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The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Wats ...
. It is written from right to left in a cursive style and includes 28 letters. Most letters have contextual letterforms. The Arabic script is also a religious text, it is used mainly in Islamic countries, namely in Arabia, North Africa, Persia/Iran, Central Asia and the Northwestern Indian Subcontinent. The Arabic alphabet is considered an
abjad An abjad () is a type of writing system in which (in contrast to true alphabets) each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, in effect leaving it to readers to infer or otherwise supply an appropriate vowel. The term is a neologism introduced i ...
, meaning it only uses
consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the ...
s, but it is now considered an " impure abjad". As with other impure ''abjads'', such as the
Hebrew alphabet The Hebrew alphabet ( he, wikt:אלפבית, אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי, ), known variously by scholars as the Ktav Ashuri, Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language ...
, scribes later devised means of indicating
vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel ...
sounds by separate vowel diacritics.


Consonants

The basic Arabic alphabet contains 28 letters. Adaptations of the Arabic script for other languages added and removed some letters, as for Persian, Ottoman Turkish, Central Kurdish,
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the c ...
, Sindhi, Malay,
Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (, ). The language is natively spoken by Pashtuns (also called Pukhtuns/Pak ...
, Arwi and Arabi Malayalam, all of which have additional letters as shown below. There are no distinct letter case, upper and lower case letter forms. Many letters look similar but are distinguished from one another by dots (') above or below their central part ('). These dots are an integral part of a letter, since they distinguish between letters that represent different sounds. For example, the Arabic letters ب (b), ت (t) and ث (th) have the same basic shape, but have one dot below, two dots above and three dots above, respectively. The letter ن (n) also has the same form in initial and medial forms, with one dot above, though it is somewhat different in isolated and final form. Both printed and written Arabic are cursive, with most of the letters within a word directly connected to the adjacent letters.


Alphabetical order

There are two main collation, collating sequences for the Arabic alphabet: abjad and hija. The original ' order (), used for lettering, derives from the order of the Phoenician alphabet, and is therefore similar to the order of other Phoenician-derived alphabets, such as the
Hebrew alphabet The Hebrew alphabet ( he, wikt:אלפבית, אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי, ), known variously by scholars as the Ktav Ashuri, Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language ...
. In this order, letters are also used as numbers, Abjad numerals, and possess the same alphanumeric code/cipher as Hebrew gematria and Greek isopsephy. The ' () or ' () order, used where lists of names and words are sorted, as in phonebooks, classroom lists, and dictionaries, groups letters by similarity of shape.


Abjadī

The ' order is not a simple historical continuation of the earlier north Semitic alphabetic order, since it has a position corresponding to the Aramaic letter ''samekh/semkat'' , yet no letter of the Arabic alphabet historically derives from that letter. Loss of ' was compensated for by the split of ''shin (letter), shin'' into two independent Arabic letters, (''shīn'') and (''sīn'') which moved up to take the place of '. The six other letters that do not correspond to any north Semitic letter are placed at the end. This is commonly vocalized as follows: : '. Another vocalization is: : ' This can be vocalized as: : '


Hijā’ī

Modern dictionaries and other reference books do not use the ' order to sort alphabetically; instead, the newer ' order is used wherein letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape. The ''hijāʾī'' order is never used as numerals. Another kind of ' order was used widely in the Maghreb until recently when it was replaced by the Mashriqi order.


Letter forms

The Arabic alphabet is always cursive and letters vary in shape depending on their position within a word. Letters can exhibit up to four distinct forms corresponding to an initial, medial (middle), final, or isolated position (IMFI). While some letters show considerable variations, others remain almost identical across all four positions. Generally, letters in the same word are linked together on both sides by short horizontal lines, but six letters () can only be linked to their preceding letter. For example, (Mount Ararat, Ararat) has only isolated forms because each letter cannot be connected to its following one. In addition, some letter combinations are written as ligature (typography), ligatures (special shapes), notably ' , which is the only mandatory ligature (the un-ligated combination is considered difficult to read).


