ought to be punished. Yet, no matter how horrific their deeds, as the targeting of Israeli civilians indeed is, they should be punished according to the law. David's arguments could, in principle, justify the abolition of formal legal systems altogether."
Targeted killing has become a frequent tactic of the United States and Israel
in their fight against terrorism.
["Q&A: Targeted Killings"](_blank)
Eben Kaplan, ''The New York Times'', January 25, 2006. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
The tactic can raise complex questions and lead to contentious disputes as to the legal basis for its application, who qualifies as an appropriate "hit list" target, and what circumstances must exist before the tactic may be used.
Opinions range from people considering it a legal form of self-defense that reduces terrorism to people calling it an extra-judicial killing that lacks due process and leads to further violence.
Methods used have included firing Hellfire missile
s from Predator
or Reaper drone
s (unmanned, remote-controlled planes), detonating a cell phone bomb, and long-range sniper
shooting. Countries such as the US (in Pakistan and Yemen) and Israel (in the West Bank and Gaza) have used targeted killing to eliminate members of groups such as Al-Qaeda
In early 2010, with President Obama's approval, Anwar al-Awlaki
became the first US citizen
to be publicly approved for targeted killing by the Central Intelligence Agency
. Awlaki was killed in a drone strike
in September 2011.
investigator Ben Emmerson
said that US drone strikes may have violated international humanitarian law
. ''The Intercept'' reported, "Between January 2012 and February 2013, U.S. special operations
airstrikes n northeastern Afghanistan
killed more than 200 people. Of those, only 35 were the intended targets."
One of the earliest forms of defense against assassins was employing bodyguards
, who act as a shield for the potential target; keep a lookout for potential attackers, sometimes in advance, such as on a parade route; and putting themselves in harm's way, both by simple presence, showing that physical force is available to protect the target,
Assassination in the United States: An Operational Study
'' – Fein, Robert A. & Vossekuil, Brian, ''Journal of Forensic Sciences'', Volume 44, Number 2, March 1999
and by shielding the target if any attack occurs. To neutralize an attacker, bodyguards are typically armed as much as legal and practical concerns permit.
Notable examples of bodyguards include the Roman Praetorian Guard
or the Ottoman Janissaries
, but in both cases, the protectors sometimes became assassins themselves, exploiting their power to make the head of state
a virtual hostage or killing the very leaders whom they were supposed to protect. The loyalty of individual bodyguards is an important question as well, especially for leaders who oversee states with strong ethnic or religious divisions. Failure to realize such divided loyalties allowed the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
, who was assassinated by two Sikh
bodyguards in 1984.
The bodyguard function was often executed by the leader's most loyal warriors, and it was extremely effective throughout most of early human history, which led assassins to attempt stealthy means, such as poison
, whose risk was reduced by having another person taste the leader's food
Another notable measure is the use of a body double
, a person who looks like the leader and pretends to be the leader to draw attention away from the intended target.
With the advent of gunpowder, ranged assassination via bombs or firearms became possible. One of the first reactions was simply to increase the guard, creating what at times might seem a small army trailing every leader. Another was to begin clearing large areas whenever a leader was present to the point that entire sections of a city might be shut down.
As the 20th century dawned, the prevalence and capability of assassins grew quickly, as did measures to protect against them. For the first time, armored cars or limousines
were put into service for safer transport, with modern versions virtually invulnerable to small arms
fire, smaller bombs and mines
. Bulletproof vests
also began to be used, but since they were of limited utility, restricting movement and leaving the head unprotected, they tended to be worn only during high-profile public events, if at all.
Access to famous persons also became more and more restricted;
[The Need For Protection Further Demonstrated](_blank)
– Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
potential visitors would be forced through numerous different checks before being granted access to the official in question, and as communication became better and information technology more prevalent, it has become all but impossible for a would-be killer to get close enough to the personage at work or in private life to effect an attempt on his or her life, especially with the common use of metal
and bomb detectors
Most modern assassinations have been committed either during a public performance or during transport, both because of weaker security and security lapses, such as with U.S. President John F. Kennedy
and former Pakistan
i Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto
, or as part of a coup d'état
in which security is either overwhelmed or completely removed, such as with Congolese
Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba
The methods used for protection by famous people have sometimes evoked negative reactions by the public, with some resenting the separation from their officials or major figures. One example might be traveling in a car protected by a bubble of clear bulletproof glass
, such as the MRAP
of Pope John Paul II
, built following an attempt at his life. Politicians often resent the need for separation and sometimes send their bodyguards away from them for personal or publicity reasons. US President William McKinley
did so at the public reception in which he was assassinated.
Other potential targets go into seclusion and are rarely heard from or seen in public, such as writer Salman Rushdie
. A related form of protection is the use of body doubles, people with similar builds to those they are expected to impersonate. These persons are then made up
and, in some cases, undergo plastic surgery
to look like the target, with the body double then taking the place of the person in high-risk situations. According to Joe R. Reeder, Under Secretary of the Army from 1993 to 1997, Fidel Castro
used body doubles.
US Secret Service
protective agents receive training in the psychology of assassins.
* Assassinations in fiction
* Contract killing
* History of assassination
* List of assassinations
* List of people who survived assassination attempts
* List of assassinated and executed heads of state and government
* List of United States presidential assassination attempts and plots
* Special Activities Division
of the Central Intelligence Agency
* List of assassinations by firearm
Notes and references
* Ayton, Mel '' Plotting to Kill the President: Assassination Attempts from Washington to Hoover'' (Potomac Books, 2017), United States
*ReviewThe Daily Telegraph
, April 3, 2010.
– slideshow by ''Life magazine
br>A short article on the U.S. policy banning political assassination since 1976
from CNN.com/Law Center, November 4, 2002. See also Ford's
However, Executive Order 12333
, which prohibited the CIA from assassinations, was relaxed by the George W. Bush administration
* Kretzmer, David ' (PDF)
Is the CIA Assassination Order of a US Citizen Legal?
– video by ''Democracy Now!
Category:Attacks by method
Category:Killings by type