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Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an
autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

autonomous community
in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, coextensive with the medieval
Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon ( an, Reino d'Aragón, ca, Regne d'Aragó, la, Regnum Aragoniae, es, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study ...
. In northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

provinces
(from north to south):
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon. It is also the capital of the Spanish Huesca (province), province of the same name and of the Comarcas of Spain, com ...
,
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...
, and
Teruel Teruel () is a city in Aragon, located in eastern Spain, and is also the capital of Teruel (province), Teruel Province. It has a population of 35,675 in 2014 making it the least populated provincial capital in the country. It is noted for its har ...
. Its capital is
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
. The current
Statute of Autonomy Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy ( es, Estatuto de Autonomía, ca, Estatut d'Autonomia, gl, Estatuto de Autonomía, ast, Estatutu d' Autonomía, eu, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution A constitutio ...
declares Aragon a '' historic nationality'' of Spain. Covering an area of , the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west–east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza. It is also home to the highest mountains of the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
. , the population of Aragon was , with over half of it living in its capital city,
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
. During the same year, the economy of Aragon generated a
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
of million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP, and is currently 6th in per capita production behind Madrid,
Basque Country Image:Euskal Herriaren terminologia.png, Map showing the geographical and political divisions of the Basque Country Basque Country may refer to: *Basque Country (autonomous community) (''Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa'' in Basque; ''Comunidad Autónoma ...
,
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
,
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
and La Rioja. In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into 33 comarcas or counties. All comarcas of Aragon have a rich
geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
and cultural history from its pre-Roman,
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
and
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
days, four centuries of Islamic rule as ''Marca Superior'' of or kingdom (or
taifa The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, ا ...
) of
Saraqusta The taifa of Zaragoza () was an independent Arab Islam, Muslim state in the east of Al-Andalus (present day Spain), which was established in 1018 as one of the taifa kingdoms, with its capital in Saraqusta (Zaragoza) city. Zaragoza's taifa emerg ...
, as lands that once belonged to the Frankish
Marca Hispanica The Hispanic March or Spanish March ( es, Marca Hispánica, ca, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those or ...
, counties that later formed the
Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon ( an, Reino d'Aragón, ca, Regne d'Aragó, la, Regnum Aragoniae, es, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study ...
, and eventually the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
.


Geography


Location

The area of Aragon is of which belong to the
province of Huesca Huesca ( an, Uesca, ca, Osca), officially Huesca/Uesca, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnati ...
, to the
province of Zaragoza Zaragoza (), also called Saragossa in English language, English,''Encyclopædia Britannica''Zaragoza (conventional Saragossa)/ref> is a Provinces of Spain, province of northern Spain, in the central part of the Autonomous communities of Spain, aut ...
and to the
province of Teruel Teruel (Catalan language, Catalan ''Terol'' ) is a province of Aragon, in the northeast of Spain. The capital is Teruel. It is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona Province, Tarragona, Castellón Province, Castellón, Valencia Province, Valenc ...
. The total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León, Andalusia, and Castile-La Mancha. It is located in the northeast of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
, at a latitude between 39º and 43º'N in the
temperate zone In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the yea ...

temperate zone
. Its boundaries and borders are in the north with
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
(the regions of
Nouvelle-Aquitaine Nouvelle-Aquitaine (; oc, Nòva Aquitània or ; eu, Akitania Berria; Poitevin-Saintongeais Poitevin-Saintongeais (french: poitevin-saintongeais, link=no, ; autonym: ''poetevin-séntunjhaes''; also called ''Parlanjhe'', ''Aguiain'' or even ' ...
and
Occitanie Occitanie (; oc, Occitània ; ca, Occitània ), Occitany or Occitania (), is the southernmost of excluding , created on 1 January 2016 from the former regions of and . The approved Occitanie as the new name of the region on 28 September 20 ...

Occitanie
), in the west with the
autonomous communities In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

autonomous communities
of Castile-La Mancha (provinces of
Guadalajara Guadalajara ( , ) is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international ...
and
Cuenca Cuenca may refer to: People * Cuenca (surname) Places Ecuador * Cuenca Canton, in the Azuay Province ** Cuenca, Ecuador, capital of Cuenca Canton and Azuay Province ** Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cuenca Peru * Cuenca District, Huarochirí * ...
),
Castile and León Castile and León (, ; es, Castilla y León ) (Leonese dialect Leonese (Leonese: ''Llionés'', ast, Lleonés) is a set of vernacular Romance languages, Romance language varieties currently spoken in northern and western portions of the ...
(
province of Soria , population_note = 0.20% of Spain , blank_name_sec2 = Parliament , blank_info_sec2 = Cortes Generales , blank1_name_sec2 = Congress seats , blank1_info_sec2 = , blank2_name_sec2 = Senate seats , bl ...
), La Rioja and
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
, and in the east with the autonomous communities of
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
(provinces of
Lérida Lleida (, ; es, Lérida ) is a city in the west of Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of ...
and
Tarragona Tarragona ( , also , , ; Phoenician Phoenician may refer to: * Phoenicia, an ancient civilization * Phoenician alphabet * Phoenician language * List of Phoenician cities * Phoenix, Arizona See also * Phoenix (mythology) * Phoenicia (disambigu ...
) and the
Valencian Community The Valencian Community ( ca-valencia, Comunitat Valenciana, es, Comunidad Valenciana), or simply Valencia ( ca-valencia, València, link=no, es, Valencia, link=no), is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain. It is t ...
(provinces of Castellón and
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...
).


Relief

The orography of the community has as central axis the
Ebro valley , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro ri ...
(with heights between 150 and 300 meters approx.) which transits between two foothills, the Pyrenean and the Ibérico, preambles of two great mountain formations, the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
to the north and the
Sistema Ibérico 240px, The Iberian wolf is a subspecies of grey wolf that is still found in some ranges of the system. The Iberian System ( es, Sistema Ibérico, ), is one of the major systems of mountain ranges in Spain. It consists of a vast and complex ar ...

Sistema Ibérico
to the south; the Community has the highest peaks of both mountain ranges, the
Aneto Aneto (''Pic de Néthou'' in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primar ...

Aneto
and the Moncayo respectively.


Pyrenees

The Aragonese
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
is located in the north of the
province of Huesca Huesca ( an, Uesca, ca, Osca), officially Huesca/Uesca, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnati ...
and is arranged longitudinally in three large units: High Pyrenees, Intrapirenaic Depression and Outer Ranges. The Aragonese High Pyrenees contains the maximum heights of all the Pyrenees mountainous chain. The High Pyrenees is formed in turn by the axial Pyrenees and the Inland Ranges. In the axial Pyrenees are the oldest materials:
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
s,
quartzite Quartzite is a hard, non- foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.Essentials of Geology, 3rd Edition, Stephen Marshak, p 182 Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tecto ...

quartzite
s,
slate Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism uprigh ...

slate
s and
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
s and the highest peaks like: the
Aneto Aneto (''Pic de Néthou'' in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primar ...

Aneto
(),
Maladeta Maladeta (3,312 m) is a mountain in the Pyrenees french: Pyrénées ca, Pirineus an, Pirineus oc, Pirenèus eu, Pirinioak, Auñamendiak , etymology=Named for Pyrene Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused b ...

Maladeta
() and the Perdiguero (). The inner Pre-Pyrenees, composed of more modern rocks (limestones) also has large mountains such as
Monte Perdido Monte Perdido (in Spanish; Mont Perdu in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a count ...

