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Apia is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case is the distinction between the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol ...
of
Samoa Samoa (, ), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "i ...

Samoa
, and its only city. It is located on the central north coast of
Upolu Upolu is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometimes know ...

Upolu
, Samoa's second-largest island. Apia falls within the political district (''itūmālō'') of
Tuamasaga Tuamāsaga is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several munici ...
. The Apia Urban Area (generally known as the City of Apia) has a population of 37,391 (2016 census). Its geographic boundaries extend roughly from
Letogo Letogo is a village on the central north coast of Upolu Upolu is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent ...
village to the newer, industrialized region of Apia known as “Vaitele”. (From 1900 to 1919, Apia was the capital of
German Samoa German Samoa (german: Deutsch-Samoa) was a German Empire, German protectorate from 1900 to 1919, consisting of the islands of Upolu, Savai'i, Apolima and Manono Island, Manono, now wholly within the independent state of Samoa, formerly ''Western ...
.)


History

Apia was originally a small village (the 1800 population was 304), from which the country's capital took its name. Apia Village still exists within the larger modern capital of Apia, which has grown into a sprawling urban area that encompasses many villages. Like every other settlement in the country, Apia Village has its own ''matai'' (leaders) and ''fa'alupega'' (genealogy and customary greetings) according to fa'a Samoa. The modern city of Apia was founded in the 1850s, and it has been the official capital of Samoa since 1959. The harbour was the site of a notorious 15 March 1889 naval standoff in which seven ships — from Germany, the US, and Britain —refused to leave the harbour, even though a typhoon was clearly approaching, lest the first one to move lose face. All the ships sank or were damaged beyond repair, except for the British cruiser ''Calliope'', which managed to leave port, traveling at a rate of one mile per hour, and was able to ride out the storm. Nearly 200 American and German lives were lost. Western Samoa was ruled by Germany as
German Samoa German Samoa (german: Deutsch-Samoa) was a German Empire, German protectorate from 1900 to 1919, consisting of the islands of Upolu, Savai'i, Apolima and Manono Island, Manono, now wholly within the independent state of Samoa, formerly ''Western ...
from 1900 to 1914, with Apia as its capital. In August 1914, the
Occupation of German Samoa The Occupation of Samoa was the takeover – and subsequent administration – of the Pacific colony of German Samoa German Samoa (german: Deutsch-Samoa) was a German Empire, German protectorate from 1900 to 1919, consisting of the islands of ...
by an expeditionary force from
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
began. New Zealand governed the islands, (as the
Western Samoa Trust Territory Western Samoa Mandate, then Western Samoa Trust Territory, officially Territory of Western Samoa was the name of Western Samoa Samoa (), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) ...
) from 1920 until Samoan independence in 1962 – first under a
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
Class C Mandate and then, after 1945, as a United Nations Trust Territory. The country underwent a struggle for political independence in the early 1900s, organised under the aegis of the national
Mau movement The Mau was a non-violent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an out ...
. During this period, the streets of Apia were the site of non-violent protests and marches, in the course of which many Samoans were arrested. On what became known as "Black Saturday" (28 December, 1929), during a peaceful Mau gathering in the town, the
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
constabulary killed the paramount chief
Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III Tupua Tamasese Lealofi-o-ā'ana III (4 May 1901 – 29 December 1929) was a Fa'amatai, paramount chief of Samoa, who became the leader of the country's pro-independence Mau movement from early 1928 until his death in 1929. Inspired by his Chris ...

Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III
.


Geography

Apia is situated on a natural harbour at the mouth of the
Vaisigano River The Vaisigano River is a river on Upolu Upolu is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_L ...
. It is on a narrow coastal plain with
Mount Vaea Mount Vaea is a 472 m summit overlooking Apia, the capital of Samoa located on the north central coast of Upolu island. The mountain is situated south about 3 km inland from Apia township and harbour. The settlement at the foothills on t ...
(elevation ), the burial place of writer
Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis Stevenson (born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson; 13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, essayist, poet and travel writer. He is best known for works such as ''Treasure Island ''Treasure Island'' (origi ...

Robert Louis Stevenson
, directly to its south. Two main ridges run south on either side of the Vaisigano River, with roads on each. The more western of these is Cross Island Road, one of the few roads cutting north to south across the middle of the island to the south coast of Upolu.


Climate

Apia features a
tropical rainforest climate A tropical rainforest climate or equatorial climate is a tropical climate Tropical climate is one of the five major climate groups in the . Tropical climates are characterized by monthly average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or hi ...
with consistent temperatures throughout the year. Nevertheless, the climate is not equatorial because the
trade wind The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
s are the dominant aerological mechanism and besides there are a few
cyclone In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mo ...

cyclone
s. Apia's driest months are July and August when on average about of rain falls. Its wettest months are December through March when average monthly precipitation easily exceeds . Apia's average temperature for the year is . Apia averages roughly of rainfall annually.