Table of basic letters

Notes * See the article ''Romanization of Arabic'' for details on various transliteration schemes; however, Arabic language speakers may usually not follow a standardized scheme when transcribing names. Also names are regularly transcribed as pronounced locally, not as pronounced in Modern Standard Arabic, Literary Arabic (if they were of Arabic origin). * Regarding pronunciation, the phonemic values given are those of Modern Standard Arabic, which is taught in schools and universities. In practice, pronunciation may vary considerably from region to region. For more details concerning the pronunciation of Arabic, consult the articles ''Arabic phonology'' and ''varieties of Arabic''. * The names of the Arabic letters can be thought of as abstractions of an older version where they were meaningful words in the Proto-Semitic language. Names of Arabic letters may have quite different names popularly. * Six letters () do not have a distinct medial form and have to be written with their final form without being connected to the next letter. Their initial form matches the isolated form. The following letter is written in its initial form, or isolated form if it is the final letter in the word. * The letter ' originated in the Phoenician alphabet as a consonant-sign indicating a glottal stop. Today it has lost its function as a consonant, and, together with ' and ', is a ''mater lectionis'', a consonant sign standing in for a long vowel (see below), or as support for certain diacritics (' and ''hamza, ''). * Arabic currently uses a diacritic sign, , called ', to denote the glottal stop , written alone or with a carrier: ** alone: ** with a carrier: (above or under an '), (above a '), (above a dotless ' or '). :In academic work, the ''hamza, '' () is transliterated with the modifier letter right half ring (ʾ), while the modifier letter left half ring (ʿ) transliterates the letter ''Ayin, '' (), which represents a different sound, not found in English. ::The ' has a single form, since it is never linked to a preceding or following letter. However, it is sometimes combined with a ', ', or ', and in that case the carrier behaves like an ordinary ', ', or '.


Variations


Alif


Modified letters

The following are not individual letters, but rather different contextual variants of some of the Arabic letters.


Ligatures

The use of Typographical ligature, ligature #Ligatures 2, in Arabic is common. There is one compulsory ligature, that for ' ل + ' ا, which exists in two forms. All other ligatures, of which there are many, are optional. A more complex ligature that combines as many as seven distinct components is commonly used to represent the word '. The only ligature within the primary range of Arabic script in Unicode (U+06xx) is ' + '. This is the only one compulsory for fonts and word-processing. Other ranges are for compatibility to older standards and contain other ligatures, which are optional. * ' + ' *: Note: Unicode also has in its Presentation Form B FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one, U+FEFB ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF ISOLATED FORM: :: * U+0640 ARABIC TATWEEL + ' + ' *: Note: Unicode also has in its Presentation Form B U+FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one: * U+FEFC ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF FINAL FORM *: Another ligature in the Unicode Presentation Form A range U+FB50 to U+FDxx is the special code for glyph for the ligature ' ("God"), U+FDF2 ARABIC LIGATURE ALLAH ISOLATED FORM: :: This is a work-around for the shortcomings of most text processors, which are incapable of displaying the correct harakat, vowel marks for the word ' in Koran. Because Arabic script is used to write other texts rather than Koran only, rendering ' + ' + ' as the previous ligature is considered faulty: If one of a number of fonts (Noto Naskh Arabic, mry_KacstQurn, KacstOne, DejaVu Sans, Harmattan, Scheherazade, Lateef, Iranian Sans) is installed on a computer (Iranian Sans is supported by Wikimedia web-fonts), the word will appear without diacritics. * ' + ' + ' = LILLĀH (meaning ''"to Allāh [only to God]")'' *:   or   لله * ' + ' + ' + ' = ALLĀH (the Arabic word for "god") *:   or   الله * ' + ' + ' + U+0651 ARABIC SHADDA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF + ' *: اللّٰه   (''DejaVu Sans'' and ''KacstOne'' don't show the added superscript Alef) An attempt to show them on the faulty fonts without automatically adding the gemination mark and the superscript alif, although may not display as desired on all browsers, is by adding the U+200d (Zero width joiner) after the first or second ' * (' +) ' + ' + U+200d ZERO WIDTH JOINER + ' *:   ‎  


Gemination

Gemination is the doubling of a consonant. Instead of writing the letter twice, Arabic places a ''W''-shaped sign called ', above it. Note that if a vowel occurs between the two consonants the letter will simply be written twice. The diacritic only appears where the consonant at the end of one syllable is identical to the initial consonant of the following syllable. (The generic term for such diacritical signs is ').