Monte Perdido
(), Collarada () and Tendeñera (). The main Pyrenean valleys are formed by the rivers that are born there, which are: * Ansó Valley: Veral river * Hecho Valley: Aragón Subordán river * Canfranc Valley:
Aragón river Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. In northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises thr ...
*
Tena Valley TENA is a Sweden, Swedish-based brand of Essity that specializes in products for adults with urinary incontinence, urinary or fecal incontinence, such as pads and diapers. TENA also produces a youth diaper brand for teenagers and larger children ...
: Gállego river * Broto Valley: Ara river * Aínsa Valley: Cinca river ** Pineta Valley: Cinca river ** Gistau Valley: Cinqueta river *
Benasque Valley Benasque (; in Benasquese dialect: ''Benás''; an, Benás) () is a town in the Comarcas of Aragon, comarca of Ribagorza (comarca), Ribagorza, province of Huesca (province), Huesca, (Spain). It is the main town in the Benasque Valley, located in t ...
: Ésera river The intrapirenaic depression is a broad perpendicular corridor. Its best represented section is the Canal de Berdún. The southern limit of the Depression corresponds to the energetic reliefs of San Juan de la Peña () and Oroel Rock (), modeled on conglomerates of the Campodarbe Formation. The pre-Pyrenean outer ranges are in the Huescan foothills and constitute the southernmost unit of the Pyrenees; formed by predominantly calcareous materials, reach heights between and meters. The
Sierra de Guara The Sierra de Guara is a mountain massif in the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrativ ...

Sierra de Guara
, one of the most important mountain ranges of the Spanish
Pre-Pyrenees The Pre-Pyrenees are the foothills of the Pyrenees. Description As a mountainous system the Pre-Pyrenees are part of the Pyrenees. They run parallel to the main mountain range in a west to east direction. On the French side the Pyrenees's slope ...
, stands out; its summit, the Guara Peak, reaches metres. The , near the town of
Ayerbe :''Ayerbe is also the name of a village in the Broto municipality.'' Ayerbe is a town in the Hoya de Huesca Comarcas of Aragon, comarca, in the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. Geography Ayerbe is located 28 ...
, stand out for their beauty.


Depression of the Ebro

It extends a wide plain, after passing the foothills, corresponding to the Depression of the Ebro. To the southwest is the ranges () one of the typical limestone plateaus of the Depression. The depression of the Ebro is a tectonic pit filled with sedimentary materials, accumulated in the in horizontal series. In the center, fine materials such as
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

clay
s,
plaster Plaster is a building material Building material is material used for construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. an ...
s and
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
s were deposited. To the south of the
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
have been the limestone plateaus of Borja and of
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
.


Sistema Ibérico

The Aragonese
Sistema Ibérico 240px, The Iberian wolf is a subspecies of grey wolf that is still found in some ranges of the system. The Iberian System ( es, Sistema Ibérico, ), is one of the major systems of mountain ranges in Spain. It consists of a vast and complex ar ...

Sistema Ibérico
is divided between the provinces of
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...
and
Teruel Teruel () is a city in Aragon, located in eastern Spain, and is also the capital of Teruel (province), Teruel Province. It has a population of 35,675 in 2014 making it the least populated provincial capital in the country. It is noted for its har ...
. It is a set of hills without a clear structural unit, which can be divided into two zones: Sistema Ibérico del Jalón and Sistema Ibérico turolense. In the first, the Moncayo stands out with , formed by Paleozoic quartzites and
slate Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism uprigh ...

slate
s, partly covered by Mesozoic
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
s; to the southeast of the Moncayo the Sistema Ibérico descends of height. The second is formed by elevated terrain (from to in general), but flattened and massive. To the southwest of the depression the summits of the
Sierra de Albarracín Sierra de Albarracín is a long mountain range in the southwestern end of the Sistema Ibérico, Iberian System. Its highest point is the 1,856 m high summit known as Sierra Alta. Description This mountain range is named after the town of Albarra ...

Sierra de Albarracín
range are reached above , southeast the are reached in the
Sierra de Javalambre Sierra de Javalambre ( an, Sierra de Chabalambre) is a long mountain range in the Gúdar-Javalambre comarcas of Aragon, comarca of Aragon and the Rincón de Ademuz and Serrans comarcas of the Valencian Community, Spain. Highway N-234 road (Spain ...
range and finally we arrive at the Sierra de Gúdar range () transition to .


Climate and vegetation

Although the climate of Aragon can be considered, in general, as a
continental Mediterranean climate A continentalized Mediterranean climate is a variant of the temperate mediterranean climate with influences of a typical continental climate. It is found inland in the mediterannean region, far away from coasts. This climate is common in inland ...
, its irregular orography creates several climates or microclimates throughout the entire community. From the High mountain climate of the central
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
to the north, with perpetual ice (glaciers), to the steppe or semi-desert zones, such as the
Monegros Los Monegros is a comarca A ''comarca'' (, or ) is a traditional region or local administrative division found in Portugal, Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , imag ...

Monegros
, passing through the intense
Continental climate Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), within large landmasses where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperat ...
of the Teruel-Daroca area. The main characteristics of the Aragonese climate are: * It is very dry, placed as it is in a 'bowl' of low ground between the Pyrenean mountain ranges to the north and the
Sistema Ibérico 240px, The Iberian wolf is a subspecies of grey wolf that is still found in some ranges of the system. The Iberian System ( es, Sistema Ibérico, ), is one of the major systems of mountain ranges in Spain. It consists of a vast and complex ar ...

Sistema Ibérico
to the south. This situation means that the rain falls mainly in the foothills, leading to great contrasts of temperatures, the very cold winters and hot summers of the
continental climate Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), within large landmasses where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperat ...
of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
. * The irregularity of the rains due to the component
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
, with alternating dry and wet years. * The air currents that are encased in the middle Ebro Valley from northwest to southeast ( cierzo), which stands out for its intensity and frequency, and from southeast to northwest (
heat index The heat index (HI) is an index that combines air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmospher ...
). Average temperatures are very dependent on height. In the
Ebro Valley , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro ri ...
the winters are relatively moderate, although the
frost Frost is a thin layer of ice Ice is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is ...
s are very common and the thermal sensation can decrease a lot with the cierzo, temperatures in summer can reach near the 40 °C. In mountain areas winters are long and rigorous, average temperatures can be up to 10 °C lower than in the valley. The two most important winds of Aragon are the cierzo of the north and the heat index of
levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...
. The first is a very cold and dry wind that crosses the
Ebro Valley , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro ri ...
from northwest to southeast and that can present great strength and speed. The second is a warm wind, more irregular and smooth coming from the south-east. The
vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular re ...

vegetation
follows the oscillations of relief and climate. There is a great variety, be it wild vegetation or human crops. In the high areas you can find forests (pines, firs, beech trees, oaks), bushes and meadows, while the areas of
Ebro Valley , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro ri ...
evergreen oak Live oak or evergreen oak is any of a number of oaks in several different sections of the genus ''Quercus'' that share the characteristic of evergreen foliage. These oaks are not more closely related to each other than they are to other oaks. ...
and
juniper Junipers are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The divi ...

juniper
are the most numerous trees, apart from the lands exploited for agricultural use.


Hydrography

Most Aragonese rivers are tributaries of the
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
River, which is the largest river in Spain and divides the community in two. Of the tributaries of the left bank of the river, the ones originating in the Pyrenees, the Aragón River stands out. Its headwaters are in Huesca, but it ends at the community of Navarre, the Gállego and the Cinca, which joins the Segre just before emptying into the Ebro at the height of
Mequinenza Mequinenza (Aragonese and ) or Mequinensa () is a town and municipality of the province of Zaragoza, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It is located beside the river Segre, close to its confluence with the river Ebro between the Mequin ...

Mequinenza
. On the right bank, the Jalón,
Huerva The Huerva River is a river in Aragon, Spain. It is a tributary of the Ebro. Its mean annual discharge is only . Course This long river rises in the Sierra de Cucalón, near Fonfría, Teruel, Fonfría in the Jiloca Comarca. Flowing northwestwards ...

Huerva
and
Guadalope The Guadalope (Guadalop in Catalan and Aragonese) is a river in Aragon, Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , nation ...
stand out. In the stream bed of the Ebro river, near the border with Catalonia, the Mequinenza Reservoir, of and a length of about 110 km; it is popularly known as the "Sea of Aragon". The small Pyrenean mountain lakes called es merit special mention. These lakes are very scenic, originating during the last
glaciation A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the o ...
, and are usually found above . The Autonomous Community lies within three hydrographic regions, the Ebro River, the
Tagus The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eib ...

