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Asian Americans are
Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) ("Citizenship and nationality a ...
of
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
ancestry (
naturalized Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belongi ...
Americans who are
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...
from
Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total lan ...

Asia
may also identify as Asian-Americans). Although it had historically been used to describe all the indigenous peoples of the continent of
Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total lan ...

Asia
, the usage of the term "Asian" by the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
excludes people with ethnic origins in certain parts of Asia, such as
West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hem ...
, who are now categorized as
Middle Eastern Americans Middle Eastern Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir ...
. This includes people who indicate their race(s) on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
,
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
,
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
,
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...
,
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...

Korean
,
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...
, and Other Asian". In 2018, Asian Americans comprised 5.4% of the U.S. population; including
multiracial Multiracial people are people of more than one race or ethnicity. A variety of terms have been used for multi-racial people, including ''mixed-race'', ''biracial'', ''multiethnic'', ''polyethnic'', ''Métis The Métis (; ) are Indigenous ...
Asian Americans, that percentage increases to 6.5%.
Chinese, Indian, and Filipino Americans make up the largest share of the Asian American population with 5 million, 4.3 million, and 4 million people respectively. These numbers equal 23%, 20%, and 18% of the total Asian American population, or 1.5% and 1.2% of the total US population.
Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-19th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups, eventually prohibiting almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest-growing racial or ethnic group in the United States.


Terminology

As with other
racial A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. The term was first used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote national affiliations. By ...
and
ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...
-based terms, formal and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were usually referred to as ''
Oriental The Orient is a term for the East East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite ...

Oriental
'', ''Asiatic'', and ''
Mongoloid Mongoloid () is an Historical race concepts, obsolete racial grouping of various people indigenous to large parts of Asia, the Americas, and some regions in Oceania. The term is derived from a now-disproven theory of biological race. In the past, ...
''. Additionally, the American definition of 'Asian' originally included
West Asian Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hem ...

West Asian
ethnic groups, particularly
Jewish Americans American Jews or Jewish Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 ...
,
Armenian Americans Armenian Americans ( hy, ամերիկահայեր, ''amerikahayer'') are citizens or residents of the United States who have total or partial Armenian ancestry. They form the second largest community of the Armenian diaspora after Armenians ...
,
Assyrian Americans Assyrian Americans ( syr, ܣܘܼܪ̈ܲܝܸܐ ܕܐܲܡܸܪܝܼܟܲܐ) refers to people born in or residing in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country ...
,
Iranian Americans Iranian Americans are who are of or who hold ian . Iranian Americans are among the most highly educated people in the United States. They have historically excelled in business, academia, science, the arts, and entertainment. Most Iranian Am ...
, Kurdish Americans, and
Arab Americans Arab Americans ( ar, عَرَبٌ أَمْرِيكِا or ) are American citizens of Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronuncia ...
, although since 2020 these groups are considered Middle Eastern American.

The term ''Asian American'' was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka in 1968 during the founding of the
Asian American Political Alliance The Asian American Political Alliance (AAPA) was a political organization started at University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations ...
, and he is also credited with popularizing the term, which he meant to be used to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group". Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified greatly to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia. Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is often shortened to ''Asian'' in common usage. The most commonly used definition of Asian American is the U.S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the
Far East The Far East is a term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeaster ...
,
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, and the Indian subcontinent.U.S. Census Bureau,
Census 2000 Summary File 1 Technical Documentation
'', 2001, at Appendix B-14. "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes ''Asian Indian'', ''Chinese'', ''Filipino'', ''Korean'', ''Japanese'', ''Vietnamese'', and ''Other Asian''."
This is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
, "Asian person" in the United States is most often thought of as a person of
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
n descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is usually used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds. This differs from the U.S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian".


Census definition

In the
US Census#REDIRECT United States census The United States Census (plural censuses or census) is a census A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, ...
, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race; while those with origins or ancestry in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...
(
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh language, Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English language, English name is transliteration, transliterated from Russian language, Russian; russian: Казахи) are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group who ...
,
Uzbeks The Uzbeks ( uz, , , , ) are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in: ...
,
Turkmens Turkmens ( tk, , , , ; historically the Turkmen), also known as Turkmen Turks ( tk, , ), are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongol ...
,
Tajiks Tajiks ( fa, تاجيک، تاجک, ''Tājīk, Tājek''; tg, Тоҷик) are a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethni ...
,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
,
Afghans Afghan (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iran ...
, etc.),
Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions. It is almost entirely a part of the Middle East, and includes Anat ...

Western Asia
(
diaspora Jews The Jewish diaspora ( he, תְּפוּצָה, təfūṣā) or exile (Hebrew: ; Yiddish: ) is the dispersion of Israelites or Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe. ...
, Turks,
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...
,
Kurds Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranian peoples, Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, ...
,
Assyrians Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disambiguation) * SS Assyrian, SS ''Assyrian'', seve ...
, Asian Arabs, etc.), and the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
(
Georgians The Georgians, or Kartvelians (; ka, ქართველები, tr, ), are a nation and indigenous Caucasian Caucasian may refer to: Anthropology *Anything from the Caucasus region **Peoples of the Caucasus, humans from the Caucasus reg ...
,
Armenians Armenians ( hy, հայեր, '' hayer'' ) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It includes An ...
,
Azeris Azerbaijanis (; az, Azərbaycanlılar) or Azeris (), also known as Azerbaijani Turks ( az, Azərbaycan Türkləri, ), are a Turkic ethnic group, living mainly in the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan and the Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; ...
, etc.) are classified as "white" or "Middle Eastern".U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population, Public Law 94-171 Redistricting Data File.. (archived fro
the original
on November 3, 2001).
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories only for the purpose of the Census, with the definition referring to ancestry from parts of the Asian and African continents outside of West Asia, North Africa, and
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with ''white'' and ''black or negro''. Asian Americans had also been classified as "other".Lee, Gordon. ''Hyphen'' magazine. . 2003. January 28, 2007 (archived fro
the original
on March 17, 2008).
In 1977, the federal
Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States The Executive Office of the President (EOP) comprises the offices and agencies that support the work of the pres ...
issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander (API)" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander".


Debates

The definition of ''Asian American'' has variations that derive from the use of the word ''American'' in different contexts. Immigration status, citizenship (by birthright and by naturalization), acculturation, and language ability are some variables that are used to define ''American'' for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting ''American'' to include only U.S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which generally refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of 'Asian American' also frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, and why... the possible definitions of 'Asian-Pacific American' are many, complex, and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians, Iranians, and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study."
Jeff Yang Jeff Yang () (born March 14, 1968) is a Taiwanese-American writer, journalist, businessman, and business/media consultant who writes the ''Tao Jones'' column for ''The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'' (also known as ''The Journ ...

Jeff Yang
, of ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'', writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, and as an identity is "in
beta Beta (, ; uppercase , lowercase , or ; grc, βῆτα, bē̂ta or ell, βήτα, víta) is the second letter of the . In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 2. In , beta represented the . In , it represents the (while in foreig ...
". The majority of Asian Americans feel ambivalence about the term "Asian American" as a term by which to identify themselves. Pyong Gap Min, a sociologist and Professor of Sociology at
Queens College Queens College (QC) is a public college A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational government, as oppo ...
, has stated the term is merely political, used by Asian-American activists and further reinforced by the government. Beyond that, he feels that many of the diverse Asian people do not have commonalities in "culture, physical characteristics, or pre-migrant historical experiences". Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctness, and usefulness of the term Asian American. The term "Asian" in Asian American most often comes under fire for encompassing a huge number of people with ancestry from (or who have immigrated from) a wide range of culturally diverse countries and traditions. As well as having a limited meaning that excludes many people with heritage from (or who've immigrated from) Asian countries beyond the US census definition. In contrast, leading
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s and
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
scholars of race and Asian American identity point out that because of the racial constructions in the United States, including the social attitudes toward race and those of Asian ancestry, Asian Americans have a "shared racial experience." Because of this shared experience, the term Asian American is argued as still being a useful panethnic category because of the similarity of some experiences among Asian Americans, including stereotypes specific to people in this category.