Nunation

Nunation ( ar, تنوين ') is the addition of a final '  to a noun or adjective. The vowel before it indicates grammatical case. In written Arabic nunation is indicated by doubling the vowel diacritic at the end of the word.


Vowels

Users of Arabic usually write vowel length, long vowels but omit short ones, so readers must utilize their knowledge of the language in order to supply the missing vowels. However, in the education system and particularly in classes on Arabic grammar these vowels are used since they are crucial to the grammar. An Arabic sentence can have a completely different meaning by a subtle change of the vowels. This is why in an important text such as the ' the three basic vowel signs (see below) are mandated, like the ''Arabic diacritics, ḥarakāt'' and all the other diacritics or other types of marks, for example the Cantillation, cantillation signs.


Short vowels

In the Arabic handwriting of everyday use, in general publications, and on street signs, short vowels are typically not written. On the other hand, copies of the ' cannot be endorsed by the religious institutes that review them unless the diacritics are included. Children's books, elementary school texts, and Arabic-language grammars in general will include diacritics to some degree. These are known as "Arabic diacritics, vocalized" texts. Short vowels may be written with diacritics placed above or below the consonant that precedes them in the syllable, called '. All Arabic vowels, long and short, follow a consonant; in Arabic, words like "Ali" or "alif", for example, start with a consonant: ', '.


Long vowels

In the fully Arabic diacritics, vocalized Arabic text found in texts such as Quran, a long ' following a consonant other than a ''hamza, '' is written with a short ' sign (') on the consonant plus an ' after it; long ' is written as a sign for short ' (') plus a ; and long ' as a sign for short ' (') plus a '. Briefly, ' = '; ' = '; and ' = '. Long ' following a ' may be represented by an ' or by a free ' followed by an ' (two consecutive 's are never allowed in Arabic). The table below shows vowels placed above or below a dotted circle replacing a primary consonant letter or a ''Shadda, '' sign. For clarity in the table, the primary letters on the left used to mark these long vowels are shown only in their isolated form. Please note that most consonants do connect to the left with ', ' and ' written then with their medial or final form. Additionally, the letter ' in the last row may connect to the letter on its left, and then will use a medial or initial form. Use the table of primary letters to look at their actual glyph and joining types. In unvocalized text (one in which the short vowels are not marked), the long vowels are represented by the vowel in question: ', ', or '. Long vowels written in the middle of a word of unvocalized text are treated like consonants with a ' (see below) in a text that has full diacritics. Here also, the table shows long vowel letters only in isolated form for clarity. Combinations and are always pronounced ' and ' respectively. The exception is the suffix in verb endings where is silent, resulting in ' or '. In addition, when transliterating names and loanwords, Arabic language speakers write out most or all the vowels as long (' with ', ' and ' with ', and ' and ' with '), meaning it approaches a true alphabet.


Diphthongs

The diphthongs and are represented in vocalized text as follows:


