The Arabian Peninsula (; ar|شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs
") is a peninsula
of Western Asia
, situated northeast of Africa
on the Arabian Plate
. At , the Arabian Peninsula is the largest peninsula in the world.
Geographically, the Arabian Peninsula includes Kuwait
, Saudi Arabia
, the United Arab Emirates
(UAE), and Yemen
, as well as the southern portions of Iraq
. The biggest of these is Saudi Arabia. The Peninsula, plus Bahrain
, the Socotra Archipelago
, and other nearby island
s form a geopolitical
region called Arabia, which is the largest region in the world without any permanent rivers
The Arabian Peninsula formed as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea
between 56 and 23 million years ago, and is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and southwest, the Persian Gulf
and the Gulf of Oman
to the northeast, the Levant
to the north and the Arabian Sea
and the Indian Ocean
to the southeast. The peninsula plays a critical geopolitical
role in the Arab world
and globally due to its vast reserves of oil
and natural gas
Before the modern era, the region was divided into primarily four distinct regions: the Central Plateau
(Najd or Al-Yamama
), the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean Coast
(South Arabia or Hadhramaut
), the Al-Bahrain
(Eastern Arabia or Al-Hassa
), and the Red Sea Coast
(Hejaz or Tihamah
). Eastern Arabia
consists of the entire coastal strip of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Hejaz
make up most of Saudi Arabia. South Arabia
consists of Yemen, a sizable part of Saudi Arabia ('Asir
, and Najran
) and (Dhofar
) in Oman.
The Arabian Peninsula is located in the continent of Asia and is bounded by (clockwise) the Persian Gulf on the northeast, the Strait of Hormuz
and the Gulf of Oman on the east, the Arabian Sea on the southeast, the Gulf of Aden
, Guardafui Channel
and Somali Sea on the south, the Bab-el-Mandeb
Strait on the southwest and the Red Sea, which is located on the southwest and west.
The northern portion of the peninsula merges with the Syrian Desert
with no clear borderline, although the northern boundary of the peninsula is generally considered to be the northern borders of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert
, but in the southwest, there are mountain ranges, which receive greater rainfall than the rest of the peninsula. Harrat ash Shaam
is a large volcanic field that extends from northwestern Arabia into Jordan and southern Syria
The Peninsula's constituent countries are (clockwise from north to south) Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on the east, Oman on the southeast, Yemen on the south, and Saudi Arabia at the center. The island country of Bahrain lies just off the east coast of the Peninsula.
Due to Yemen's jurisdiction over the Socotra Archipelago
, the Peninsula's geopolitical outline faces the Guardafui Channel
and the Somali Sea to the south.
Six countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) form the Gulf Cooperation Council
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the greater part of the Peninsula. The majority of the population of the Peninsula lives in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The Peninsula contains the world's largest reserves of oil. Saudi Arabia and the UAE are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, the only peninsular country in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home to the Arabic-language
television station Al Jazeera
and its English-language subsidiary Al Jazeera English
. Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, is an important country strategically, forming one of the main staging grounds for coalition forces mounting the United States
-led 2003 invasion of Iraq
Though historically lightly populated, political Arabia is noted for a high population growth rate – as the result of both very strong inflows of migrant labor as well as sustained high birth rates. The population tends to be relatively young and heavily skewed gender ratio dominated by males. In many states, the number of South Asians exceeds that of the local citizenry. The four smallest states (by area), which have their entire coastlines on the Persian Gulf, exhibit the world's most extreme population growth, roughly tripling every 20 years. In 2014, the estimated population of the Arabian Peninsula was 77,983,936 (including expatriates).
The Arabian Peninsula is known for having one of the most uneven adult sex ratios in the world, with females in some regions (especially the east) constituting only a quarter of vicenarians and tricenarians.
The ten most populous cities on the Arabian Peninsula are:
Geologically, this region is perhaps more appropriately called the Arabian subcontinent because it lies on a tectonic plate
of its own, the Arabian Plate
, which has been moving incrementally away from the rest of Africa (forming the Red Sea) and north, toward Asia, into the Eurasian Plate
(forming the Zagros Mountains
). The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield
near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf. Perhaps the best-preserved ophiolite
on Earth, the Semail Ophiolite
, lies exposed in the mountains of the UAE and northern Oman.