Tagus
River (which originates in the
Sierra de Albarracín Sierra de Albarracín is a long mountain range in the southwestern end of the Sistema Ibérico, Iberian System. Its highest point is the 1,856 m high summit known as Sierra Alta. Description This mountain range is named after the town of Albarra ...

Sierra de Albarracín
range), and the
Júcar file:Spanien Jucar Ventano del Diablo2.jpg, left The Júcar () or Xúquer () is a river on the Iberian Peninsula of Spain. The river runs for approximately 509 km from its source at Ojuelos de Valdeminguete, on the eastern flank of the Montes ...

Júcar
, which has as its main river in this community the Turia.


Protected spaces

In Aragon, protected natural spaces are managed through the Red Natural de Aragón, an entity created in 2004 to protect all elements with
ecological Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biology ...
, landscape and cultural value and at the same time coordinate and establish common standards that contribute to their conservation and sustainable use. In this entity are integrated
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national park
s, natural parks,
nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area Protected areas or conservation areas a ...
s,
biosphere reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features of ...

biosphere reserve
s and other protected natural areas that have been declared by the autonomous community, the
Ramsar Convention The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after th ...

Ramsar Convention
or the
Natura 2000 Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is al ...
. Within the protected areas is the only
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...
of Aragon: the
Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park (Parque nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido) is an IUCN Category II National Park situated in the Pyrenees. There has been a National Park in the Ordesa Valley since 1918. Its protected area was enlarged in 1982 ...
, the second national park created in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, in 1918, it is found in the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
in the comarca of
Sobrarbe Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas of Aragon, Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthe ...

Sobrarbe
, occupies an area of , a part of the of the peripheral area of protection. It also enjoys other figures of protection like the
Biosphere Reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features of ...

Biosphere Reserve
of and is cataloged as a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
. In addition there are other 4 natural parks: the Moncayo Natural Park with an extension of , the Sierra y Cañones de Guara Natural Park with and of peripheral area of protection, the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park with and of peripheral area of protection, and the Valles Occidentales Natural Park with and of peripheral area of protection. There are also three nature reserves, five natural monuments and three protected landscapes.


Aiguabarreig Segre-Cinca-Ebro

At the confluence of the Segre and
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
rivers, the Aiguabarreig Ebro-Segre-Cinca is a space with great natural wealth and a great variety of ecosystems that range from Mediterranean steppes to impenetrable riverside forests, making this space a paradise for biodiversity. Territorially, the Aiguabarreig is at the center of the Middle Depression of the Ebro. It borders to the west with the Monegros, to the east with the Tossals de Montmeneu and Almatret and to the south with the tail of the Ribarroja reservoir. This space is named with Catalan word of origin that designates the place where two or more water streams meet and form one. The Segre and Cinca form a first Aiguabarreig between the towns of La Granja d'Escarp, Massalcoreig and Torrente de Cinca, a few kilometers downstream they converge with the waters of the Ebro, already in the municipality of
Mequinenza Mequinenza (Aragonese and ) or Mequinensa () is a town and municipality of the province of Zaragoza, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It is located beside the river Segre, close to its confluence with the river Ebro between the Mequin ...

Mequinenza
, forming one of the largest river confluences of the entire Iberian Peninsula.


History

Aragon, occupying the northeast of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
has served as a bridge between the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
, the peninsular center and the coasts of the
Cantabrian Sea The Cantabrian Sea; french: Mer Cantabrique, gl, Mar Cantábrico, ast, Mar Cantábricu, eu, Kantauri. is the southern part of the Bay of Biscay. It is the coastal sea of the Atlantic Ocean that washes the northern coast of Spain and the south ...
. The human presence in the lands that today form the autonomous community date back several millennia, but the current Aragon, like many of the current historical nationalities, were formed during the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
.


Prehistory

The oldest testimonies of human life in the lands that today make up Aragon go back to the time of the glaciations, in the
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
, some years ago. This population left the Acheulean industry that found its best weapons in the
hand axe A hand axe (or handaxe or Acheulean hand axe) is a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is under ...
s of
flint Flint is a sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology ...

flint
or the cleavers of
quartzite Quartzite is a hard, non- foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.Essentials of Geology, 3rd Edition, Stephen Marshak, p 182 Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tecto ...

quartzite
. In the
Upper Palaeolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the Late Stone Age is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehis ...

Upper Palaeolithic
appeared two new cultures: Solutrean and Magdalenian. The
Epipaleolithic In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic or Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc.) is a term for a period occurring between the Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the Late Stone Age The Later Stone ...
was centered in Lower Aragon, occupying the epoch between the 7th and the 5th millennium. In the first half of the 5th millennium
BCE Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.2 ...
,
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
remains are found in the Huescan Outer Ranges and in Lower Aragon. The Eneolithic was characterized in the
province of Huesca Huesca ( an, Uesca, ca, Osca), officially Huesca/Uesca, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnati ...
presenting two important megalithic nuclei: the
Pre-Pyrenees The Pre-Pyrenees are the foothills of the Pyrenees. Description As a mountainous system the Pre-Pyrenees are part of the Pyrenees. They run parallel to the main mountain range in a west to east direction. On the French side the Pyrenees's slope ...
of the Outer Ranges and the High Pyrenean valleys. The Late
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
begins in Aragon around 1100 BCE with the arrival of the
Urnfield culture The Urnfield culture ( 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is the second princ ...
. They are Indo-European people, with an alleged origin in Central Europe, who incinerate their dead by placing the ashes in a funeral urn. There are examples in the Cave del Moro of Olvena, the Masada del Ratón in
Fraga Fraga (; ) is the major town of the ''comarca'' of Bajo Cinca ( ca, Baix Cinca) in the province of Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca), (also known in Pre-Roman Iberian times as 'Bolskan", in Latin as 'Osca', and Arabic 'Wasqah'), is a city in north-eas ...

Fraga
, Palermo and the Cabezo de Monleón in
Caspe Caspe is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordina ...

Caspe
. From the metallurgical point of view there seems to be a boom given the increase in foundry molds that are located in the populations. The
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
is the most important, since throughout the centuries it is the true substratum of the Aragonese historical population. The arrival of Central Europeans during the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
by
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
until reaching the Lower Aragon area, supposed an important ethnic contribution that prepared the way to the invasions of Iron Age.


Ancient history

The
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
contributions represented a commercial activity that will constitute a powerful stimulus for the iron metallurgy, promoting the modernization of the tools and the indigenous armament, replacing the old bronze with the iron. There is presence of
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
n,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
and
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
products. In the 6th century BCE there are six groups with different social organization: products
Vascones A coin with BARSCUNES in Iberian script. It has been proposed that the word is related to Vascones. The Vascones were a pre-Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th ...

Vascones
, Suessetani, Sedetani, Iacetani,
IlergetesThe Ilergetes were an ancient Iberian (Pre- Roman) people of the Iberian peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberia ...
and Citerior
Celtiberians The Celtiberians were a group of Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European p ...
. They are Iberized groups with a tendency towards stability, fixing their habitat in durable populations, with dwellings that evolve towards more enduring and stable models. There are many examples in Aragon, among which Cabezo de Monleón in
Caspe Caspe is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordina ...

Caspe
, Puntal of
Fraga Fraga (; ) is the major town of the ''comarca'' of Bajo Cinca ( ca, Baix Cinca) in the province of Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca), (also known in Pre-Roman Iberian times as 'Bolskan", in Latin as 'Osca', and Arabic 'Wasqah'), is a city in north-eas ...