Vowel omission

An Arabic syllable can be open (ending with a vowel) or closed (ending with a consonant): * open: CV [consonant-vowel] (long or short vowel) * closed: CVC (short vowel only) A normal text is composed only of a series of consonants plus vowel-lengthening letters; thus, the word ''qalb'', "heart", is written ''qlb'', and the word ''qalaba'' "he turned around", is also written ''qlb''. To write ''qalaba'' without this ambiguity, we could indicate that the ''l'' is followed by a short ''a'' by writing a ''fatḥah'' above it. To write ''qalb'', we would instead indicate that the ''l'' is followed by no vowel by marking it with a diacritic called ''sukūn'' (), like this: . This is one step down from full vocalization, where the vowel after the ''q'' would also be indicated by a ''fatḥah'': . The ''Qurʾān'' is traditionally written in full vocalization. The long ''i'' sound in some editions of the ''Qur’ān'' is written with a ''kasrah'' followed by a diacritic-less ''y'', and long ''u'' by a ''ḍammah'' followed by a bare ''w''. In others, these ''y'' and ''w'' carry a ''sukūn''. Outside of the ''Qur’ān'', the latter convention is extremely rare, to the point that ''y'' with ''sukūn'' will be unambiguously read as the diphthong , and ''w'' with ''sukūn'' will be read . For example, the letters ' can be read like English ''meel'' or ''mail'', or (theoretically) also like ''mayyal'' or ''mayil''. But if a ''sukūn'' is added on the ''y'' then the ''m'' cannot have a ''sukūn'' (because two letters in a row cannot be ''sukūn''ated), cannot have a ''ḍammah'' (because there is never an ''uy'' sound in Arabic unless there is another vowel after the ''y''), and cannot have a ''kasrah'' (because ''kasrah'' before ''sukūn''ated ''y'' is never found outside the ''Qur’ān''), so it ''must'' have a ''fatḥah'' and the only possible pronunciation is (meaning mile, or even e-mail). By the same token, m-y-t with a ''sukūn'' over the ''y'' can be ''mayt'' but not ''mayyit'' or ''meet'', and m-w-t with a ''sukūn'' on the ''w'' can only be ''mawt'', not ''moot'' (''iw'' is impossible when the ''w'' closes the syllable). Vowel marks are always written as if the ''’I‘rab, i‘rāb'' vowels were in fact pronounced, even when they must be skipped in actual pronunciation. So, when writing the name ''Aḥmad'', it is optional to place a ''sukūn'' on the ''ḥ'', but a ''sukūn'' is forbidden on the ''d'', because it would carry a ''ḍammah'' if any other word followed, as in ''Aḥmadu zawjī'' "Ahmad is my husband". Another example: the sentence that in correct literary Arabic must be pronounced ''Aḥmadu zawjun shirrīr'' "Ahmad is a wicked husband", is usually mispronounced (due to influence from vernacular Arabic varieties) as ''Aḥmad zawj shirrīr''. Yet, for the purposes of Arabic grammar and orthography, is treated as if it were not mispronounced and as if yet another word followed it, i.e., if adding any vowel marks, they must be added as if the pronunciation were ''Aḥmadu zawjun sharrīrun'' with a ''tanwīn'' 'un' at the end. So, it is correct to add an ''un'' ''tanwīn'' sign on the final ''r'', but actually pronouncing it would be a hypercorrection. Also, it is never correct to write a ''sukūn'' on that ''r'', even though in actual pronunciation it is (and in correct Arabic MUST be) ''sukūn''ed. Of course, if the correct ''i‘rāb'' is a ''sukūn'', it may be optionally written. ٰٰ The ''sukūn'' is also used for transliterating words into the Arabic script. The Persian word (''mâsk'', from the English word "mask"), for example, might be written with a ''sukūn'' above the to signify that there is no vowel sound between that letter and the .


Additional letters


Regional variations

Some letters take a traditionally different form in specific regions:


Non-native letters to Standard Arabic

Some modified letters are used to represent non-native sounds of Modern Standard Arabic. These letters are used in transliterated names, loanwords and dialectal words. # is considered a native phoneme/allophone in some dialects, e.g. Kuwaiti and Iraqi dialects. # is considered a native phoneme in Levantine and North African dialects and as an allophone in others. # is considered a native phoneme/allophone in most modern Arabic dialects.


Used in languages other than Arabic


Numerals

There are two main kinds of numerals used along with Arabic text; Western Arabic numerals and Eastern Arabic numerals. In most of present-day North Africa, the usual Western Arabic numerals are used. Like Western Arabic numerals, in Eastern Arabic numerals, the units are always right-most, and the highest value left-most.


Letters as numerals

In addition, the Arabic alphabet can be used to represent numbers (Abjad numerals). This usage is based on the ' order of the alphabet. ' is 1, ' is 2, ' is 3, and so on until ' = 10, ' = 20, ' = 30, ..., ' = 200, ..., ' = 1000. This is sometimes used to produce chronograms.