The peninsula consists of:
# A central plateau, the Najd
, with fertile valleys and pastures used for the grazing of sheep
and other livestock
# A range of deserts: the Nefud
in the north,
which is stony; the Rub' al Khali
or Great Arabian Desert
in the south, with sand estimated to extend below the surface; between them, the Dahna
# Stretches of dry or marshy coastland with coral reefs on the Red Sea side (Tihamah
# Oases and marshy coast-land in Eastern Arabia
, the most important of which are those of Al Ain
in the United Arab Emirates
) and Al-Hasa
(in Saudi Arabia), according to one author
# Tropical monsoon
coastline in Dhofar
(known as Khareef
in the Arabian Peninsula).
Arabia has few lakes or permanent rivers. Most areas are drained by ephemeral watercourses called wadi
s, which are dry except during the rainy season. Plentiful ancient aquifer
s exist beneath much of the peninsula, however, and where this water surfaces, oases
form (e.g. Al-Hasa and Qatif
, two of the world's largest oases
) and permit agriculture, especially palm trees
, which allowed the peninsula to produce more dates
than any other region in the world. In general, the climate is extremely hot and arid
, although there are exceptions. Higher elevations are made temperate by their altitude, and the Arabian Sea coastline can receive surprisingly cool, humid breezes in summer due to cold upwelling offshore. The peninsula has no thick forests. Desert-adapted wildlife is present throughout the region.
According to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment
(GRACE) satellite data (2003–2013) analysed in a University of California, Irvine (UCI)
-led study published in Water Resources Research
on 16 June 2015, the most over-stressed aquifer system in the world is the Arabian Aquifer System
, upon which more than 60 million people depend for water.
Twenty-one of the thirty seven largest aquifers "have exceeded sustainability tipping points and are being depleted" and thirteen of them are "considered significantly distressed".
A plateau more than high extends across much of the Arabian Peninsula. The plateau slopes eastwards from the massive, rifted escarpment along the coast of the Red Sea, to the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf. The interior is characterised by ''cuestas'' and valleys, drained by a system of ''wadis''. A crescent of sand and gravel
deserts lies to the east.
There are mountains at the eastern, southern and northwestern borders of the peninsula. Broadly, the ranges can be grouped as follows:
* Northeast: The Hajar range
, shared by the UAE and northern Oman
* Southeast: The Dhofar Mountains
of southern Oman,
contiguous with the eastern Yemeni Hadhramaut
* West: Bordering the eastern coast
of the Red Sea are the Sarawat
which can be seen to include the Haraz Mountains
of eastern Yemen,
and the 'Asir
and Hijaz Mountains
of western Saudi Arabia,
the latter including the Midian
in northwestern Saudi Arabia
* Northwest: Aside from the Sarawat, the northern portion of Saudi Arabia hosts the Shammar Mountains
, which include the Aja and Salma
* Central: The Najd hosts the Tuwaiq
or Tuwair range
From the Hejaz
southwards, the mountains show a steady increase in altitude westward as they get nearer to Yemen, and the highest peaks and ranges are all located in Yemen. The highest, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb
or Jabal Hadhur
of the Haraz subrange of the Sarawat range, is about high.
By comparison, the Tuwayr
, Shammar and Dhofar generally do not exceed in height.
Not all mountains in the peninsula are visibly within ranges. Jebel Hafeet
in particular, on the border of the UAE and Oman, measuring between ,
is not within the Hajar range, but may be considered an outlier
of that range.
File:Jebel Hafeet sunrise.jpg |Jebel Hafeet on the border of Oman and the UAE, near the city of Al Ain. It can be considered an outlier of Al Hajar Mountains.
File:Contrasting Landscape.jpg|The northeastern Hajar Mountains, shared by Oman and the UAE, as seen from the desert of Sharjah
File:Salalah Oman.jpg|The Dhofar mountainous region in southeastern Oman, where the city of Salalah is located, is a tourist destination known for its annual ''khareef'' season
File:1992 Mukalla.jpg|The Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen, contiguous with the Omani Dhofar range, as seen from the city of Al-Mukalla
File:Yemen landscape 05.jpg|Terraced fields in the Harazi subrange of the Sarawat Mountains in western Yemen
File:Al Sawda peak.jpg|Jabal Sawdah of the 'Asir range in southwestern Saudi Arabia, near the border with Yemen
File:Faifa city.jpg|The Faifa mountains in the Asir Region, southwestern Saudi Arabia.