Demographics

The demographics of Asian Americans describe a heterogeneous group of people in the United States who can trace their ancestry to one or more countries in East, South or Southeast Asia. Because they compose 6% of the entire U.S. population, the diversity of the group is often disregarded in media and news discussions of "Asians" or of "Asian Americans." While there are some commonalities across ethnic subgroups, there are significant differences among different Asian ethnicities that are related to each group's history. The Asian American population is greatly
urbanized ''Urbanized'' is a documentary film A documentary film is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a Recorded history, historical record". Bill Nich ...
, with nearly three-quarters of them living in metropolitan areas with population greater than 2.5 million. , California had the largest population of Asian Americans of any state, and Hawaii was the only state where Asian Americans were the majority of the population. The demographics of Asian Americans can further be subdivided into, as listed in alphabetical order: * East Asian Americans, including
Chinese Americans Chinese Americans are of ancestry. Chinese Americans constitute one group of and they also constitute a subgroup of , who also constitute a subgroup of . Many Chinese Americans along with their descendants are immigrants from , , , , , as ...
,
Hong Kong Americans Hongkongese Americans (Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale: ''Gwóngdūng wá'') is a language within the Varieties of Chinese, Chinese (Sinitic) branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages originating from the city of ...
,
Japanese Americans are Americans of Japanese people, Japanese ancestry. Japanese Americans were among the three largest Asian Americans, Asian American ethnic communities during the 20th century; but, according to the 2000 United States census, 2000 census, they ...
,
Korean Americans Korean Americans () are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationality * A tournament or convention of national scope * Washington Nationals, a Major League Baseball team based i ...

Korean Americans
,
Mongolian Americans Mongolian Americans are United States, American citizens who are of full or partial Mongolian ancestry. The term Mongol American is also used to include ethnic Mongols, Mongol immigrants from groups outside of Mongolia as well, such as Kalmyks, Bu ...
,
Ryukyuan Americans Ryukyuan Americans are Americans who are fully or partially of Ryukyuan people, Ryukyuan descent. The vast majority of them trace their family history to the Okinawa Islands. History Immigration The first Ryukyuans to migrate to the United St ...
,
Taiwanese Americans Taiwanese Americans () are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. ...
, and Tibetan Americans. *
South Asian Americans South Asian Americans are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationality * A tournament or convention of national scope * Washington Nationals, a Major League Baseball team based ...
, including
Bangladeshi Americans Bangladeshi Americans ( bn, বাংলাদেশী মার্কিনী, Bangladeshī Markinī) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United Sta ...
, Bhutanese Americans,
Indian Americans Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, ...
(including
Indo-Caribbean Americans Indo-Caribbean Americans or Indian-Caribbean Americans, are Americans who trace their ancestry ultimately to India, though whose recent ancestors lived in the Caribbean, where they migrated beginning in 1838 as Indian indenture system, indentured l ...
and Indo-Fijian Americans), Maldivian Americans,
Nepalese Americans Nepali Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) ...
,
Pakistani Americans Pakistani Americans ( ur, ) are Americans who originate from Pakistan. The term may also refer to people who also hold a dual Pakistani and U.S. citizenship. Educational attainment level and household income are much higher in the Pakistani-Amer ...
, and
Sri Lankan Americans Sri Lankan Americans ( si, script=latn, Sri Lankika Amerikanu); ( ta, script=latn, Ilangkaī Amerikan) are Americans of full or partial Sri Lankan ancestry. Sri Lankan Americans are persons of Sri Lankan origin from various Sri Lankan ethnic back ...
* Southeast Asian Americans, including
Burmese Americans Burmese Americans ( my, မြန်မာဇာတိနွယ် အမေရိကန် ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of Amer ...
,
Cambodian Americans Cambodian Americans or Khmer Americans ( km, ជនជាតិខ្មែរអាមេរិកាំង, ) are Americans of Demographics of Cambodia, Cambodian or Khmer people, Khmer ancestry, respectively. In addition, Cambodian Americans are ...
,
Filipino Americans Filipino Americans ( fil, Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipinos, Filipino ancestry. Filipinos in North America were first documented in the 16th century and other small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did ...
,
Hmong Americans Hmong Americans (Romanized Popular Alphabet, RPA: ''Hmoob Mes Kas'', Pahawh Hmong: "𖬌𖬣𖬵 𖬉𖬲𖬦 𖬗𖬲") are Americans of Hmong people, Hmong ancestry. Most Hmong Americans consist of those that fled to the United States as refug ...
,
Indonesian Americans Indonesian Americans ( id, Orang Amerika Indonesia) are migrants from the multiethnic country of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania ...
,
Laotian Americans Laotian Americans ( lo, ຄົນອາເມລິກາລາວ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Atto ...
,
Malaysian Americans Malaysian Americans (Orang Malaysia di Amerika) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F. ...
, Mien Americans,
Singaporean Americans Singaporean Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. ...
,
Thai Americans Thai Americans ( th, ชาวอเมริกันเชื้อสายไทย; formerly referred to as Siamese Americans) are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationa ...
, and
Vietnamese Americans Vietnamese Americans ( vi, Người Mỹ gốc Việt) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General ...
. This grouping is by country of origin before immigration to the United States, and not necessarily by race, as for example
Singaporean Americans Singaporean Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. ...
may be of
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and ...
descent. Asian Americans include multiracial or mixed race persons with origins or ancestry in both the above groups and another race, or multiple of the above groups.


Language

In 2010, there were 2.8 million people (5 and older) who spoke one of the
Chinese language Chinese ( or also , especially for the written language) is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic lan ...
s at home; after the
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inform ...

Spanish language
, it is the third most common language in the United States. Other sizeable
Asian languages A wide variety of languages are spoken throughout Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It ...
are
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
,
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
, and
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
, with all three having more than 1 million speakers in the United States. In 2012,
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
, California, Hawaii,
Illinois Illinois ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Illinois
, Massachusetts,
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
,
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Nevada
, New Jersey, New York, Texas and Washington were publishing election material in Asian languages in accordance with the
Voting Rights Act Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracy, Democracie ...
; these languages include Tagalog,
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
,
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
, Spanish,
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...
and
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
. Election materials were also available in Gujarati,
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Japanese
, , Korean, and
Thai Thai or THAI may refer to: * Of or from Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia ** Thai people, the dominant ethnic group of Thailand ** Thai language, a Tai-Kadai language spoken mainly in and around Thailand *** Thai script *** Thai (Unicode block) ...

Thai
. A 2013 poll found that 48 percent of Asian Americans considered media in their native language as their primary news source. The 2000 Census found the more prominent languages of the Asian American community to include the Chinese languages (
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, Brit ...
,
Taishanese Taishanese, or in the Cantonese romanization Toisanese (; Taishanese: ), is a language of Yue Chinese Yue () is a group of similar Sinitic languages The Sinitic languages, often synonymous with "Chinese languages", constitute the ma ...
, and
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
), Tagalog,
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
, Korean, Japanese, Hindi,
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
, Telugu and Gujarati. In 2008, the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Tagalog, and Vietnamese languages are all used in elections in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington state.EAC Issues Glossaries of Election Terms in Five Asian Languages Translations to Make Voting More Accessible to a Majority of Asian American Citizens
Election Assistance Commission. June 20, 2008. (archived fro
the original
on July 31, 2008)


Religion

A 2012
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's ...

Pew Research Center
study found the following breakdown of religious identity among Asian Americans: * 70%
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
* 10% Unaffiliated with any religion * 6%
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...
* 7%
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
* 2%
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
* 4% other religion * 1%
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...


Religious Trends

The percentage of Christians among Asian Americans has declined sharply since the 1990s, chiefly due to largescale immigration from countries in which Christianity is a minority religion (China and India in particular). In 1990, 63% of the Asian Americans identified as Christians, while in 2001 only 43% did. This development has been accompanied by a rise in traditional Asian religions, with the people identifying with them doubling during the same decade.


History


Early immigration

As Asian Americans originate from many different countries, each population has its own unique immigration history.
Filipinos Filipinos ( fil, Mga Pilipino) are the people who are citizens of or native to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Re ...

Filipinos
have been in the territories that would become the United States since the 16th century. In 1635, an "East Indian" is listed in
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent British colonization of the Americas, English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James River, James (Powhatan) River about southwe ...
; preceding wider settlement of
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
immigrants on the
East Coast East Coast may refer to: Entertainment * East Coast hip hop, a subgenre of hip hop * East Coast (ASAP Ferg song), "East Coast" (ASAP Ferg song), 2017 * East Coast (Saves the Day song), "East Coast" (Saves the Day song), 2004 * East Coast FM, a rad ...
in the 1790s and the
West CoastWest Coast or west coast may refer to: Geography Australia * Western Australia *Regions of South Australia#Weather forecasting, West Coast of South Australia * West Coast, Tasmania **West Coast Range, mountain range in the region Canada * British ...
in the 1800s. In 1763,
Filipinos Filipinos ( fil, Mga Pilipino) are the people who are citizens of or native to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Re ...