Fraga
, Roquizal del Rullo or Loma de los Brunos. The type of social organization was based on the family group, consisting of four generations. Self-sufficient societies in which the greater part of the population was dedicated to agricultural and livestock activities. In the Iberian scope the power was monarchical, exercised by a king; there was a democratic assembly with participation of the male population. There were visible social differentiations and established legal-political statutes. The
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
arrived and progressed easily into the interior. In the territorial distribution that Rome made of
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
, the current Aragon was included in the
Hispania Citerior Hispania Citerior (English: "Hither Iberia", or "Nearer Iberia") was a Roman province in Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5t ...
. In the year 197 BCE, Sempronius Tuditanus is the praetor of the Citerior and had to face a general uprising in their territories that ended with the Roman defeat and the own death of Tuditanus. In view of these facts the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

Senate
sent the consul Marcus Porcius Cato with an army of men. The indigenous peoples of the area were rebelling, except for the
IlergetesThe Ilergetes were an ancient Iberian (Pre- Roman) people of the Iberian peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberia ...
who negotiated peace with Cato. There were different uprisings of the Iberian peoples against the Romans, in 194 BCE sees a general uprising with elimination of half of the Roman army, in 188 BCE Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus, praetor of the Citerior, must confront in Calagurris (
Calahorra Calahorra [] ( an, Calagorra, la, Calagurris) La Rioja (autonomous community), La Rioja, Spain is a municipality in the comarca of Rioja Baja, near the border with Navarre on the right bank of the Ebro. During Ancient Rome, Ancient Roman times, C ...

Calahorra
) with the
Celtiberians The Celtiberians were a group of Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European p ...
, in the 184 BCE Terentius Varro did it with the Suessetani, to those who took the capital, Corbio. In the 1st century BCE Aragon was the scene of the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
to seize the power of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
where the governor
Quintus Sertorius Quintus Sertorius (c. 126 – 73 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who led Sertorian War, a large-scale rebellion against the Roman Senate on the Iberian peninsula. He had been a prominent member of the Populares, populist faction of Lucius Co ...
made Osca (
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
) the capital of all the territories controlled by them. Already in the 1st century BCE, the today Aragonese territory became part of the province
Tarraconensis Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman R ...
and there was the definitive romanization of it creating roads and consolidating ancient Celtiberian and Iberian cities such as
Caesaraugusta Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...
(Zaragoza), Turiaso (
Tarazona Tarazona is a town and municipality in the Tarazona y el Moncayo comarca, province of Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza province and of the autonomous communities of ...

Tarazona
), Osca (
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
) or (Calatayud). In the middle of the 3rd century the decay of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
began. Between the years 264 and 266 the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
and the
Alemanni The Alemanni (also ''Alamanni''; ''Suebi'' "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes * * * on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla Caracalla ( ; 4 April 188 – ...
, two Germanic peoples who passed through the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
and came to
Tarazona Tarazona is a town and municipality in the Tarazona y el Moncayo comarca, province of Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza province and of the autonomous communities of ...

Tarazona
, which they sacked. In the agony of the Empire groups of bandits emerged who were dedicated to pillage. The
Ebro Valley , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro ri ...
was ravaged in the 5th century by several gangs of evildoers called
BagaudaeBagaudae (also spelled bacaudae) were groups of peasant A peasant is a pre-industrial farmhand, agricultural laborer or a farmer with limited land-ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and tenant farmer, paying rent ...
.


Middle Ages

After the disintegration of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
, the current area of Aragon was occupied by the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe a ...
, forming the
Visigothic Kingdom The Visigothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of the Goths ( la, Regnum Gothorum), was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic peoples, Germanic s ...

Visigothic Kingdom
. In the year 714
muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
from North Africa conquered the central area of Aragon, converting to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
the ancient Roman cities such as
Saraqusta The taifa of Zaragoza () was an independent Arab Islam, Muslim state in the east of Al-Andalus (present day Spain), which was established in 1018 as one of the taifa kingdoms, with its capital in Saraqusta (Zaragoza) city. Zaragoza's taifa emerg ...
(Zaragoza) or Wasqa (
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
). It was at this time that an important
MuwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
family arose, the
Banu Qasi The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi ( ar, بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Muwallad dynasty that in the 9th century ruled the Upper March, a frontier territory of the Umayyads, Um ...
(بنو قاسي), their domains were located in the
Ebro Valley , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro ri ...
between the 8th and 10th centuries. After the disappearance of the
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (; ar, خَلِيفَة ', ), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad a ...
at the beginning of the 11th century, the
Taifa of Zaragoza The taifa The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim principalities of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal Port ...
arose, one of the most important
Taifa The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, ا ...
s of , leaving a great artistic, cultural and philosophical legacy. The name of Aragon is documented for the first time during the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
in the year 828, when the small
County of AragonThe County of Aragon or County of Jaca was a small Frankish marcher county in the central Pyrenean valley of the Aragon river, comprising Ansó, Echo, Aragón, Spain, Echo, and Canfranc and centered on the small town of Jaca (''Iacca'' in Latin l ...
of
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
origin, would emerge between the rivers that bear its name, the
Aragón river Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. In northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises thr ...
, and its brother the Aragón Subordán river. That County of Aragon would be linked to the
Kingdom of Pamplona ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or u ...
until 1035, and under its wing it would grow to form a dowry of
García Sánchez III of Pamplona García Sánchez III ( eu, Gartzea III.a Sanoitz; 1012 – 15 September 1054),''Europäische Stammtafeln'': II #56, III.1 #145; Moriarty, ''Plantagenet Ancestry of King Edward III and Queen Philippa of Hainault'', p80, 109 nicknamed García from N ...
to the death of the king Sancho III of Pamplona, Sancho "the Great", in a period characterized by Muslim hegemony in almost the entire Iberian Peninsula. Under the reign of Ramiro I of Aragon would be extended borders with the annexation of the counties of County of Sobrarbe, Sobrarbe and County of Ribagorza, Ribagorza (year 1044), after having incorporated populations of the historical comarca of Cinco Villas, Aragon, Cinco Villas. In 1076, on the death of Sancho IV of Pamplona, Aragon incorporated part of the Navarrese kingdom into its territories while Castile did the same with the western area of the former domains of Sancho "the Great". During the reigns of Sancho Ramírez and Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona, the kingdom extended its borders to the south, established threatening fortresses on the capital of Zaragoza in El Castellar and Juslibol and took
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
, which became the new capital. This leads to the reign of Alfonso the Battler, Alfonso I of Aragon that would conquer the flat lands of the middle Ebro Valley for Aragon: Ejea de los Caballeros, Valtierra, Calatayud, Tudela, Navarre, Tudela and
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
, the capital of the Taifa of Zaragoza, Taifa of Saraqusta. At his death the nobles would choose his brother Ramiro II of Aragon, who left his religious life to assume the royal scepter and perpetuate the dynasty, which he achieved with the dynastic union of the House of Aragon with the owner of the County of Barcelona in 1137, year in which the union of both patrimonies would give rise to the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
and would add the forces that to its they would make the conquests of the Kingdom of Majorca and the Kingdom of Valencia possible. The Crown of Aragon would become the hegemonic power of the Mediterranean, controlling territories as important as Kingdom of Sicily, Sicily, Corsica, Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia or Kingdom of Naples, Naples. The monarch was known as King of Aragon and also held the titles of King of Valencia, King of Majorca (for a time), Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier, and (temporarily) Duke of Athens and Neopatria. Each of these titles gave him sovereignty over the specific region, and the titles changed as territories were lost and won. According to Fuero#Basque and Pyrenean fueros, Aragonese law, the monarch had to swear allegiance to the Kingdom's laws before being accepted as king. Like other Pyrenean and Basque realms, the Aragonese justice and decision making system was based on Pyrenean Custom (law), consuetudinary law, the King was considered ''primus inter pares'' ('first among equals') within the nobility. A nobleman with the title "Chustizia d'Aragón" acted as ombudsman and was responsible for ensuring that the King obeyed the Aragonese laws. An old saying goes, "en Aragón antes de Rey hubo Ley" ("in Aragon Law came before King"), similar to the saying in Navarre, "antes fueron Leyes que Reyes", with much the same meaning. The subsequent legend made the Aragonese monarchy eligible and created a phrase of coronation of the king that would be perpetuated for centuries: This situation would be repeated in the Commitment of Caspe (1412), which avoids a war that had dismembered the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
when a good handful of aspirants to the throne emerged after the death of Martin of Aragon a year after the death of his first-born, Martin I of Sicily. Ferdinand I of Aragon is the chosen one, of the Castilian House of Trastámara, but also directly connected with the Aragonese king Peter IV of Aragon, through his mother Eleanor of Aragon. Aragon is already a large-scale political entity: the Crown, the Cortes of the Kingdom of Aragon, Cortes, the Deputation of the General of the Kingdom of Aragon, Deputation of the Kingdom and the Foral Laws, Foral Law constitute its nature and its character. The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon with Isabella I of Castile, celebrated in 1469 in Valladolid, derived later in the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, creating the bases of the State (polity)#The modern state, Modern State.