File:علقان4 (9411760068).jpg|The Midian Mountains of Tabuk Province, in northwestern Saudi Arabia, near the border with Jordan
File:شعيب جو بجبال أجـــا - panoramio.jpg|The Aja subrange of the Shammar Mountains in the region of Ha'il, northern Saudi Arabia
File:Tuwaik escarpment-15h23m15s-s.jpg|The Tuwaiq Escarpment or Tuwayr mountainous region in the Najd, southwest of the Saudi capital city of Riyadh
Land and sea
Most of the Arabian Peninsula is unsuited to agriculture, making irrigation and land reclamation projects essential. The narrow coastal plain and isolated oases, amounting to less than 1% of the land area, are used to cultivate grains, coffee
and tropical fruit
s. Goat, sheep, and camel
husbandry is widespread elsewhere throughout the rest of the Peninsula. Some areas have a summer humid tropical monsoon climate
, in particular the Dhofar
and Al Mahrah
areas of Oman and Yemen. These areas allow for large scale coconut plantations. Much of Yemen has a tropical monsoon
rain influenced mountain climate. The plains usually have either a tropical or subtropical arid desert climate
or arid steppe climate
. The sea surrounding the Arabian Peninsula is generally tropical sea
with a very rich tropical sea life and some of the world's largest, undestroyed and most pristine coral reefs. In addition, the organisms living in symbiosis
with the Red Sea coral, the protozoa
, have a unique hot weather adaptation to sudden rise (and fall) in sea water temperature. Hence, these coral reefs are not affected by coral bleaching caused by rise in temperature as elsewhere in the indopacific
coral sea. The reefs are also unaffected by mass tourism and diving or other large scale human interference. However, some reefs were destroyed in the Persian Gulf, mostly caused by phosphate water pollution
and resultant increase in algae growth as well as oil pollution from ships and pipeline leakage.
The fertile soils of Yemen have encouraged settlement of almost all of the land from sea level up to the mountains at . In the higher reaches, elaborate terraces have been constructed to facilitate grain, fruit, coffee, ginger and khat
cultivation. The Arabian peninsula is known for its rich oil, i.e. petroleum production due to its geographical location.
During the Hellenistic
period, the area was known as ''Arabia'' or ''Aravia'' ( el|Αραβία). The Romans
named three regions with the prefix "Arabia", encompassing a larger area than the current term "Arabian Peninsula":
* Arabia Petraea
): for the area that is today southern modern Syria, Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula
and northwestern Saudi Arabia. It was the only one that became a province
, with Petra
as its capital.
* Arabia Deserta
("Desert Arabia"): signified the desert interior of the Arabian peninsula. As a name for the region, it remained popular into the 19th and 20th centuries, and was used in Charles M. Doughty
's ''Travels in Arabia Deserta
* Arabia Felix
("Fortunate Arabia"): was used by geographers to describe what is now Yemen, which enjoys more rainfall, is much greener than the rest of the peninsula and has long enjoyed much more productive fields.
The Arab inhabitants used a north–south division of Arabia: Al Sham-Al Yaman, or Arabia Deserta-Arabia Felix. Arabia Felix had originally been used for the whole peninsula, and at other times only for the southern region. Because its use became limited to the south, the whole peninsula was simply called Arabia. Arabia Deserta was the entire desert region extending north from Arabia Felix to Palmyra and the Euphrates, including all the area between Pelusium on the Nile and Babylon. This area was also called Arabia and not sharply distinguished from the peninsula.
The Arabs and the Ottoman Empire considered the west of the Arabian Peninsula region where the Arabs lived 'the land of the Arabs' – Bilad al-Arab (Arabia), and its major divisions were the bilad al-Sham (Syria), bilad al-Yaman (the Land of the southern Peninsula), and Bilad al-Iraq and modern-day Kuwait (the Land of the River Banks). The Ottomans used the term Arabistan in a broad sense for the region starting from Cilicia
, where the Euphrates river makes its descent into Syria, through Palestine
, and on through the remainder of the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas.