Filipinos
established the small settlement of Saint Malo, Louisiana, after fleeing mistreatment aboard
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
ships A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...
. Since there were no Filipino women with them, these 'Manilamen', as they were known, married
Cajun The Cajuns (; Louisiana French: ''les Cadiens''), also known as ''Acadians'' (Louisiana French: ''les Acadiens''), are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. states of Louisiana and Texas. They also live in the The Maritimes, Canadian maritim ...
and
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
women. The first Japanese person to come to the United States, and stay any significant period of time was
Nakahama Manjirō , also known as John Manjirō (or John Mung), was one of the first Japanese people to visit the United States and an important translator during the Opening of Japan.* Voyage to America During his early life, he lived as a simple fisherman in t ...
who reached the East Coast in 1841, and Joseph Heco became the first Japanese American naturalized US citizen in 1858. Chinese sailors first came to
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
in 1789, a few years after Captain
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
came upon the island. Many settled and married
Hawaiian Hawaiian may refer to: * Hawaii state residents, regardless of ancestry * Native Hawaiians, the current term for the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants * Hawaiian language Historic uses * things and people of the Kingdo ...
women. Most Chinese,
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
and Japanese immigrants in Hawaii arrived in the 19th century as laborers to work on sugar plantations. There were thousands of Asians in Hawaii when it was annexed to the United States in 1898. Later, Filipinos also came to work as laborers, attracted by the job opportunities, although they were limited. Okinawans would start migrating to Hawaii in 1900. Large-scale migration from Asia to the United States began when Chinese immigrants arrived on the
West CoastWest Coast or west coast may refer to: Geography Australia * Western Australia *Regions of South Australia#Weather forecasting, West Coast of South Australia * West Coast, Tasmania **West Coast Range, mountain range in the region Canada * British ...
in the mid-19th century. Forming part of the
California gold rush The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) was a that began on January 24, 1848, when was found by at in . The news of gold brought approximately 300,000 people to from the rest of the United States and abroad. The sudden influx of gold into ...
, these early Chinese immigrants participated intensively in the mining business and later in the construction of the
transcontinental railroad A transcontinental railroad or transcontinental railway is contiguous railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on track ...
. By 1852, the number of Chinese immigrants in San Francisco had jumped to more than 20,000. A wave of Japanese immigration to the United States began after the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
in 1868. In 1898, all Filipinos in the Philippine Islands became American nationals when the United States took over colonial rule of the islands from Spain following the latter's defeat in the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
.


Exclusion era

Under United States law during this period, particularly the
Naturalization Act of 1790 The Naturalization Act of 1790 (, enacted March 26, 1790) was a law of the United States Congress that set the first uniform rules for the granting of Citizenship of the United States, United States citizenship by naturalization. The law limit ...
, only "free white persons" were eligible to naturalize as American citizens. Ineligibility for citizenship prevented Asian immigrants from accessing a variety of rights, such as voting. Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person to gain naturalized U.S. citizenship. Balsara's naturalization was not the norm but an exception; in a pair of cases, '' Ozawa v. United States'' (1922) and '' United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind'' (1923), the Supreme Court upheld the racial qualification for citizenship and ruled that Asians were not "white persons". Second-generation Asian Americans, however, could become U.S. citizens due to the birthright citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; this guarantee was confirmed as applying regardless of race or ancestry by the Supreme Court in '' United States v. Wong Kim Ark'' (1898). From the 1880s to the 1920s, the United States passed laws inaugurating an era of exclusion of Asian immigrants. Although the exact number of Asian immigrants was small compared to that of immigrants from other regions, much of it was concentrated in the
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
, and the increase caused some nativist sentiment which was known as the "
yellow peril #REDIRECT Yellow Peril The Yellow Peril (also the Yellow Fear, Yellow Terror and the Yellow Specter) is a racist color-metaphor that represents East Asian people East Asian people (East Asians) is a racial classification specifier used for ...

yellow peril
". Congress passed restrictive legislation which prohibited nearly all Chinese immigration to the United States in the 1880s. Japanese immigration was sharply curtailed by a diplomatic agreement in 1907. The Asiatic Barred Zone Act in 1917 further barred immigration from nearly all of Asia, the "Asiatic Zone". The
Immigration Act of 1924 The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the Asian Exclusion Act and National Origins Act (), was a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of whic ...
provided that no "alien ineligible for citizenship" could be admitted as an immigrant to the United States, consolidating the prohibition of Asian immigration.


World War II

President Roosevelt issued
Executive Order 9066 Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order In the United States, an executive order is a directive Directive may refer to: * Directive (European Union), a legislative act of the European Union * Directive (pr ...
on February 19, 1942, resulting in the
internment of Japanese Americans In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, st ...
, among others. Over 100,000 people of Japanese descent, mostly on the West Coast, were forcibly removed, in an action later considered ineffective and racist.


Postwar immigration

World War II-era legislation and judicial rulings gradually increased the ability of Asian Americans to immigrate and become
naturalized Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belongi ...
citizens. Immigration rapidly increased following the enactment of the
Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, also known as the Hart–Celler Act, is a federal law passed by the 89th United States Congress and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The law abolished the National Origins Formula The Na ...
as well as the influx of
refugees A refugee, generally speaking, is a forced displacement, displaced person who has crossed national boundaries and who cannot or is unwilling to return home due to well-founded fear of persecution.
from conflicts occurring in Southeast Asia such as the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
. Asian American immigrants have a significant percentage of individuals who have already achieved professional status, a first among immigration groups. The number of Asian immigrants to the United States "grew from 491,000 in 1960 to about 12.8 million in 2014, representing a 2,597 percent increase."Jie Zong & Jeanne Batalova
Asian Immigrants in the United States
, Migration Policy Institute (January 6, 2016).
Asian Americans were the fastest-growing racial group between 2000 and 2010. By 2012, more immigrants came from Asia than from Latin America. In 2015, Pew Research Center found that from 2010 to 2015 more immigrants came from Asia than from Latin America, and that since 1965; Asians have made up a quarter of all immigrants to the United States. Asians have made up an increasing proportion of the foreign-born Americans: "In 1960, Asians represented 5 percent of the U.S. foreign-born population; by 2014, their share grew to 30 percent of the nation's 42.4 million immigrants." As of 2016, "Asia is the second-largest region of birth (after Latin America) of U.S. immigrants." In 2013, China surpassed Mexico as the top single country of origin for immigrants to the U.S. Asian immigrants "are more likely than the overall foreign-born population to be naturalized citizens"; in 2014, 59% of Asian immigrants had U.S. citizenship, compared to 47% of all immigrants. Postwar Asian immigration to the U.S. has been diverse: in 2014, 31% of Asian immigrants to the U.S. were from
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
(predominately China and Korea); 27.7% were from
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
(predominately India); 32.6% were from
Southeastern Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent and north-west o ...
(predominately the Philippines and Vietnam) and 8.3% were from
Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions. It is almost entirely a part of the Middle East, and includes Anat ...

Western Asia
.


Asian American movement

Prior to the 1960s, Asian immigrants and their descendants had organized and agitated for social or political purposes according to their particular ethnicity: Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, or Asian Indian. The Asian American movement (a term coined by historian and activist Yuji Ichioka) gathered all those groups into a coalition, recognizing that they shared common problems with racial discrimination and common opposition to
American imperialism American imperialism consists of policies aimed at extending the political, economic and cultural influence of the United States over areas beyond its boundaries. Depending on the commentator, it may include military conquest, gunboat diplomacy ...
, particularly in Asia. The movement developed during the 1960s, inspired in part by the
Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
and the
protests against the Vietnam War Protests against the Vietnam War took place in the 1960s and 1970s. The protests were part of a movement in opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War. The majority of the protests were in the United States, but some took place aro ...
. "Drawing influences from the
Black Power Black Power is a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political slogan, political, Advertising slogan, commercial, re ...

Black Power
and antiwar movements, the Asian American movement forged a coalitional politics that united Asians of varying ethnicities and declared solidarity with other Third World people in the United States and abroad. Segments of the movement struggled for community control of education, provided social services and defended affordable housing in Asian ghettoes, organized exploited workers, protested against U.S. imperialism, and built new multiethnic cultural institutions." William Wei described the movement as "rooted in a past history of oppression and a present struggle for liberation." The movement as such was most active during the 1960s and 1970s. Increasingly Asian American students demanded university-level research and teaching into Asian history and the interaction with the United States. They supported
multiculturalism The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes r ...

multiculturalism
but opposed
affirmative action Affirmative action refers to a set of policies and practices within a government or organization seeking to increase the representation of particular groups based on their gender, race, sexuality, creed or nationality in areas in which they are u ...
that amounted to an
Asian quota An Asian quota is a type of racial quota limiting the number of people of Asian descent in an establishment, a special case of '' numerus clausus''. It usually refers to alleged educational quotas in US higher education College admissions in ...
on their admission.