Early Modern Age c. 1500–1789

The Early modern period, Early Modern Age was marked by increasing tension between the power of the Monarchy of Spain, Spanish Monarchy and those of the regions. The appointment of a Castilian as Viceroy in 1590, contrary to the agreement all Royal officials be Aragonese caused widespread unrest; when the Madrid authorities attempted to arrest the Aragonese writer and politician Antonio Perez in May 1591, it caused street violence in Zaragossa and a revolt known as the Alterations of Aragon. The unrest was largely confined to Zaragossa and quickly suppressed, with Perez going into exile. Philip then ordered a reduction in the proportion of taxes retained by the Generality of Aragon to lessen their capacity to raise an army against him. The decay of independent institutions meant political activity focused instead on the preservation of Aragonese history, culture and art. The Archive of the Kingdom of Aragon preserved legal documents and records from the Justiciar and the Palace of Deputation or Parliament, unfortunately largely destroyed by the French in the battles of 1809. Debates on the causes of the 1590/91 revolt became a contest between opposing views of history that arguably persist in modern Spain. The new emphasis on Aragonese history led to the creation of the position of Chronicler or Historian of Aragon; its holders included Jerónimo Zurita y Castro, the De Argensola brothers, Bartolomé Leonardo de Argensola, Bartolomé and Lupercio Leonardo de Argensola, Lupercio, Juan Costa and Jerónimo Martel. Much of the work produced by Aragonese writers challenged Philip II's version of events and were censored by the central government. In retaliation, the Generality of Aragon ordered the work of Castilian historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas to be burned and commissioned Vicencio Blasco de Lanuza to write an alternative. His 'History of Aragon' was published in two volumes, 1616 and 1619 respectively; the urgency shows the importance placed on responding to Herrera. Other works commissioned at this time for the same purpose include a ''History of the Aragonese Deputation'' by Lorenzo Ibáñez de Aoiz and a detailed cartography of the Kingdom of Aragon by João Baptista Lavanha. In 1590/91, the Spanish monarchy was at the height of its strength but during the 17th century Spanish power declined for a number of reasons. Famine, disease and almost continuous warfare, largely in the Spanish Netherlands drained money, energy and men and weakened the economy; it is estimated the population of Spain fell nearly 25% between 1600 and 1700. War and economic decline inevitably led to increases in taxes, with predictable results; the refusal of the Catalan Cortes Generales, Cortes to contribute their share of the 1626 Union of Arms eventually led to a full-scale revolt in 1640. While Aragon itself remained relatively peaceful, it had to be treated with care by the Madrid government; during the reign of Charles II of Spain, Charles II from 1665 to 1700, it provided his half-brother John of Austria the Younger, John of Austria with a power base in his battle for control of government with the Queen Regent Mariana of Austria. During the 1701–1714 War of the Spanish Succession, Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia and Majorca supported the Austrian claimant Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles. The victory of Philip V of Spain, Philip V accelerated the trend towards greater centralisation; the ''Nueva Planta'' decrees of 1707 abolished the ''fueros'' and Aragonese political structures with their powers transferred to the Deputation of the Kingdom in Madrid; Aragon and Valencia were brought into the system in 1712, Catalonia and Majorca following in 1767.


1790–1936

The French invasion of 1808 that made Kingdom of Spain under Joseph Bonaparte, Joseph Bonaparte King led to the outbreak of the ''Guerra de la Independencia Española'' or War of Independence in May. Zaragoza was largely destroyed in February 1809 during the Second Siege of Zaragoza, bringing a halt to its economic development. The 1812 Constitution proposed a number of reforms, including the creation of provincial territories and dividing Aragon into the four provinces of Province of Calatayud, Calatayud, province of Teruel, Teruel, province of Soria, Soria and province of Guadalajara, Guadalajara. However, these reforms were delayed by Ferdinand VII of Spain, Ferdinand VII's refusal to accept the constitution and finally implemented in 1822 during the 1820-23 Trienio Liberal. When Ferdinand was restored by French Bourbon forces in 1823, he abolished the Constitution along with the provincial reforms. When he died in 1833, the 1833 territorial division of Spain, provincial division of 1833 divided Aragon into its current three provinces. Throughout the 19th century, Aragon was a stronghold of the Carlism, Carlists, who offered to restore the ''fueros'' and other rights associated with the former
Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon ( an, Reino d'Aragón, ca, Regne d'Aragó, la, Regnum Aragoniae, es, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study ...
. This period saw a massive exodus from the countryside into the larger cities of Aragon such as
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
,
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
, Teruel or Calatayud and other nearby regions, such as
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
or Madrid. The history of Aragon in the first half of the 20th century was similar to that of the rest of Spain; the building of infrastructure and reforms made by Miguel Primo de Rivera led to a brief economic boom, with new civil and individual liberties during the Second Spanish Republic. In June 1936, a draft Statute of Autonomy of Aragon was presented to the Cortes Generales but the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War prevented the development of this autonomist project.


1936 to present

During the 1936–1939 civil war, Aragon was divided between the two sides. The Eastern Area which was closer to Catalonia was run by the Republican Regional Defence Council of Aragon, while the larger Western Area was controlled by the Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), Nationalists. Some of the most important battles were fought in or near Aragon, including Battle of Belchite (1937), Belchite, Battle of Teruel, Teruel and Battle of the Ebro, Ebro. After the defeat of the Second Spanish Republic, Republic in April 1939, Aragon and the rest of Spain was governed by the Francoist Spain, Francoist dictatorship. Especially during the 1960s, there were large migrations, with a depopulation of the rural areas, towards the industrial areas like the provincial capitals, other areas of Spain, and other European countries. In 1964, one of the so-called Development Poles was created in
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
. In 1970's, the old town of
Mequinenza Mequinenza (Aragonese and ) or Mequinensa () is a town and municipality of the province of Zaragoza, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It is located beside the river Segre, close to its confluence with the river Ebro between the Mequin ...