History

The Arabic alphabet can be traced back to the Nabataean alphabet used to write Nabataean. The first known text in the Arabic alphabet is a late 4th-century inscription from ' (50 km east of ') in Jordan, but the first dated one is a trilingual inscription at Zebed in Syria from 512. However, the epigraphy, epigraphic record is extremely sparse, with only five certainly pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions surviving, though some others may be pre-Islamic. Later, dots were added above and below the letters to differentiate them. (The Aramaic language had fewer phonemes than the Arabic, and some originally distinct Aramaic letters had become indistinguishable in shape, so that in the early writings 15 distinct letter-shapes had to do duty for 28 sounds; cf. the similarly ambiguous Book Pahlavi, Pahlavi alphabet.) The first surviving document that definitely uses these dots is also the first surviving Arabic papyrus (PERF 558), dated April 643, although they did not become obligatory until much later. Important texts were and still are frequently memorized, especially in Hafiz (Qur'an), Qurʾan memorization. Later still, vowel marks and the ' were introduced, beginning some time in the latter half of the 7th century, preceding the first invention of Syriac alphabet, Syriac and Tiberian vocalization, Hebrew vocalization. Initially, this was done by a system of red dots, said to have been commissioned in the Umayyad caliphate, Umayyad era by Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali a dot above = ', a dot below = ', a dot on the line = ', and doubled dots indicated nunation. However, this was cumbersome and easily confusable with the letter-distinguishing dots, so about 100 years later, the modern system was adopted. The system was finalized around 786 by '.


Arabic printing presses

Although Napoleon Bonaparte generally receives credit for introducing the printing press to Egypt during his invasion of that country in 1798, and though he did indeed bring printing presses and Arabic script presses to print the French occupation's official newspaper ''Al-Tanbiyyah'' ("The Courier"), printing in the Arabic language started several centuries earlier. In 1514, following Johannes Gutenberg, Gutenberg's invention of the printing press in 1450, Gregorio de Gregorii, a Venetian, published an entire prayer-book in Arabic script; it was entitled ''Kitab salat al-sawai, Kitab Salat al-Sawa'i'' and was intended for eastern Christian communities. Between 1580 and 1586, type designer Robert Granjon designed Arabic typefaces for Cardinal Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando de' Medici, and the Medici Oriental Press, Medici press published many Christian prayer and scholarly Arabic texts in the late 16th century. Maronite monks at the Maar Quzhayy Monastery in Mount Lebanon published the first Arabic books to use movable type in the Middle East. The monks transliterated the Arabic language using Syriac language, Syriac script. A goldsmith (like Gutenberg) designed and implemented an Arabic-script movable-type printing-press in the Middle East. The Greek Orthodox monk Abd Allah Zakhir set up an
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Wats ...
printing press using movable type at the monastery of Saint John at the town of Dhour El Shuwayr in Mount Lebanon, the first homemade press in Lebanon using Arabic script. He personally cut the type molds and did the founding of the typeface. The first book came off his press in 1734; this press continued in use until 1899.


Computers

The Arabic alphabet can be encoded using several character sets, including ISO-8859-6, Windows-1256 and Unicode (see links in Infobox above), latter thanks to the "Arabic segment", entries U+0600 to U+06FF. However, none of the sets indicates the form that each character should take in context. It is left to the rendering (computer graphics), rendering engine to select the proper glyph to display for each character. Each letter has a position-independent encoding in Unicode, and the rendering software can infer the correct glyph form (initial, medial, final or isolated) from its joining context. That is the current recommendation. However, for compatibility with previous standards, the initial, medial, final and isolated forms can also be encoded separately.