Notable contributions


Arts and entertainment

Asian Americans have been involved in the
entertainment industry Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In and , interest is payment from a or deposit-taking financial institution to a or depositor of an amount above repayment of the (that is, the amount borrowed ...
since the first half of the 19th century, when
Chang and Eng Bunker Chang Bunker and Eng Bunker (May 11, 1811 – January 17, 1874) were Siamese-American conjoined twin brothers whose fame propelled the expression "Siamese twins" to become synonymous for conjoined twins in general. They were widely exhibited as ...
(the original "Siamese Twins") became naturalized citizens. Throughout the 20th century, acting roles in television, film, and theater were relatively few, and many available roles were for narrow, stereotypical characters. More recently, young Asian American comedians and film-makers have found an outlet on
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
allowing them to gain a strong and loyal fanbase among their fellow Asian Americans. There have been several Asian American-centric television shows in American media, beginning with ''
Mr. T and Tina ''Mr. T and Tina'' is an American sitcom A sitcom, Clipping (morphology), clipping for situational comedy (situation comedy in the U.S.), is a genre of comedy centered on a fixed set of characters who (mostly) carry over from episode to episode ...
'' in 1976, and as recent as ''
Fresh Off the Boat ''Fresh Off the Boat'' is an American sitcom A sitcom, Clipping (morphology), clipping for situational comedy (situation comedy in the U.S.), is a genre of comedy centered on a fixed set of characters who (mostly) carry over from episode to ...
'' in 2015. In the Pacific, American beatboxer of Hawaii Chinese descent Jason Tom co-founded the Human Beatbox Academy to perpetuate the art of beatboxing through outreach performances, speaking engagements and workshops in
Honolulu Honolulu (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lo ...

Honolulu
, the westernmost and southernmost major U.S. city of the 50th U.S. state of
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
.


Business

When Asian Americans were largely excluded from labor markets in the 19th century, they started their own businesses. They have started convenience and grocery stores, professional offices such as medical and law practices, laundries, restaurants, beauty-related ventures, hi-tech companies, and many other kinds of enterprises, becoming very successful and influential in American society. They have dramatically expanded their involvement across the American economy. Asian Americans have been disproportionately successful in the hi-tech sectors of California's Silicon Valley, as evidenced by the
Goldsea''Goldsea'' is a large, fully featured magazine site. The magazine was started in 1998. It is aimed at Asian American Asian Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality l ...
100 Compilation of America's Most Successful Asian Entrepreneurs. Compared to their population base, Asian Americans today are well represented in the professional sector and tend to earn higher wages. The
Goldsea''Goldsea'' is a large, fully featured magazine site. The magazine was started in 1998. It is aimed at Asian American Asian Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality l ...
compilation of Notable Asian American Professionals show that many have come to occupy high positions at leading U.S. corporations, including a disproportionately large number as Chief Marketing Officers. Asian Americans have made major contributions to the American economy. In 2012, there were just under 486,000 Asian American-owned businesses in the U.S., which together employed more than 3.6 million workers, generating $707.6 billion in total receipts and sales, with annual payrolls of $112 billion. In 2015, Asian American and Pacific Islander households had $455.6 billion in spending power (comparable to the annual revenue of
Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational Retail companies, retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets (also called supercenters), discount department stores, and grocery stores from the United ...

Walmart
) and made tax contributions of $184.0 billion. Fashion designer and mogul
Vera Wang Vera Ellen Wang (; born June 27, 1949) is an American fashion designer. Early life Vera Ellen Wang was born and raised in New York City, and is of Chinese descent. Her parents were born in China and came to the United States in the mid-1940s. ...

Vera Wang
, who is famous for designing dresses for high-profile celebrities, started a clothing company, named after herself, which now offers a broad range of luxury fashion products.
An Wang An Wang (; February 7, 1920 – March 24, 1990) was a Chinese–American computer engineer and inventor, and co-founder of computer company Wang Laboratories, which was known primarily for its dedicated word processing machines. An Wang was a ...
founded
Wang Laboratories Wang Laboratories was a computer company founded in 1951, by An Wang An Wang (; February 7, 1920 – March 24, 1990) was a Chinese–American computer engineer and inventor, and co-founder of computer company Wang Laboratories, which was k ...
in June 1951.
Amar Bose Amar Gopal Bose (; November 2, 1929 – July 12, 2013) was an American entrepreneur Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is ...
founded the
Bose Corporation Bose Corporation () is an Indian-American manufacturing company that predominantly sells audio equipment. The company was established by Amar Bose in 1964 and is based in Framingham, Massachusetts Framingham () is a city in the Commonwealth (U ...
in 1964.
Charles Wang Charles B. Wang (; August 19, 1944 – October 21, 2018) was a Chinese-American businessman, who was a co-founder and CEO of Computer Associates International, Inc. (later renamed to CA Technologies). He was a minority owner (and past majority ow ...
founded
Computer Associates CA Technologies, formerly known as CA, Inc. and Computer Associates International, Inc., is an American multinational corporation headquartered in New York City. It is primarily known for its business-to-business (B2B) software with a product por ...
, later became its CEO and chairman. Two brothers, David Khym and Kenny Khym founded
hip hop fashion Hip hop fashion (also known as rap fashion) is a distinctive style of dress A dress (also known as a frock Frock has been used since Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after th ...
giant Southpole (clothing) in 1991. Jen-Hsun Huang co-founded the
NVIDIA Nvidia CorporationOfficially written as NVIDIA and stylized in its logo as nVIDIA with the lowercase "n" the same height as the uppercase "VIDIA"; formerly stylized as ''n''VIDIA with a large italicized lowercase "n" on products from the mid 19 ...
corporation in 1993.
Jerry Yang Jerry Chih-Yuan Yang (born November 6, 1968) is a Taiwanese-American billionaire computer programmer, internet entrepreneur, and venture capitalist. He is the co-founder and former CEO of Yahoo! Inc. Early life Yang was born with the name ...
co-founded
Yahoo Yahoo (, styled as yahoo''!'') is an American provider. It is headquartered in and operated by the namesake company , which is 90% owned by s managed by and 10% by . It provides a , , and related services, including , , , , and its adve ...

Yahoo
! Inc. in 1994 and became its CEO later. Andrea Jung serves as Chairman and CEO of
Avon Products Avon Products, Inc. or simply known as Avon, is a direct sales Direct selling consists of two main business models: single-level marketing, in which a direct seller makes money by buying products from a parent organization and selling them direc ...
.
Vinod Khosla Vinod Khosla (born 28 January 1955) is an Indian-American billionaire A billionaire is a person with a net worth of at least 1,000,000,000, one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e. a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually of a major cur ...
was a founding CEO of
Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American technology company that sold computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. M ...
and is a general partner of the prominent venture capital firm
Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers Kleiner Perkins, formerly Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers (KPCB), is an American venture capital firm which specializes in investing in incubation, early stage and growth companies. Since its founding in 1972, the firm has backed entrepreneurs ...
.
Steve Chen Steven Shih Chen (; born August 25, 1978) is a Taiwanese American Internet entrepreneur who is one of the cofounders and previous chief technology officer of the video-sharing website YouTube. After having cofounded the company ''AVOS System ...
and
Jawed Karim Jawed Karim ( bn, জাওয়েদ করিম; born October 28, 1979) is an American software engineer and Internet entrepreneur of Bangladeshi and German descent. He is a co-founder of YouTube and the first person to upload a video to ...

Jawed Karim
were co-creators of YouTube, and were beneficiaries of
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
's $1.65 billion acquisition of that company in 2006. In addition to contributing greatly to other fields, Asian Americans have made considerable contributions in science and technology in the United States, in such prominent innovative regions as
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
and The Triangle.


Government and politics

Asian Americans have a high level of political incorporation in terms of their actual voting population. Since 1907, Asian Americans have been active at the national level and have had multiple officeholders at local, state, and national levels. As more Asian Americans have been elected to public office, they have had a growing impact on foreign relations of the United States, immigration, international trade, and other topics. The first Asian American to be elected to the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
was
Dalip Singh Saund Dalip Singh Saund (September 20, 1899 – April 22, 1973) was an American politician who was a member of the United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congres ...

Dalip Singh Saund
in 1957. The highest ranked Asian American to serve in the United States Congress was Senator and President ''pro tempore''
Daniel Inouye Daniel Ken Inouye ( ;, ja, 井上 建, September 7, 1924 – December 17, 2012) was an American lawyer and politician who served as a Senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper h ...