''The provinces of Arabia were:'' Al Tih, the Sinai peninsula, Hedjaz, Asir, Yemen, Hadramaut, Mahra and Shilu, Oman, Hasa, Bahrain, Dahna, Nufud, the Hammad, which included the deserts of Syria, Mesopotamia and Babylonia.
The history of the Arabian Peninsula goes back to the beginnings of human habitation in Arabia up to 130,000 years ago. However, a Homo sapiens
fossilized finger bone was found at Al Wusta
in the Nefud Desert
, which indicates that the first human migration out of Africa to Arabia might date back to approximately 90,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic
age along with fossils of other animals discovered at Ti's al Ghadah, in northwestern Saudi Arabia, might imply that hominids migrated through a "Green Arabia" between 300,000 and 500,000 years ago. Acheulean
tools found in Saffaqah, Riyadh Region
reveal that hominins lived in the Arabian Peninsula as recently as 188,000 years ago. However, 200,000-year-old stone tools were discovered at Shuaib Al-Adgham in the eastern Al-Qassim Province
, which would indicate that many prehistoric sites, located along a network of rivers, had once existed in the area.
There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 106,000 to 130,000 years ago.
[Saudi Embassy (US) Website](_blank)
retrieved 20 January 2011
The harsh climate historically prevented much settlement in the pre-Islamic Arabian peninsula, apart from a small number of urban trading settlements, such as Mecca
, located in the Hejaz
in the west of the peninsula.
has revealed the existence of many civilizations in pre-Islamic Arabia (such as the Thamud
), especially in South Arabia
. South Arabian civilizations
include the Sheba
, the Himyarite Kingdom
, the Kingdom of Awsan
, the Kingdom of Ma'īn
and the Sabaean Kingdom
. Central Arabia was the location of the Kingdom of Kindah
in the 4th, 5th and early 6th centuries AD. Eastern Arabia was home to the Dilmun civilization
. The earliest known events in Arabian history are migrations from the peninsula into neighbouring areas.
The Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original ''Urheimat
'' of the Semitic languages
by a majority of scholars.
Rise of Islam
The seventh century saw the rise of Islam as the peninsula's dominant religion. The Islamic prophet Muhammad
was born in Mecca in about 570 and first began preaching in the city in 610, but migrated
in 622. From there he and his companions united the tribes of Arabia
under the banner of Islam
and created a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the Arabian peninsula.
Muhammad established a new unified polity in the Arabian peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun
and Umayyad Caliphate
s saw a century of rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent
, across Central Asia
, the Middle East
, North Africa
, southern Italy
, and the Iberian Peninsula
, to the Pyrenees
With Muhammad's death in 632 AD, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar ibn al-Khattab
, a prominent companion
of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr
, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph
. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib
, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine
(or Eastern Roman Empire
) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars
, or "Wars of Apostasy".
Following Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr
became leader of the Muslims as the first Caliph
. After putting down a rebellion by the Arab tribes (known as the Ridda wars
, or "Wars of Apostasy"), Abu Bakr attacked the Byzantine Empire
. On his death in 634, he was succeeded by Umar
as caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan
and Ali ibn Abi Talib
. The period of these first four caliphs is known as ''al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn'': the Rashidun or "rightly guided" Caliphate
. Under the Rashidun Caliphs, and, from 661, their Umayyad successors
, the Arabs rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim control outside of Arabia. In a matter of decades Muslim armies decisively defeated the Byzantine army
and destroyed the Persian Empire
, conquering huge swathes of territory
from the Iberian peninsula
to India. The political focus of the Muslim world then shifted to the newly conquered territories.