Mequinenza
was demolished almost completely due to the construction of the Ribarroja Dam, Ribarroja reservoir. The inhabitants of Mequinenza had to leave their homes to move to the new town on the banks of the River Segre. A part of the inhabitants left for more industrial areas such as Barcelona or Zaragoza or even abroad to continue working in mining industries. By the end of 1974 all population had already abandoned the Old Town of Mequinenza and was living in the new town. In the 1970s a period of transition as in the rest of the Country was experienced, after the extinction of the previous regime, with the recovery of democratic normality and the creation of a new constitutional framework. It began to demand an own political autonomy, for the Aragonese historical territory; sentiment that was reflected in the historic manifestation of April 23 of 1978 that brought together more than aragoneses through the streets of
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
. Not having plebiscited, in the past, affirmatively a draft Statute of autonomy (second transitory provision of the constitution) and not making use of the difficult access to autonomy by Article 151 whose aggravated procedure required, apart from the initiative of the process autonomic follow the steps of article 143, which was ratified by three quarters of the municipalities of each of the affected provinces that represent at least the majority of the electoral census, and that this initiative was approved by referendum by the affirmative vote of the majority absolute of the electors of each province, Aragon acceded to the self-government by the slow way of article 143 obtaining lower competence top, and less self-management of resources, during more than 20 years. On August 10, 1982, Aragon's autonomy statute was approved by the Cortes Generales, signed by the then President of the government, president of the Government, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, and Pragmatic sanction, sanctioned by His Majesty Juan Carlos I of Spain. On May 7, 1992 a Special Commission of the Aragonese Corts, elaborated a reformed text that was approved by the Aragonese Corts and by the Spanish Cortes. Again, a small statutory reform in the year 1996 extended the competence framework, forcing a definitive comprehensive review for several years, a new statutory text was approved in 2007, by majority but without reaching total unanimity. In the 1990s the Aragonese society increases a significant qualitative step in the quality of life due to the economic progress of the State at all levels. At the beginning of the 21st century, a significant increase in infrastructures was established, such as the arrival of the High Speed Train (AVE), the construction of the Autovía A-23, new dual carriageway Somport-Sagunto and the promotion of the two airports in the Autonomous Community, Zaragoza Airport, Zaragoza and Huesca–Pirineos Airport, Huesca-Pirineos. At the same time, large technological projects are being undertaken, such as the Walqa Technology Park and the implementation of a telematic network throughout the community. In 2007 the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon was reformed again -which was approved by a broad consensus in the Aragonese Corts, having the support of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, PSOE, the People's Party (Spain), PP, the Aragonese Party, PAR and the United Left (Spain), IU, whereas Chunta Aragonesista, CHA abstained- granting the Autonomous Community the recognition of Nationalities and regions of Spain, historical nationality (since the Organic Law of 1996 reform of the statute, it had the condition of nationality), includes a new title on the Administration of Chustizia and another on the rights and duties of the Aragoneses and guiding principles of public policies, the possibility of creating an own tax agency in collaboration with that of the State, and also the obligation to public authorities to ensure to avoid transfers from watersheds such as National Hydrological Plan (Spain), transfer of the Ebro, among many other modifications of the Statute of Autonomy. The designation of
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
as the venue for the Expo 2008, 2008 International Exhibition, whose thematic axis was Water and Sustainable development, represented a series of changes and accelerated growth for the autonomous community. In addition, two anniversaries were celebrated that same year, the bicentennial of Siege of Zaragoza (disambiguation), Sieges of Zaragoza of the War of Spanish Independence, War of Independence against the Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleonic invasion, occurred in 1808 and the centenary of the Hispano-French Exposition of 1908 that it supposed as a modern event, to demonstrate the cultural and economic thrust of Aragon and at the same time serve to strengthen ties and staunch wounds with the France, French neighbors after the events of the Napoleonic Wars of the previous century.


Demographics


Population

, half of Aragon's population, 50.45%, live in the capital city of
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
.
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
is the only other city in the region with a population greater than . The majority of Aragonese citizens, 71.8%, live in the province of Zaragoza. 17.1% live in the province of Huesca, and 11.1% in the province of Teruel. The population density of the region is the second lowest in Spain after Castilla-La Mancha: only 26.8/km2. The most densely populated areas are around the valley of the river
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
, particularly around Zaragoza, and in the Pyrenean foothills, while the areas with the fewest inhabitants tend to be those that are higher up in the Pyrenean mountains, and in most of the southern province of Teruel. Only four cities have a population of more than : Zaragoza , Huesca , Teruel , and Calatayud .


Languages

Spanish language, Spanish is the native language in most of Aragon, and it is the only official language, understood and spoken by virtually everyone in the region. In addition to it, the Aragonese language continues to be spoken in several local varieties in the mountainous northern counties of the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
, particularly in western Ribagorza (comarca), Ribagorza,
Sobrarbe Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas of Aragon, Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthe ...

Sobrarbe
, Jacetania and Somontano de Barbastro, Somontano; it is enjoying a resurgence of popularity as a tool for regional identity. In the easternmost areas of Aragon, along the border with
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
, varieties of the Catalan language are spoken, including the comarcas of eastern Ribagorza, La Litera, Bajo Cinca, Bajo Aragón-Caspe, Bajo Aragón and Matarraña. The strip-shaped Catalan-speaking area in Aragon is often called ''La Franja''. The Declaration of Mequinenza (Declaració de Mequinensa in Catalan) was a document signed on February 1, 1984 in
Mequinenza Mequinenza (Aragonese and ) or Mequinensa () is a town and municipality of the province of Zaragoza, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It is located beside the river Segre, close to its confluence with the river Ebro between the Mequin ...

Mequinenza
by the mayors of 17 municipalities of the Aragonese Catalan-speaking area together with José Bada Paniello (Minister of Culture of Government of Aragon at the time). Following the declaration, and complying with one of the proposals contained therein, on October 1, 1985, an agreement between the Government of Aragon and the Ministry of Education and Science was implemented for the teaching of the Catalan language as a voluntary and assessable subject in schools in the area. The Languages Acts of Aragon of 2009 and 2013 have been passed to try to regulate the languages in this autonomous community. An update of these laws was announced but as of 2019 it has not been carried out.


Territorial division

Aragon is divided into three provinces from north to south, named after their capitals: Huesca (province), Huesca, Zaragoza (province), Zaragoza and
Teruel Teruel () is a city in Aragon, located in eastern Spain, and is also the capital of Teruel (province), Teruel Province. It has a population of 35,675 in 2014 making it the least populated provincial capital in the country. It is noted for its har ...
. The provinces are further divided into 33 comarcas, three of which are in more than one province. There are a total of 732 Municipalities of Spain, municipalities in the region.


Culture

Some medieval monuments of Teruel and Zaragoza are protected by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
as part of the
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s ''Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon''. The traditional dance of Aragon is known as Jota (music), jota and is one of the faster Spanish dances. It is also the most widespread in Aragon and the exact style and music depend on the area. There are other less popular dances named "paloteaos" similar to the sword/stick dances of other regions. The music to one local dance, "The Dance of Majordomos" of Benasque, was so enjoyed by Rafael del Riego on a visit to the town that he ordered it to be copied resulting in the "Hymn of Riego" . Typical Aragonese instruments include the stringed drum or "Chicotén", bagpipes such as the "gaita de boto", oboes such as the "Dulzaina", and small flutes like the "Chiflo". Some instruments have been lost, such as the "trompa de Ribagorza", although there have been efforts to reconstruct them. In contrast to other Pyrenean regions, the "Chicotén" and "Chiflo" never have stopped being played. The Carnival of Bielsa (
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
) has ancient origins and includes a group of men carrying long sticks, wearing skirts, cowbells and boucard/goat-like horns and skins with black-painted faces called "Trangas" symbolising "virility" who surround another man wearing skins playing the part of a bear called "l'onso". In Aragonese mythology the bear carried souls between the world of the living and the world of the dead. Trangas dance with young females named "madamas" symbolising "purity" and wearing colourful dresses. Other traditional figures include a horse rider named "Caballé".


Cuisine

With its lush Pyrenean pastures, lamb, beef, and dairy products are, not surprisingly, predominant in Aragonese cuisine. Also of note is its ham from Teruel; olive oil from Empeltre and Arbequina; longaniza from Graus; rainbow trout and salmon, boar, truffles and wild mushrooms from the upper river valleys of the Jacetania, Gállego (river), Gallego,
Sobrarbe Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas of Aragon, Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthe ...

Sobrarbe
, and Ribagorza (comarca), Ribagorza regions; and wines from Cariñena (DO), Cariñena, Somontano, Calatayud (DO), Calatayud, and Campo de Borja (DO), Campo de Borja; and fruit, especially peaches, from its fertile lower valleys. The region also features a unique local haggis, known as chireta, several interesting seafood dishes, including various crab pastes, which developed from an old superstition that crabs help prevent illness, and sweets such as "Adoquines del Pilar" and "Frutas de Aragón". There are also other sweets like "Tortas de alma" from Teruel and "Trenza de Almudevar" or "Castañas de Huesca" from
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
.