Daniel Inouye
, who died in office in 2012. There are several active Asian Americans in the United States Congress. With higher proportions and densities of Asian American populations, Hawaii has most consistently sent Asian Americans to the Senate, and
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
and
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
have most consistently sent Asian Americans to the House of Representatives. The first Asian American member of the U.S. cabinet was
Norman Mineta Norman Yoshio Mineta ( ja, 峯田 良雄, born November 12, 1931) is an American politician. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, Mineta most recently served in President of the United States, President George W. Bu ...
, who served as
Secretary of Commerce The United States secretary of commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce. The secretary serves as the principal advisor to the president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is t ...
and then
Secretary of Transportation The United States secretary of transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation upThe flag of the U.S. Department of Transportation prior to 1980. The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT or DOT) is a ...
in the George W. Bush administration. The highest ranked Asian American by
order of precedence An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance and can be applied to individuals, groups, or organizations. Most often it is used in the context of people by many organizations and governments, for very formal and state o ...
currently in office is Secretary of Transportation
Elaine Chao Elaine Lan Chao (born March 26, 1953) is an American businesswoman and politician. A member of the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party, Chao served as United States Secretary of Transportation, Secretary of Transportation in the Pre ...

Elaine Chao
, who previously served as U.S. Secretary of Labor. There have been roughly "about a half-dozen viable Asian-American candidates" to ever run for
president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of ...

president of the United States
. Senator
Hiram Fong Hiram Leong Fong (born Yau Leong Fong; October 15, 1906 – August 18, 2004) was an American businessman, lawyer, and politician from Hawaii. The son of illiterate Cantonese people, Cantonese immigrants, he overcame poverty to become the first C ...

Hiram Fong
of Hawaii, the child of Chinese immigrants, was a "
favorite son Favorite son (or favorite daughter) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations ...
" candidate at the and
1968 The year was highlighted by protests and other unrests that occurred worldwide. Events January * January 5 Events Pre-1600 *1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is defeated and killed in a conflict with René II, Duke of L ...
. In 1972, Representative Patsy T. Mink of Hawaii, a
Japanese American are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) ("Citizenshi ...
, unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president. Louisiana Governor
Bobby Jindal Piyush "Bobby" Jindal (born June 10, 1971) is an American politician who served as the 55th Governor of Louisiana from 2008 to 2016. Jindal previously served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives and Chairman of the Republican Governor ...
, the son of Indian immigrants, unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for president in 2016. Entrepreneur and nonprofit founder
Andrew Yang Andrew M. Yang (born January 13, 1975) is an American entrepreneur, politician, political commentator, philanthropist, and author. Originally a lawyer, Yang began working in startups and venture capital financing, early stage growth companie ...
, the son of Taiwanese immigrants, unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president in 2020. In January 2021,
Kamala Harris Kamala Devi Harris ( ; born October 20, 1964) is an American politician and attorney who is the 49th and current vice president of the United States. She is the first female vice president and the highest-ranking female official in U.S. histor ...

Kamala Harris
, the daughter of an Indian immigrant, became the first Asian American
Vice President of the United States The vice president of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest officer in the executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group ...
.


Journalism

Connie Chung Constance Yu-Hwa Chung (born August 20, 1946) is an American journalist. She has been an anchor and reporter for the U.S. television news networks NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English-language commercial terres ...

Connie Chung
was one of the first Asian American national correspondents for a major TV
news network News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic medium (communication), mass communications medium, but typically one using th ...
, reporting for CBS in 1971. She later co-anchored the ''CBS Evening News'' from 1993 to 1995, becoming the first Asian American national news anchor. At ABC, Ken Kashiwahara began reporting nationally in 1974. In 1989,
Emil Guillermo Emil Guillermo is an American print and broadcast journalist, commentator and humorist. His column, "Emil Amok", appeared for more than 14 years in '' AsianWeek''—at one time, the most widely read and largest circulating Asian American Asian ...
, a Filipino American born reporter from San Francisco, became the first Asian American male to co-host a national news show when he was senior host at National Public Radio's ''
All Things Considered ''All Things Considered'' (''ATC'') is the flagship news program on the American network National Public Radio (NPR). It was the first news program on NPR, premiering on May 3, 1971. It is broadcast live on NPR affiliated stations in the United ...
''. In 1990,
Sheryl WuDunn Sheryl WuDunn (born November 16, 1959) is an American business executive, writer, lecturer, and Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition ...
, a foreign correspondent in the Beijing Bureau of ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', became the first Asian American to win a Pulitzer Prize.
Ann Curry Ann Curry (born November 19, 1956) is an American journalist and photojournalist, who has been a reporter for more than 30 years, focused on human suffering in war zones and natural disasters. Curry has reported from the wars in Kosovo ...
joined NBC News as a reporter in 1990, later becoming prominently associated with ''The Today Show'' in 1997. Carol Lin is perhaps best known for being the first to break the news of
9-11 The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks File:Terrorism deaths per year by country.jpg, 260px, Terrorism deaths per year by country The following is a list of ...
on CNN. is currently CNN's chief health correspondent.
Lisa Ling Lisa J. Ling (born August 30, 1973) is an American journalist, television personality, and author. She is currently the host of '' This Is Life with Lisa Ling '' on CNN Cable News Network (CNN) is a multinational news-based pay television ...
, a former co-host on ''The View'', now provides special reports for CNN and ''The Oprah Winfrey Show'', as well as hosting National Geographic Channel's ''Explorer.''
Fareed Zakaria Fareed Rafiq Zakaria (; born 20 January 1964) is an Indian-American journalist, political commentator, and author. He is the host of CNN Cable News Network (CNN) is a multinational news-based pay television channel headquartered in Atlant ...

Fareed Zakaria
, a naturalized Indian-born immigrant, is a prominent journalist and author specializing in international affairs. He is the editor-at-large of
Time magazine Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in an apparently irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various measurement ' Measurement is ...
, and the host of
Fareed Zakaria GPS ''Fareed Zakaria GPS'' is a weekly public affairs show hosted by journalist and author Fareed Zakaria on CNN Cable News Network (CNN) is a multinational news-based pay television channel headquartered in Atlanta Atlanta () is th ...
on
CNN The Cable News Network (CNN) is a multinational news-based pay television Pay television also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to subscription-based t ...

CNN
.
Juju Chang Hyunju "Juju" Chang (born September 17, 1965) is an American television journalist for ABC News ABC News is the journalism, news division of Walt Disney Television's American Broadcasting Company, ABC broadcast network. Its flagship program i ...

Juju Chang
, James Hatori, John Yang, Veronica De La Cruz,
Michelle Malkin Michelle Malkin (; née Maglalang; born October 20, 1970) is an American right-wing blogger, political commentator, syndicated columnist, and author. She was a Fox News#REDIRECT Fox News {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from incorrect name {{ ...
,
Betty Nguyen Betty Nguyen (pronounced Winn; born September 1, 1974) is a Vietnamese-American Vietnamese Americans ( vi, Người Mỹ gốc Việt) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality ...
, and
Julie Chen Julie may refer to: * Julie (given name) Julie is a popular Latin language, Latin first name which originally comes from the Latin ''Julia (given name), Julia'' which could mean youthful, soft-haired, beautiful or vivacious. It is the feminine f ...
have become familiar faces on television news. John Yang won a Peabody Award. Alex Tizon, a
Seattle Times ''The Seattle Times'' is a daily newspaper serving Seattle Seattle ( ) is a seaport File:PorticcioloCedas.jpg, The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola near Trieste, a small local port A port is a maritime law, maritime fa ...
staff writer, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1997.


Military

Since the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
Asian Americans have and fought on behalf of the United States. Serving in both segregated and non-segregated units until the , 31 have been awarded the nation's highest award for combat valor, the
Medal of Honor The Medal of Honor (MOH) is the United States government's highest and most prestigious military decoration Military awards and decorations are distinctions given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service o ...

Medal of Honor
. Twenty-one of these were conferred upon members of the mostly Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team of World War II, the most highly decorated unit of its size in the history of the United States Armed Forces. The highest ranked Asian American military official was Secretary of Veteran Affairs, four-star general and Army Chief of Staff
Eric Shinseki Eric Ken Shinseki (; born November 28, 1942) is a retired United States Army General (United States), general who served as the seventh United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs (2009–2014). His final United States Army post was as the 34th Chi ...
.


Science and technology

Asian Americans have made many notable contributions to Science and Technology.


Sports

Asian Americans have contributed to sports in the United States through much of the 20th Century. Some of the most notable contributions include Olympic sports, but also in professional sports, particularly in the post-World War II years. As the Asian American population grew in the late 20th century, Asian American contributions expanded to more sports.


Cultural influence

In recognition of the unique culture, traditions, and history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, the
United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or U ...
has permanently designated the month of May to be
Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month (, officially changed from Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month) is a period for the duration of month of May May is the fifth month of the year in the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregoria ...
. Asian American parenting as seen through relationships between Chinese parents and adolescence, which is described as being more authoritarian and less warm than relations between European parents and adolescence, has become a topic of study and discussion. These influences affect how parents regulate and monitor their children, and has been described as
Tiger parenting Tiger parenting is a form of strict or demanding parenting. Tiger parents push and pressure their children to attain high levels of academic achievement or success in high-status extracurricular activities such as music, using authoritarian parent ...
, and has received interest and curiosity from non Chinese parents.