remained the spiritually most important places in the Muslim world
. The Qur'an
requires every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it, as one of the five pillars of Islam
, to make a pilgrimage, or Hajj
, to Mecca
during the Islamic month
of Dhu al-Hijjah
at least once in his or her lifetime. The Masjid al-Haram
(the Grand Mosque) in Mecca
is the location of the Kaaba
, Islam's holiest site, and the Masjid al-Nabawi
(the Prophet's Mosque) in Medina
is the location of Muhammad
tomb; as a result, from the 7th century, Mecca
became the pilgrimage destinations for large numbers of Muslims from across the Islamic world
Despite its spiritual importance, in political terms Arabia soon became a peripheral region of the Islamic world
, in which the most important medieval Islamic states
were based at various times in such far away cities as Damascus
, and Cairo
However, from the 10th century (and, in fact, until the 20th century) the Hashemite Sharifs of Mecca
maintained a state in the most developed part of the region, the Hejaz
. Their domain originally comprised only the holy cities of Mecca
but in the 13th century it was extended to include the rest of the Hejaz
. Although, the Sharifs exercised at most times independent authority in the Hejaz
, they were usually subject to the suzerainty
of one of the major Islamic empires of the time. In the Middle Ages, these included the Abbasids
, and the Fatimids
[Encyclopædia Britannica Online: History of Arabia](_blank)
retrieved 18 January 2011
The provincial Ottoman Army for Arabia (Arabistan Ordusu) was headquartered in Syria
, which included Palestine, the Transjordan region in addition to Lebanon (Mount Lebanon was, however, a semi-autonomous mutasarrifate
). It was put in charge of Syria, Cilicia, Iraq, and the remainder of the Arabian Peninsula. The Ottomans never had any control over central Arabia, also known as the Najd
The Damascus Protocol
of 1914 provides an illustration of the regional relationships. Arabs living in one of the existing districts of the Arabian peninsula, the Emirate of Hejaz
, asked for a British guarantee of independence. Their proposal included all Arab lands south of a line roughly corresponding to the northern frontiers of present-day Syria and Iraq. They envisioned a new Arab state, or confederation of states, adjoining the southern Arabian Peninsula. It would have comprised Cilicia
, Iraq with Kuwait, Syria, Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate
, Jordan, and Palestine
In the modern era, the term bilad al-Yaman came to refer specifically to the southwestern parts of the peninsula. Arab geographers started to refer to the whole peninsula as 'jazirat al-Arab', or the peninsula of the Arabs.
Late Ottoman rule and the Hejaz Railway
The railway was started in 1900 at the behest of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II
and was built largely by the Turk
s, with German
advice and support. A public subscription was opened throughout the Islamic world to fund the construction. The railway was to be a waqf
, an inalienable religious endowment or charitable trust.
The Arab Revolt and the foundation of Saudi Arabia
The major developments of the early 20th century were the Arab Revolt
during World War I and the subsequent collapse and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
. The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali
with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Empire
and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo
in Syria to Aden
in Yemen. During World War I, the Sharif Hussein entered into an alliance with the United Kingdom and France against the Ottomans in June 1916.
These events were followed by the foundation of Saudi Arabia
under King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud
. In 1902, Ibn Saud had captured Riyadh
. Continuing his conquests, Abdulaziz subdued Al-Hasa, Jabal Shammar
between 1913 and 1926 founded the modern state of Saudi Arabia. The Saudis absorbed the Emirate of Asir
, with their expansion only ending in 1934 after a war with Yemen
. Two Saudi states were formed and controlled much of Arabia before Ibn Saud was even born. Ibn Saud, however, established the third Saudi state.
The second major development has been the discovery of vast reserves of oil in the 1930s. Its production brought great wealth to all countries of the region, with the exception of Yemen.
Civil war in Yemen
The North Yemen Civil War
was fought in North Yemen
between royalists of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
and factions of the Yemen Arab Republic
from 1962 to 1970. The war began with a coup d'état
carried out by the republican leader, Abdullah as-Sallal
, which dethroned the newly crowned Muhammad al-Badr
and declared Yemen a republic under his presidency. The Imam escaped to the Saudi Arabian border and rallied popular support.
The royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia, while the republicans were supported by Egypt and the Soviet Union. Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved. The Egyptian President
, Gamal Abdel Nasser
, supported the republicans with as many as 70,000 troops. Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Egypt's commitment to the war is considered to have been detrimental to its performance in the Six-Day War
of June 1967, after which Nasser found it increasingly difficult to maintain his army's involvement and began to pull his forces out of Yemen.