Economy

Aragon is among the richest autonomous regions in Spain, with GDP per capita above the nation's average. The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the autonomous community was 37.0 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 3.1% of Spanish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 30,200 euros or 100% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 101% of the EU average. The traditional agriculture-based economy from the mid-20th century has been greatly transformed in the past several decades and now service and industrial sectors are the backbone of the economy in the region. The well-developed irrigation system around the Ebro has greatly supported the productive agriculture. The most important crops include wheat, barley, rye, fruit and grapes. Livestock-breeding is essential especially in the northern areas, where the lush meadows provide excellent conditions for sheep and cattle. The main livestock are cattle, ; sheep, ; pigs, ; goats, ; and poultry, . The chief industrial centre is the capital Zaragoza, where the largest factories are located. The largest plant is the Opel automotive plant with employees and production of per year. It supports many related industries in the area. Other large plants in the city include factories for trains and household appliances. Mining of iron ore and coal is developed to the south, near Ojos Negros. Electricity production is concentrated to the north where numerous hydro power plants are located along the Pyrenean rivers and in the Teruel Power Plant. There is an aluminium refinery in the town of Sabiñánigo. The main centres of electronics industry are Zaragoza,
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Huesca
and Benabarre. Chemical industry is developed in Zaragoza, Sabiñánigo, Monzón, Teruel, Ojos Negros,
Fraga Fraga (; ) is the major town of the ''comarca'' of Bajo Cinca ( ca, Baix Cinca) in the province of Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca), (also known in Pre-Roman Iberian times as 'Bolskan", in Latin as 'Osca', and Arabic 'Wasqah'), is a city in north-eas ...

Fraga
, Benabarre and others. The transport infrastructure has been greatly improved. There are more than[data missing] of motorways which run from Zaragoza to Madrid, Teruel, Basque country, Huesca and Barcelona. The condition of the other roads is also good. there are cars in Aragon. Through the territory of the province runs the new high-speed railway between Madrid and Barcelona with siding from Zaragoza to Huesca, which is going to be continued to the France, French border. There is an International Zaragoza Airport, Airport at Zaragoza, as well as several smaller airports at Huesca-Pirineos Airport, Huesca, Caudé, Santa Cilia de Jaca and Villanueva de Gállego. The unemployment rate stood at 11.6% in 2017 and was lower than the national average.


Government and politics


Current political organization

As an autonomous community of Spain, Aragon has an elected Aragonese Corts, regional parliament ( es, Cortes de Aragón, an, Cortz d'Aragón, ca, Corts d'Aragó) with 67 seats. It meets in the Aljafería, a Moorish palace in the capital city,
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
. The Parliament chooses a President of the Government of Aragon, President for the ''Diputación General de Aragón'' or Aragon Government, for a four-year term. The current president (since July 2015) is Javier Lambán of the PSOE. Nationally, Aragon elects 13 Deputies and 14 Senators to the Cortes Generales. In addition to the Spanish-based political parties, there are a number of Aragón-based parties, such as the Chunta Aragonesista, a left-wing Aragonese nationalist party, and the Aragonese Party, more conservative. Chunta Aragonesista had a seat in Spain's national Congress of Deputies from 2000 to 2008, while the centrist Aragonese Party has three national senators, who are in coalition with the ruling People's Party. In a 2011 regional government survey, 47.6% of the population wanted greater autonomy for Aragon, while 35.2% were satisfied with its current level of autonomy. A total of 6% wanted an end to autonomy and 3.2% wanted full independence.


Historic

Aragon in the Middle Ages was the hub of the wider
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
. The Crown was represented in the region from 1517 by a viceroy. In 1479, King Ferdinand II of Aragon married Isabella I of Castile, a kingdom covering much of the rest of modern Spain. However, until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707, Aragon maintained its own separate laws and institutions.


Media

Aragon has media set-ups in television, radio and numerous newspapers.


Television

On 21 April 2006, regional television broadcasts in Aragon officially began with the launch of Aragón TV. The law which established the CARTV (Aragon Corporation Radio and Television) dated from 1987, but various political disputes delayed the project for several legislatures. During the years that Aragon had no public television, several media groups sought to supplement their absence. For one TVE-Aragon, taking the Territorial Centre in Zaragoza, produced several programs and educational activities with the Aragonese town. As for private groups, there were several projects. The most widely accepted for many years had been Antena Aragón, which came to be regarded as regional television. This channel was created in 1998 and disappeared in 2005 shortly after having to leave the Media Production Centre (CPA), as this was built by the DGA for future public television host Aragon. With the push for the creation of public television, Antena Aragón merged with RTVA (Radio Television Aragonesa) belonging to the Herald Group. Merging RTVA Antena Aragón and led to channel ZTV (Zaragoza Television). Moreover, Antena 3 Televisión aired for several years, and off to Aragon, a news report fully Aragonese, having a central issue in the Pinares de Venecia in Zaragoza, within the premises of the Theme Park of Zaragoza. Aragón TV was launched in 2006 after spending a season broadcasting a letter and a loop with images of Aragonese villages and audio of regional radio programs.


Radio

Aragon Radio, began broadcasting on 18 August 2005 at 5 p.m. with the sound of drums and drums of Calanda and a group song Zaragoza "The Fish". Estimates of its audience range from 20 000 listeners, according to the latest EMG, to , according to private findings. The channel has regional news bulletins every hour from 7 a.m. to midnight and coverage of sports.


Sport

Nowadays, SD Huesca is the best football team in Aragon. In the year 2017/2018 the team had been playing in La Liga (Football First Division), this achievement was reached for the first time in the club's history. However, historically, Aragon's most successful football club is Real Zaragoza. The club was founded in 1932 and spent 58 seasons in First DIvision, having played at its current ground, La Romareda, since 1957. Real Zaragoza have won six Copa del Rey titles from 1964 to 2004, and the 1995 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final, 1995 European Cup Winners' Cup. There are plenty of smaller clubs in the region, like CD Teruel. Skiing is popular in the Pyrenean north of Aragon, at resorts such as Formigal and Candanchú. The Aragonese city of Jaca in the Pyrenees bid to host the Winter Olympics from 2002 to 2014.
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
was considering a bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics, but dropped it in 2011 to strengthen the chance of Barcelona winning the games. The Ciudad del Motor de Aragón, also known as Motorland Aragón, is a motorsport race track located near Alcañiz in Aragon. It is home to the Aragon motorcycle Grand Prix.


Notable people from Aragon


Up to the 19th century

*Saint Elizabeth of Aragon, Elizabeth of Portugal (1271–1336) was queen consort of Portugal and a saint of the Roman Catholic Church. *Antipope Benedict XIII (1328–1423) known as ''Papa Luna'' was an Avignon pope and art patron-sponsor. *King Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452–1516) married queen Isabella I of Castile and united the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
with the Crown of Castile, giving form to the actual
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Spain
. *Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536) was queen consort of England for 24 years as the first wife of Henry VIII and was the mother of Mary I of England, Mary I, widely regarded as England's first queen regnant. *Michael Servetus (1509/11–1552) was a theologian and physician who received numerous charges of heresy by both Catholics and Protestants and was burnt at the stake in John Calvin, Calvin's Geneva during the 16th century. *Joseph Calasanz (1557–1648) was a Priesthood (Catholic Church), Catholic priest who dedicated himself to the education of poor boys at
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Rome
and founded a society pledged to that work. *Baltasar Gracián (1601–1658) writer of Spanish Baroque literature. *Gaspar Sanz (1640–1710), composer, guitarist and organist. *Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre (1702–1780) was a military engineer who discovered the ruins of Pompeii. *Francisco Garcés (1738–1781) was a missionary priest to North America who founded two pueblo missions. *Francisco de Goya (1746–1828) 18th-century painter.