Health and medicine

Asian immigrants are also changing the American medical landscape through increasing number of Asian
medical practitioners A health professional (or healthcare professional) may provide health care Health care, health-care, or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the preventive healthcare, prevention, diagnosis, therapy, treatment, recovery, or ...

medical practitioners
in the United States. Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, the US government invited a number of foreign physicians particularly from India and the Philippines to address the shortage of physicians in rural and medically underserved urban areas. The trend in importing foreign medical practitioners, however, became a long-term solution as US schools failed to produce enough health care providers to match the increasing population. Amid decreasing interest in medicine among American college students due to high educational costs and high rates of job dissatisfaction, loss of morale, stress, and lawsuits, Asian American immigrants maintained a supply of healthcare practitioners for millions of Americans. It is documented that Asian American international medical graduates including highly skilled guest workers using the J1 Visa program for medical workers, tend to serve in health professions shortage areas (HPSA) and specialties that are not filled by US medical graduates especially primary care and rural medicine. In 2020, of all the medical personnel in the United States, 17% of doctors were Asian Americans, 9% of physician assistants were Asian American, and more than 9% of nurses were Asian Americans. Among Asian Americans, nearly one in four are likely to use common
alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine, but which lacks biological plausibility and is Argument from ignorance, untested, Pseudoscience, untestable or proven ineffective. Complementary medicin ...
. This includes
Traditional Chinese Medicine#REDIRECT Traditional Chinese medicine {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, and
Ayurveda Ayurveda () is an alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systema ...

Ayurveda
. Due to the prevalence of usage, engaging with Asian American populations, through the practitioners of these common alternative medicines, can lead to an increase of usage of underused medical procedures.


Education

Among America's major racial categories, Asian Americans have the highest educational qualifications. This varies, however, for individual ethnic groups. For example, a 2010 study of all Asian American adults found 42% have at least a college degree, but only 16% of Vietnamese Americans and only 5% for Laotians and Cambodians. It has been noted, however, that 2008 US Census statistics put the bachelor's degree attainment rate of Vietnamese Americans at 26%, which is not very different from the rate of 27% for all Americans. Census data from 2010 show 50% of Asian adults have earned at least a bachelor's degree, compared to 28% for all Americans, and 34% for non-Hispanic whites. Indian Americans have some of the highest education rates, with nearly 71% having attained at least a bachelor's degree in 2010. Asian Americans made up twelve to eighteen percent of the student population at
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
schools, larger than their share of the population. For example, the
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree A b ...
Class of 2023 admitted students were 25% Asian American. In the years immediately preceding 2012, 61% of Asian American adult immigrants have a bachelor or higher level college education. In August 2020, the US Justice Department argued that
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
discriminated against Asian candidates on the basis of their race, a charge the university denied.


Social and political issues


Media portrayal

Because
Asian American Asian Americans are Americans Americans are the and of the .; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) (" and are not ous. While all citizens are nationals, not all nationals are citizens."); ''United Sta ...
s total about 6.9% of the entire US population, diversity within the group is often overlooked in media treatment.Lee, Robert G. Orientals: Asian Americans in PopularCulture. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1999. Google Books. Web. 28 July 2013.


Bamboo ceiling

This concept appears to elevate Asian Americans by portraying them as an elite group of successful, highly educated, intelligent, and wealthy individuals, but it can also be considered an overly narrow and overly one-dimensional portrayal of Asian Americans, leaving out other human qualities such as vocal leadership, negative emotions, risk taking, ability to learn from mistakes, and desire for creative expression. Furthermore, Asian Americans who do not fit into the model minority mold can face challenges when people's expectations based on the model minority myth do not match with reality. Traits outside of the model minority mold can be seen as negative character flaws for Asian Americans despite those very same traits being positive for the general American majority (e.g., risk taking, confidence, empowered). For this reason, Asian Americans encounter a "bamboo ceiling", the Asian American equivalent of the
glass ceiling A glass ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that prevents a given demographic (typically applied to women) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.Federal Glass Ceiling Commission''Solid Investments: Making Fu ...

glass ceiling
in the workplace, with only 1.5% of
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune Fortune may refer to: General * Fortuna or Fortune, the Roman goddess of luck * Luck, a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's controls * Wealth, an ab ...
CEOs Kea ( el, Κέα), also known as Tzia ( el, Τζια) and in antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before t ...
being Asians, a percentage smaller than their percentage of the total United States population. The bamboo ceiling is defined as a combination of individual, cultural, and organisational factors that impede Asian Americans' career progress inside organizations. Since then, a variety of sectors (including nonprofits, universities, the government) have discussed the impact of the ceiling as it relates to Asians and the challenges they face. As described by Anne Fisher, the "bamboo ceiling" refers to the processes and barriers that serve to exclude Asians and American people of Asian descent from executive positions on the basis of subjective factors such as "lack of leadership potential" and "lack of communication skills" that cannot actually be explained by job performance or qualifications. Articles regarding the subject have been published in '' Crains'', ''
Fortune magazine ''Fortune'' is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a s ...
'', and ''
The Atlantic ''The Atlantic'' is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. It was founded in 1857 in Boston, as ''The Atlantic Monthly'', a literary and cultural magazine that published leading writers' commentary on education, the abolition of sl ...

The Atlantic
''.


Illegal immigration

In 2012, there were 1.3 million Asian Americans; and for those awaiting visas, there were lengthy backlogs with over 450 thousand Filipinos, over 325 thousand Indians, over 250 thousand Vietnamese, and over 225 thousand Chinese are awaiting visas. As of 2009, Filipinos and Indians accounted for the highest number of alien immigrants for "Asian Americans" with an estimated illegal population of 270,000 and 200,000 respectively.
Indian American Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are citizens of the United States with ancestry from India. The U.S. Census Bureau, United States Census Bureau uses the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with Native Americans in the United States, Nativ ...
s are also the fastest-growing alien immigrant group in the United States, an increase in illegal immigration of 125% since 2000. This is followed by
Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name "Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") ...
(200,000) and
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
(120,000). Nonetheless, Asian Americans have the highest naturalization rates in the United States. In 2015, out of a total of 730,259 applicants, 261,374 became new Americans. According to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, legal permanent residents or green card holders from India, Philippines and China were among the top nationals applying for U.S. naturalization in 2015. Due to the stereotype of Asian Americans being successful as a group and having the lowest crime rates in the United States, public attention to illegal immigration is mostly focused on those from Mexico and Latin America while leaving out Asians. Asians are the second largest racial/ethnic alien immigrant group in the U.S. behind Hispanics and Latinos.
While the majority of Asian immigrants immigrate legally to the United States, up to 15% of Asian immigrants immigrate without legal documents.


Race-based violence

Asian Americans have been the targets of violence based on their race and or ethnicity. This includes, but is not limited to, such events as the
Rock Springs massacre The Rock Springs massacre, also known as the Rock Springs Riot, occurred on September 2, 1885, in the present-day United States city of Rock Springs in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The riot, and resulting massacre of immigrant Chinese miners b ...
,
Watsonville Watsonville is a city in Santa Cruz County, California Santa Cruz County, California, officially the County of Santa Cruz, is a County (United States), county on the Pacific Ocean, Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 Un ...
Riots A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, strike, or ignoring laws) in wh ...
, Bellingham Riots in 1916 against South Asians, attacks upon Japanese Americans following the
attack on Pearl Harbor The Attack on Pearl HarborAlso known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike In the United States Armed Forces, military of the United States, strikes and raids are a group of military operations that, alongside quite ...

attack on Pearl Harbor
, and Korean American businesses targeted during the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Attacks on Chinese in the
American frontier The American frontier, also known as the Old West or the Wild West, includes the geography, history, folklore, and culture in the forward wave of American expansion that began with European colonial settlements in the early 17th century and e ...
were common, this included the slaughter by Paiute Indians of forty to sixty Chinese miners in 1866 during the
Snake War The Snake War (1864–1868) was an irregular war fought by the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily l ...
, and an attack on Chinese miners at
Chinese Massacre CoveChinese Massacre Cove is an area along the Snake River in Wallowa County, Oregon Oregon () is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States The Western United States (also called the American West, the Far West, ...