By 1970, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia
recognized the republic and a truce was signed. Egyptian military historians refer to the war in Yemen as their Vietnam
In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. The invasion of Kuwait
by Iraqi forces led to the 1990–91 Gulf War
. Egypt, Qatar, Syria and Saudi Arabia joined a multinational coalition
that opposed Iraq. Displays of support for Iraq by Jordan and Palestine resulted in strained relations between many of the Arab states. After the war, a so-called "Damascus Declaration" formalized an alliance for future joint Arab defensive actions between Egypt, Syria, and the GCC member states.
Yemen Arab Spring
The Arab Spring
reached Yemen in January 2011.
People of Yemen took to the street demonstrating against three decades of rule by President Ali Abdullah Saleh
The demonstration lead to cracks in the ruling General People's Congress (GPC) and Saleh's Sanhani clan. Saleh used tactic of concession and violence to save his presidency.
After numerous attempt Saleh accepted the Gulf Cooperation Council mediation. He eventually handed power to Vice President Hadi. He was sworn in as President of Yemen on 25 February 2012. He launched a national dialogue to address new constitution, political and social issues.
Saudi Arabia launched a military intervention in Yemen
in March 2015. The famine in Yemen
is the direct result of the military intervention and blockade of Yemen
Transport and industry
The extraction and refining of oil and gas are the major industrial activities in the Arabian Peninsula. The region also has an active construction sector, with many cities reflecting the wealth generated by the oil industry. The service sector is dominated by financial and technical institutions, which, like the construction sector, mainly serve the oil industry. Traditional handicrafts such as carpet-weaving are found in rural areas of Arabia.
File:Sanaa.JPG|The old city of Sanaa, Yemen. Peninsular Arabs trace their lineage to Qahtan, who was reportedly based in Yemen.
File:Map of Ancient Arabia - 1720.tif|A map of the peninsula made in 1720 by the German publisher Christoph Weigel
File:Western Europe to the Arabian Peninsula.ogv|This video was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the ISS on a pass from Western Europe to the peninsula
File:عين زبيدة.png|Ain Zubaydah was built to water the pilgrims in Mecca
File:Omar Mosque.jpg|Omar Mosque in Dumat al-Jandal, Saudi Arabia.
File:Madain Saleh (6730128379).jpg|The facade of a tomb with its details and architectural elements.
File:Qasr al Farid.JPG|Qasr al Farid, tomb in Archeological site Mada'in Saleh, Al-`Ula, Saudi Arabia
File:Diriyahpic.jpg|Diriyah the capital of the first Saudi state
File:Jemen1988-022 hg.jpg|Dam of Ma'rib
File:Dhamar Ali Yahbur II.jpg|Himyarite King Dhamar'ali Yahbur II
File:AradFort.jpg|Arad Fort in Bahrain
File:Nizwa (5).jpg|Nizwa Fort in Oman
File:Dubai Jumeirah Creek Museum Jumeirah 9-12th century model 1301200712751.jpg|The ruins of Umayyad city in the historic Jumeirah district of Dubai.
File:Coper head of bull Dilmun1.jpg|Bull's head, made of copper in the early period of Dilmun (ca. 2000 BC), Bahrain.
File:Al-Magar - Saluki Artifact (المقر - سلوقي - قطعة أثرية).jpg|The head and body of a Saluki is made of stone from the Al-Magar civilization, in the Neolithic period, (about 8000 BC).
* Ancient history of Yemen
* Arabian Gulf Cup
* Arab League
* Arab world
* Eastern Arabia
* European exploration of Arabia
* Gulf Cooperation Council
* Iram of the Pillars
* Kingdom of Aksum
* List of Arabian cities by population
* Musandam Peninsula
Travels in Arabia
High resolution scan of old map of ArabiaThe Coast of Arabia the Red Sea, and Persian Sea of Bassora Past the Straits of Hormuz to India, Gujarat and Cape Comorin
from the World Digital Library, depicts a map from 1707.
Arabia: Cultural-Historical ZonesOld maps of Arabia
Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The National Library of Israel
Category:Articles containing video clips
Category:Geography of the Middle East
Category:Landforms of the Middle East
Category:Peninsulas of Asia
Category:Regions of Asia