20th and 21st centuries

*Eva Amaral, Eva Amaral Lallana, singer-songwriter and member of the Rock band Amaral. *Enrique Bunbury (Enrique Ortiz de Landázuri), rock singer-songwriter for Héroes del Silencio and Enrique Bunbury Band. *Luis Buñuel, Luis Buñuel Portolés, film maker. *St. Josemaría Escrivá, St. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer y Albás, Spanish Catholic priest, founder of Opus Dei. *Pablo Gargallo, Pablo Gargallo Catalán, sculptor and painter. *Jesús Moncada, Jesús Moncada Estruga, writer. *Ramon J. Sender, Ramon J. Sender Garcés, writer. *José Antonio Labordeta, José Antonio Labordeta Subías, singer, writer, politician (Congress of Deputies, deputy) and TV presenter. *Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the human brain and nervous system. *Carlos Saura, Carlos Saura Atarés, film maker. *Pablo Serrano, Pablo Serrano Aguilar, sculptor. *Alberto Zapater, Alberto Zapater Arjol, footballer. *María Pilar León, María Pilar León Cebrián, footballer. *Teresa Perales, Teresa Perales Fernández, Paralympic swimmer, politician and university professor. *Fernando Simón, Fernando Simón Soria, epidemiologist and Director of the Coordination Centre for Health Alerts and Emergencies of the Ministry of Health (Spain), Spanish Ministry of Health during the Ebola virus disease in Spain, ebola and COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, COVID-19 outbreaks. *Federico Jiménez Losantos, radio presenter and right wing pundit. *Sheila Herrero Lapuente, inline speed skater. *Antón García Abril, music composer. *Soledad Puértolas, Soledad Puértolas Villanueva, writer, member of the Royal Spanish Academy and winner of the Premio Planeta de Novela. *Juan Alberto Belloch, Juan Alberto Belloch Julbe, judge, former Spanish Ministry of Justice (Spain), Minister of Justice and of Fourth government of Felipe González, Justice and Interior, former mayor of
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
, former Congress of Deputies, deputy and Senate of Spain, senator and former member of the General Council of the Judiciary. *Luisa Fernanda Rudi, Luisa Fernanda Rudi Úbeda, senator, former and first female Congress of Deputies, President of the Congress of the Deputies, former and first female President of the Government of Aragon, President of Aragon, former and first female mayor of Zaragoza, former deputy, European Parliament, MEP and Cortes of Aragon, autonomic deputy and former president of the People's Party of Aragon, Aragonese People's Party. *Marcelino Iglesias, Marcelino Iglesias Ricou, former President of Aragon, former senator and autonomic deputy and former secretary-general of the Socialists' Party of Aragon and former member of the executive committee of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, PSOE. *Román Escolano, Román Escolano Olivares, economist, former Spanish Ministry of Economy (Spain), Minister of Economy, Ministry of Industry (Spain), Industry and Competitiveness and former vice-president of the European Investment Bank. *Miki Nadal, comedian, actor and TV presenter. *Pili and Mili, comic acting duo. *Luisa Gavasa, Luisa Gavasa Moragón, actress. *Hana Jalloul, Hana Jalloul Muro, university professor, politician and Secretary of State for Migration, Secretary of State of Migrations. *Guitarricadelafuente (Álvaro Lafuente Calvo), singer-songwriter, guitarist and musician. *Ara Malikian, violonist and TV presenter.


Symbols

The current coat of arms of Aragon is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the Early modern period, Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia in 1921. The Coat of arms of Sobrarbe, first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe; in the second quarter there is the so-called "Cross of Íñigo Arista", innovation of Peter IV of Aragon (from an anachronistic interpretation of the cross that symbolized the religion of the Asturian, Navarrese and Aragonese Christian kings), who took it as shields of the ancient kings of Aragon, although historically there were no heraldic emblems in the peninsula (or "signal shields", as it was said in the Middle Ages) before the union dynastic of 1137 of the House of Aragon with the House of Barcelona; in the third quartering appears the Saint George's Cross escutcheoned of four heads of Moors (the call "Cross of Alcoraz"), that is witnessed for the first time in a seal of 1281 of Peter III of Aragon and would remember, according to tradition arising from the 14th century, the battle in which Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona and the future Alfonso the Battler, Alfonso I of Aragon took Huesca and was considered in the Early modern period, Early modern Ages one of the proprietary emblems of the kingdom of Aragon; and in the fourth is the emblem of the so-called "Coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon, bars of Aragon" or Coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon, Royal Sign of Aragon, the oldest of the heraldic emblems that are part of the current coat of arms, dated in the second half of the 12th century. This emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners, shields and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that later denoted the authority as King of Aragon until, with the birth of State (polity)#The modern state, Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol. The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon shifted towards the flagpole. The Coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon, bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four autonomous communities that once were integrated into the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain. The anthem of Aragon (himno de Aragón) was regulated in 1989 with music by the Aragonese composer Antón García Abril that combines the old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a modern conception. The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom, justice, reason, truth, open land ... that historically represent the expression of Aragon as a people. The Day of Aragon is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint George, patron of the
Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon ( an, Reino d'Aragón, ca, Regne d'Aragó, la, Regnum Aragoniae, es, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study ...
since the 15th century. It appears in Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon since 1984. Institutional acts such as the delivery of the Aragon Awards by the Government of Aragon or the composition of a flag of Aragon of flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón square of
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
.


Image gallery

File:Catedral, Teruel, España, 2014-01-10, DD 64.JPG, Teruel Cathedral in Teruel File:PLAZA MAYOR DE AINSA - panoramio.jpg, Aínsa, Aínsa-Sobrarbe File:Catedral de Albarracín. Campanario.jpg, Albarracín File:Casas e iglesia de Ansó.jpg, Ansó File:Alquézar - vista de la Colegiata.jpg, Collegiate Church of Santa María la Mayor in Alquézar File:Capilla Mayor de la Cripta de Santa Maria del Perdon.JPG, Gothic murals of the Crypt of Santa María del Perdón of the Church of San Esteban in Sos del Rey Católico File:Puerta Baja, Daroca, Zaragoza, España, 2014-01-08, DD 07.JPG, Puerta Baja gate in Daroca File:WLM14ES - CS 24072004 ^175331 ^05221 - .jpg, Valderrobres File:151 Ambista d'a ilesia de Santa María d'Uncastiello dende a ilesia de San Chuan.jpg, Church of Santa María in Uncastillo File:Tarazona_-_Torre_de_la_catedral.jpg,
Tarazona Tarazona is a town and municipality in the Tarazona y el Moncayo comarca, province of Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza province and of the autonomous communities of ...

Tarazona
File:Lluvia en Benasque.jpg, Benasque File:Calaceite.jpg, Calaceite File:Ciudadela Jaca Vista Aerea.JPG, Citadel of Jaca in Jaca File:Vista General Aiguabarreig.jpg, Aereal view of
Mequinenza Mequinenza (Aragonese and ) or Mequinensa () is a town and municipality of the province of Zaragoza, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It is located beside the river Segre, close to its confluence with the river Ebro between the Mequin ...

Mequinenza


See also

*Aragonese Wikipedia *Auberge d'Aragon *Fiestas del Pilar *List of Aragonese people *List of mountains in Aragon *Current art's artifacts dispute between Aragon and Catalonia, see: Monastery of Santa María de Sigena *Music of Aragon *:es:La Vaquilla del Ángel, La Vaquilla del Ángel


Citations


Bibliography

* Argensola, Lupercio; ''The events in Aragon, 1590 and 1591''. * Argensola, Lupercio; ''Popular alterations of Zaragoza, 1591''. * Costa, Juan; ''Annals''. * De Aoiz, Lorenzo Ibáñez; ''Ceremonial and brief relation of all the charges and ordinary things of the Deputation of the Kingdom of Aragon''. Published 1611. * De Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio; ''History of the things that happened in this Kingdom''. * De Lanuza, Vicencio Blasco; ''Secular and Ecclesiastical histories of Aragon''. Volume 1 published 1616, Volume 2 1619. * Lavanha, João Baptista; ''Cartography of the Kingdom of Aragon''. Published 1611. * Zurita y Castro, Jerónimo; ''Anales de la Corona de Aragón''. Multi-volume history published between 1562 and 1580.


External links


Government of Aragon

Senderos de Aragón
Aragon government tourism site *
Maps of Aragon
{{Authority control Aragon, 1982 establishments in Spain Autonomous communities of Spain NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union States and territories established in 1982