Chinese Massacre Cove
in 1887 by
cowboys A cowboy A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle Cattle, or cows (female) and bulls (male), are the most common type of large domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organ ...
resulting in 31 deaths. In the late 1980s, South Asians in New Jersey faced assault and other hate crimes by a group of
Latinos Hispanic and Latino Americans ( es, Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; pt, Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are Americans of Spanish people, Spanish or Latin Americans, Latin American ancestry. More broadly, these demographics include a ...
known as the
Dotbusters The Dotbusters was a hate group in Jersey City, New Jersey, that attacked and threatened Indian Americans, Indians, particularly Hindus in the fall of 1987. The name originated from the fact that traditional Hindu women and girls wear Bindi (decora ...
. In the late 1990s, the lone death that occurred during the
Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting The 1999 Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting occurred on August 10, 1999, at around 10:50 a.m. PT, when white supremacist Buford O. Furrow, Jr. walked into the lobby of the North Valley Jewish Community Center in Granada Hills an ...
by a
white supremacist White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people White is a racial classification and skin color specifier, generally used for people of European origin; although the definition can vary depending on context, nation ...

white supremacist
was a Filipino postal worker. Even when it did not manifest as violence, contempt against Asian Americans was reflected in aspects of popular culture such as the playground chant " Chinese, Japanese, dirty knees". After the
September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated by the militant terrorist group against the on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial s traveling fro ...
, Sikh Americans were targeted, becoming the victims of numerous
hate crimes A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice Prejudice can be an affective Affect, in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, c ...
, including
murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification (jurisprudence), justification or valid excuse (legal), excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. ("The killing of another person w ...

murder
. Other Asian Americans have also been the victims of race-based violence in Brooklyn, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
Bloomington, Indiana Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County, Indiana, Monroe County in the central region of the U.S. state of Indiana. It is the List of cities in Indiana, seventh-largest city in Indiana and the fourth-largest outside the India ...
. Furthermore, it has been reported that young Asian Americans are more likely to be the targets of violence than their peers. In 2017, racist graffiti and other property damage was done to a community center in Stockton's Little Manila. Racism and discrimination still persist against Asian Americans, occurring not only against recent immigrants but also against well-educated and highly trained professionals. Recent waves of immigration of Asian Americans to largely African American neighborhoods have led to cases of severe racial tension. Acts of large-scale violence against Asian American students by their black classmates have been reported in multiple cities. In October 2008, 30 black students chased and attacked 5 Asian students at
South Philadelphia High School South Philadelphia High School is a public secondary high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both low ...
,Teague, Matthew. "Heroes: South Philly High's Protesters." ''
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...
'' (magazine). August 2010
4
. Retrieved on May 4, 2016,
and a similar attack on Asian students occurred at the same school one year later, prompting a protest by Asian students in response.Teague, Matthew. "Heroes: South Philly High's Protesters." ''
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...
'' (magazine). August 2010
8
. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
Asian-owned businesses have been a frequent target of tensions between black and Asian Americans. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, more than 2000 Korean-owned businesses were looted or burned by groups of African Americans. From 1990 to 1991, a high-profile, racially motivated
boycott A boycott is an act of nonviolent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achiev ...
of an Asian-owned shop in Brooklyn was organized by a local
black nationalist Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
activist, eventually resulting in the owner being forced to sell his business.Goodman, Walter
"Review/Television; The Boycotting of a Korean Grocery in Brooklyn"
. ''The New York Times''. July 12, 1990
Another racially motivated boycott against an Asian-owned business occurred in Dallas in 2012, after an Asian American clerk fatally shot an African American who had robbed his store. During the
Ferguson unrest The Ferguson unrest (sometimes called the Ferguson uprising, Ferguson protests, or Ferguson riots) in Ferguson, Missouri, involved protests and riots beginning on August 10, 2014, the day after the fatal shooting of Michael Brown by police off ...
in 2014, Asian-owned businesses were looted, and Asian-owned stores were looted during the 2015 Baltimore protests while African-American owned stores were bypassed. Violence against Asian Americans continue to occur based on their race, with one source asserting that Asian Americans are the fastest-growing targets of hate crimes and violence. During the
COVID-19 pandemic in the United States The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (). More than 31.5 million confirmed cases have been reported in the United States since January 2020, resulting in more than 565,000 d ...
, there has been concern of anti-Asian sentiment increasing in the United States. In March 2020, President Donald Trump called the disease "Chinese Virus", based on its origin; in response organizations such as Asian Americans Advancing Justice and Western States Center, stated that doing so will increase anti-Asian sentiment and violence. Vox wrote that the Trump Administration using the term "Chinese Virus" and "Wuhan coronavirus" would lead to increased xenophobia. The disease naming controversy occurred at a time when the Chinese Foreign Ministry was claiming that the disease originated in the United States. , against Asian Americans have been documented in New York, California, and elsewhere. As of December 31, 2020, there were 259 reports of anti-Asian incidents in New York reported to Stop AAPI Hate. A notable incident was the
2021 Atlanta spa shootings On March 16, 2021, a series of mass shootings occurred at three spas or massage parlors in the Atlanta metropolitan area, metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, United States. Eight people were killed, six of whom were ...
, a fatal attack in which six of the eight casualties were of Asian descent.


Racial stereotypes

Until the late 20th century, the term "Asian American" was adopted mostly by activists, while the average person of Asian ancestries identified with their specific ethnicity. The
murder of Vincent Chin Vincent Jen Chin (, Pinyin: Chén Guǒrén; May 18, 1955 – June 23, 1982) was a Chinese American draftsman who was beaten to death in a racially motivated attack by two white men, Chrysler plant supervisor Ronald Ebens and his stepson, laid-o ...
in 1982 was a pivotal civil rights case, and it marked the emergence of Asian Americans as a distinct group in United States. Stereotypes of Asians have been largely collectively internalized by society and these stereotypes have mainly negative repercussions for Asian Americans and Asian immigrants in daily interactions,
current events News is information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative p ...
, and governmental
legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolled bill, enrolling, enactment of a bill, enacting, or promulgation, promulgating law by a legislature, parliament, or analogous Government, governing body. Before an item of legislation becomes law ...
. In many instances, media portrayals of East Asians often reflect a dominant
Americentric Americentrism, also known as American-centrism or US-centrism, is a tendency to assume the culture of the United States is more important than those of other countries or to judge foreign cultures based on American cultural standards. It refers to ...
perception rather than realistic and authentic depictions of true cultures, customs and behaviors. Asians have experienced
discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discriminated on the basis of Racial discrimination, r ...
and have been victims of
hate crime A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of their membership (or perceived membership) of a certain social group or race (human cate ...
s related to their ethnic stereotypes. Study has indicated that most non-Asian Americans do not generally differentiate between Asian Americans of different ethnicities.
Stereotype Police officers buying doughnuts and coffee, an example of perceived stereotypical behavior in North America. Social psychology Social psychology is the Science, scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individu ...
s of Chinese Americans and Asian Americans are nearly identical. A 2002 survey of Americans' attitudes toward Asian Americans and Chinese Americans indicated that 24% of the respondents disapprove of intermarriage with an Asian American, second only to African Americans; 23% would be uncomfortable supporting an Asian American presidential candidate, compared to 15% for an African American, 14% for a woman and 11% for a Jew; 17% would be upset if a substantial number of Asian Americans moved into their neighborhood; 25% had somewhat or very negative attitude toward Chinese Americans in general. The study did find several positive perceptions of Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as business people (77%); high value on education (67%). There is a widespread perception that Asian Americans are not "American" but are instead "
perpetual foreigner The perpetual foreigner stereotype is a Racism, racialized form of Nativism (politics) , nativist xenophobia in which Naturalization , naturalized and even Jus soli, native-born citizens (including families that have lived in a country for gener ...
s". Asian Americans often report being asked the question, "Where are you really from?" by other Americans, regardless of how long they or their ancestors have lived in United States and been a part of its society. Many Asian Americans are themselves not immigrants but rather born in the United States. Many East Asian Americans are asked if they are Chinese or Japanese, an assumption based on major groups of past immigrants. Discrimination against Asians and Asian Americans increased with the
COVID-19 pandemic in the United States The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (). More than 31.5 million confirmed cases have been reported in the United States since January 2020, resulting in more than 565,000 d ...
, according to a study done at
Washington State University Washington State University (Washington State, WSU, or Wazzu) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organizat ...

Washington State University
(WSU) and published in ''Stigma and Health''. The
NYPD The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement File:CBP female officers going aboard a ship.jpg, upU.S. Customs and Border Protection officers boarding a ship ' ...
reported a 1,900% increase in hate crimes motivated by anti-Asian sentiment in 2020, largely because President
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
repeatedly referred to COVID-19 as “the China virus” and "Kung Flu". President
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
signed an executive order denouncing anti-Asian discrimination shortly after taking office.