Unicode

As of Unicode 13.0, the Arabic script is contained in the following Unicode block, blocks: * Arabic (Unicode block), Arabic (0600–06FF, 255 characters) * Arabic Supplement (0750–077F, 48 characters) * Arabic Extended-A (08A0–08FF, 84 characters) * Arabic Presentation Forms-A (FB50–FDFF, 611 characters) * Arabic Presentation Forms-B (FE70–FEFF, 141 characters) * Rumi Numeral Symbols (10E60–10E7F, 31 characters) * Indic Siyaq Numbers (Unicode block), Indic Siyaq Numbers (1EC70–1ECBF, 68 characters) * Ottoman Siyaq Numbers (Unicode block), Ottoman Siyaq Numbers (1ED00–1ED4F, 61 characters) * Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols (1EE00—1EEFF, 143 characters) The basic Arabic range encodes the standard letters and diacritics but does not encode contextual forms (U+0621-U+0652 being directly based on ISO 8859-6). It also includes the most common diacritics and Arabic-Indic digits. U+06D6 to U+06ED encode Qur'anic annotation signs such as "end of ''ayah''" ۝ۖ and "start of ''Rub El Hizb, rub el hizb''" ۞. The Arabic supplement range encodes letter variants mostly used for writing African (non-Arabic) languages. The Arabic Extended-A range encodes additional Qur'anic annotations and letter variants used for various non-Arabic languages. The Arabic Presentation Forms-A range encodes contextual forms and ligatures of letter variants needed for Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Central Asian languages. The Arabic Presentation Forms-B range encodes spacing forms of Arabic diacritics, and more contextual letter forms. The Arabic Mathematical Alphabetical Symbols block encodes characters used in Arabic mathematical expressions. See also the notes of the section on #Modified letters, modified letters.


Keyboards

Keyboards designed for different nations have different layouts so proficiency in one style of keyboard, such as Iraq's, does not transfer to proficiency in another, such as Saudi Arabia's. Differences can include the location of non-alphabetic characters. All Arabic keyboards allow typing Roman characters, e.g., for the URL in a web browser. Thus, each Arabic keyboard has both Arabic and Roman characters marked on the keys. Usually the Roman characters of an Arabic keyboard conform to the QWERTY layout, but in North Africa, where French language, French is the most common language typed using the Roman characters, the Arabic keyboards are AZERTY. To encode a particular written form of a character, there are extra code points provided in Unicode which can be used to express the exact written form desired. The range ''Arabic presentation forms A'' (U+FB50 to U+FDFF) contain ligatures while the range ''Arabic presentation forms B'' (U+FE70 to U+FEFF) contains the positional variants. These effects are better achieved in Unicode by using the ''zero-width joiner'' and ''zero-width non-joiner, non-joiner'', as these presentation forms are deprecated in Unicode, and should generally only be used within the internals of text-rendering software, when using Unicode as an intermediate form for conversion between character encodings, or for backwards compatibility with implementations that rely on the hard-coding of glyph forms. Finally, the Unicode encoding of Arabic is in ''logical order'', that is, the characters are entered, and stored in computer memory, in the order that they are written and pronounced without worrying about the direction in which they will be displayed on paper or on the screen. Again, it is left to the rendering engine to present the characters in the correct direction, using Unicode's bi-directional text features. In this regard, if the Arabic words on this page are written left to right, it is an indication that the Unicode rendering engine used to display them is out of date. There are competing online tools, e.g
Yamli editor
which allow entry of Arabic letters without having Arabic support installed on a PC, and without knowledge of the layout of the Arabic keyboard.


Handwriting recognition

The first software program of its kind in the world that identifies Arabic handwriting in real time was developed by researchers at Ben-Gurion University (BGU). The prototype enables the user to write Arabic words by hand on an electronic screen, which then analyzes the text and translates it into printed Arabic letters in a thousandth of a second. The error rate is less than three percent, according to Dr. Jihad El-Sana, from BGU's department of computer sciences, who developed the system along with master's degree student Fadi Biadsy.Israel 21c
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See also

* Abjad numerals * Ancient South Arabian script * Algerian braille * Arabic braille * Arabic calligraphy * Arabic Chat Alphabet * Arabic diacritics * Arabic letter frequency * Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols * Arabic numerals * Arabic phonology * Arabic script – about other languages written in Arabic script * Arabic Unicode * ArabTeX – provides Arabic support for TeX and LaTeX * Kufic * Modern Arabic mathematical notation * Persian alphabet, Perso-Arabic script * Rasm * Romanization of Arabic


References


External links

* * ---- ''This article contains major sections of text from the very detailed article :fr:Alphabet arabe, Arabic alphabet from the French Wikipedia, which has been partially translated into English. Further translation of that page, and its incorporation into the text here, are welcomed.'' {{DEFAULTSORT:Arabic Alphabet Arabic alphabet, Arabic orthography