Model minority

Asian Americans are sometimes characterized as a
model minorityA model minority is a minority demographic (whether based on ethnicity, race or religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, ...
in the United States because many of their cultures encourage a strong work ethic, a respect for elders, a high degree of professional and academic success, a high valuation of family, education and religion. Statistics such as high household income and low incarceration rate, low rates of many diseases, and higher than average life expectancy are also discussed as positive aspects of Asian Americans. The implicit advice is that the other minorities should stop protesting and emulate the Asian American work ethic and devotion to higher education. Some critics say the depiction replaces biological racism with cultural racism, and should be dropped. According to ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'', "the idea that Asian Americans are distinct among minority groups and immune to the challenges faced by other people of color is a particularly sensitive issue for the community, which has recently fought to reclaim its place in social justice conversations with movements like #ModelMinorityMutiny." The model minority concept can also affect Asians' public education. By comparison with other minorities, Asians often achieve higher test scores and grades compared to other Americans. Stereotyping Asian American as over-achievers can lead to harm if school officials or peers expect all to perform higher than average. The very high educational attainments of Asian Americans has often been noted; in 1980, for example, 74% of Chinese Americans, 62% of Japanese Americans, and 55% of Korean Americans aged 20–21 were in college, compared to only a third of the whites. The disparity at postgraduate levels is even greater, and the differential is especially notable in fields making heavy use of mathematics. By 2000, a plurality of undergraduates at such elite public California schools as
UC Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the tota ...

UC Berkeley
and
UCLA The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...
, which are obligated by law to not consider race as a factor in admission, were Asian American. The pattern is rooted in the pre-World War II era. Native-born Chinese and Japanese Americans reached educational parity with majority whites in the early decades of the 20th century. One group of writers who discuss the "model minority" stereotype, have taken to attaching the term "myth" after "model minority," thus encouraging discourse regarding how the concept and stereotype is harmful to Asian American communities and ethnic groups. The model minority concept can be emotionally damaging to some Asian Americans, particularly since they are expected to live up to those peers who fit the stereotype. Studies have shown that some Asian Americans suffer from higher rates of stress, depression, mental illnesses, and suicides in comparison to other races, indicating that the pressures to achieve and live up to the model minority image may take a mental and psychological toll on some Asian Americans. The "model minority" stereotype fails to distinguish between different ethnic groups with different histories. When divided up by ethnicity, it can be seen that the economic and academic successes supposedly enjoyed by Asian Americans are concentrated into a few ethnic groups. Cambodians, Hmong, and Laotians (and to a lesser extent, Vietnamese) all have relatively low achievement rates, possibly due to their
refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region In geography, regions are areas that are broa ...

refugee
status, and the fact that they are non-voluntary immigrants.


Social and economic disparities among Asian Americans

In 2015, Asian American earnings were found to exceed all other racial groups when all Asian ethnic groups are grouped as a whole. Yet, a 2014 report from the Census Bureau reported that 12% of Asian Americans were living below the poverty line, while 10.1% of non-Hispanic White Americans live below the poverty line.
https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2017/cb17-ff07.html
A 2017 study of wealth inequality within Asian Americans found a greater gap between wealthy and non-wealthy Asian Americans compared to non-Hispanic white Americans. Once country of birth and other demographic factors are taken into account, a portion of the sub-groups that make up Asian Americans are much more likely than non-Hispanic White Americans to live in poverty. There are major disparities that exist among Asian Americans when specific ethnic groups are examined. For example, in 2012, Asian Americans had the highest educational attainment level of any racial demographic in the country. Yet, there are many sub groups of Asian Americans who suffer in terms of education with some sub groups showing a high rate of dropping out of school or lacking a college education. This occurs in terms of household income as well – in 2008 Asian Americans had the highest median household income overall of any racial demographic, while there were Asian sub-groups who had average median incomes lower than both the U.S. average and non-Hispanic Whites. In 2014, data released by the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
revealed that 5 Asian American ethnic groups are in the top 10 lowest earning ethnicities in terms of per capita income in all of the United States. The Asian American groups that have low educational attainment and high rates of poverty both in average individual and median income are Bhutanese Americans,
Bangladeshi Americans Bangladeshi Americans ( bn, বাংলাদেশী মার্কিনী, Bangladeshī Markinī) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United Sta ...
,
Cambodian Americans Cambodian Americans or Khmer Americans ( km, ជនជាតិខ្មែរអាមេរិកាំង, ) are Americans of Demographics of Cambodia, Cambodian or Khmer people, Khmer ancestry, respectively. In addition, Cambodian Americans are ...
,
Burmese Americans Burmese Americans ( my, မြန်မာဇာတိနွယ် အမေရိကန် ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of Amer ...
, Nepali Americans,
Hmong Americans Hmong Americans (Romanized Popular Alphabet, RPA: ''Hmoob Mes Kas'', Pahawh Hmong: "𖬌𖬣𖬵 𖬉𖬲𖬦 𖬗𖬲") are Americans of Hmong people, Hmong ancestry. Most Hmong Americans consist of those that fled to the United States as refug ...
, and
Laotian Americans Laotian Americans ( lo, ຄົນອາເມລິກາລາວ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Atto ...
. This affects
Vietnamese Americans Vietnamese Americans ( vi, Người Mỹ gốc Việt) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General ...
as well, albeit to a lesser degree, as early 21st century immigration from Vietnam are almost entirely not from refugee backgrounds. These individual ethnicities experience social issues within their communities, some specific to their individual communities themselves. Issues such as suicide, crime, and mental illness. Other issues experienced include deportation, and poor physical health. Within the Bhutanese American community, it has been documented that there are issues of suicide greater than the world's average. Cambodian Americans, some of whom immigrated as
refugees A refugee, generally speaking, is a forced displacement, displaced person who has crossed national boundaries and who cannot or is unwilling to return home due to well-founded fear of persecution.
, are subject to
deportation Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective i ...
. Crime and gang violence are common social issues among Southeast Asian Americans of refugee backgrounds such as Cambodian, Laotian, Hmong, and Vietnamese Americans.
Minnesota - Gangland Documentary - Menace Of Destruction Gang (MOD)
, Gangland
Gang Criminal Justice Directory


Hanna, Maddie
10 arrested during series of Lowell gang raids
, '' Boston.com'', July 20, 2008.


See also

*
Amerasian An Amerasian originally meant a person born in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It share ...
*
Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research ConsortiumThe Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium (AAPIPRC) focuses on critical policy issues facing the Asian American and Pacific Islander communities. Conceived of as part of the White House List of United States federal executi ...
* Asian American studies * Asian Americans in New York City * Asian Latin Americans * Asian Argentines * Asian Brazilians * Asian Peruvians * Asian Mexicans * Asian Britons * Asian Canadians * Asian Australians * Asian New Zealanders * Asian Pacific American * Asian pride * :Racially motivated violence against Asian-Americans * Hyphenated American * Jade Ribbon Campaign * List of Asian-American firsts * Index of articles related to Asian Americans


Footnotes


References


Further reading

* Chang, Kornel S. "Asian Americans, Impact of the Great Depression on." in ''Encyclopedia of the Great Depression'', edited by Robert S. McElvaine, (vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2004), pp. 75–80
online
. * Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Nadia Shilpi Islam, Mariano Jose Rey. ''Asian American Communities and Health: Context, Research, Policy, and Action'' (Public Health/Vulnerable Populations), 2009. * Cheng, Cindy I-Fen. ''Citizens of Asian America: Democracy and Race during the Cold War'' (2013) * Chin, Gabriel J., Ed.
''U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Reports on Asian Pacific Americans''
(2005) * * Lee, Jonathan H. X. and Fumitaka Matsuoka, eds. ''Asian American Religious Cultures'' (2 vol. 2015) * Lee, Jonathan H. X. and Kathleen M. Nadeau, eds. ''Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife'' (3 vol. 2010) * Ling, Huping, and Allan W. Austin, eds. ''Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia'' (Routledge, 2015) * Lisa Lowe, Lowe, Lisa ''Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics'' Durham: Duke University Press, 1996. * Matsumoto, Jon.
Asian Americans Anchor Their Influence
." ''Los Angeles Times''. September 4, 1998. * Okamoto, Dina G. ''Redefining Race: Asian American Panethnicity and Shifting Ethnic Boundaries'' (Russell Sage Foundation, 2014) * Pyong Gap Min ''Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues'' Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Pine Science Press, 2005. * Frank H. Wu, Wu, Frank H. ''Yellow: Race in American Beyond Black and White'' New York: Basic Books, 2002. * Helen Zia, Zia, Helen ''Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People'' New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000. . *
Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths
(full report) ().
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's ...

Pew Research Center
. July 19, 2012. * Journals * ''Journal of Asian American Studies'' * ''Kartika Review''


External links


Asian American Data Links
— demographic information and reports from the U.S. Census Bureau
UCLA Asian American Studies Center
{{Overseas Asians Asian-American society, Asian-American issues Asian-American culture Ethnic groups in the United States