Administration

Apia is part of the
Tuamasaga Tuamāsaga is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several munici ...
political district An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state St ...
and of
election district An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger State (polit ...
Vaimauga West and Faleata East. There is no city administration for Apia. Apia consists of some 45 individual, independent villages. Apia proper is just a small village between the mouths of the Vaisigano (east) and Mulivai (west) rivers, and is framed by Vaisigano and Mulivai villages, together constituting "
Downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up t ...

Downtown
Apia". The Planning Urban Management Authority (PUMA) Act 2004 (amended in 2005) was passed by parliament to better plan for the urban growth of Samoa's built-up areas, with particular reference to the future urban management of Apia. The city's historical haphazard growth from village to colonial trading post to the major financial and business centre of the country has resulted in major infrastructural problems in the city. Problems of flooding are commonplace in the wet season, given the low flood-prone valley that the city is built on. In the inner-city village of Sogi, there are major shoreline pollution and effluent issues given that the village is situated on swamplands. The disparate village administrations of Apia has resulted in a lack of a unified and codified legislative approach to
sewerage Sewerage (or sewage system) is the infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the service ...
disposal. The relatively increase of vehicle ownership has resulted in traffic congestion in the inner city streets and the need for major projects in road-widening and traffic management. The PUMA legislation sets up the Planning Urban Management Authority to manage better the unique planning issues facing Apia's urban growth.


City features

Mulinu'u Mulinu'u is a small village situated on a tiny peninsula on Upolu island in Samoa. It became the site of the colonial administration in Samoa in the 1870s and continues to be the site for the Legislative Assembly of Samoa, Parliament of Samoa. It ...
, the old ceremonial capital, lies at the city's western end, and is the location of the Parliament House (''Maota Fono''), and the historic observatory built during the German era is now the meteorology office. The historic
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
cathedral in Apia, the Immaculate Conception of Mary Cathedral, was dedicated 31 December 1867. It was pulled down mid-2011, reportedly due to structural damage from the earthquake of September 2009. A new cathedral was built and dedicated 31 May 2014. An area of reclaimed land jutting into the harbour is the site of the Fiame Mataafa Faumuina Mulinuu II (FMFM II) building, the multi-storey government offices named after the first Prime Minister of Samoa, and the Central Bank of Samoa. A clock tower erected as a war memorial acts as a central point for the city. The new market (''maketi fou'') is inland at Fugalei, where it is more protected from the effects of
cyclone In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mo ...

cyclone
s. Apia still has some of the early, wooden, colonial buildings which remain scattered around the town, most notably the old courthouse from the German colonial era, with a museum on the upper floor (the new courthouse is in Mulinu'u). Recent infrastructural development and economic growth has seen several multi-storey buildings rise in the city. The ACC building (2001) houses the Accident Compensation Board, the National Bank of Samoa, and some government departments. The mall below it is home to shops and eateries. The Samoatel building (2004) which is the site for Samoa's international telecommunications hub, was built inland at Maluafou, also to protect it from the effects of seasonal cyclones. The DBS building (2007) in Savalalo houses the Development Bank of Samoa and new courts complex in Mulinuu, with the district, supreme, and land & titles courts (2010). The Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Building (2012) in Sogi houses government ministries. Another addition to Apia's skyline is the SNPF Molesi shopping mall, opened in 2013. A new hospital complex was completed at Mot'ootua. Scottish-born writer
Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis Stevenson (born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson; 13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, essayist, poet and travel writer. He is best known for works such as ''Treasure Island ''Treasure Island'' (origi ...

Robert Louis Stevenson
spent the last four years of his life here, and is buried on Mt Vaea, overlooking both the city and the home he built, Vailima, now a museum in his honour. He made Samoa his home. A Samoan at heart, his Samoan name was Tusitala, meaning Teller of Tales.


Economy

Talofa Airways,
Samoa Airways Samoa Airways, formerly Polynesian Airlines, is the state-owned flag carrier airline of Samoa. The airline was founded in 1959 as "Polynesian Airlines", providing domestic and international flights throughout the South Pacific. International ope ...
, and Samoa Air have their headquarters in Apia. Grey Investment Group has its headquarters in downtown Apia. This company also owned the first private
National Bank of Samoa The National Bank of Samoa is a locally owned and private bank in Samoa Samoa (, ), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesia ...
in Samoa, with Grey Investment Group, Samoa Artisan Water Company Ltd and Apia Bottling Company Ltd as shareholders. Grey Investment owns a multitude of commercial and residential property investments throughout Samoa and New Zealand. Thirty per cent of the businesses in downtown Apia are owned by one
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( ...
family. Ten per cent of the downtown businesses are owned by
Europeans Europeans are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by commo ...

Europeans
, while the other 60% are owned by the local community.


Transport

Apia Harbour is by far the largest and busiest harbour in
Samoa Samoa (, ), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "i ...

Samoa
. International shipping with containers, LPG gas, and fuels all dock here. Ferries to
Tokelau Tokelau (; "north-northeast"; known previously as the Union Islands, and, until 1976, known officially as the Tokelau Islands) is a dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency (sometimes referred as an external ...

Tokelau
and
American Samoa #REDIRECT American Samoa American Samoa ( sm, Amerika Sāmoa, ; also ' or ') is an unincorporated territory of the United States Under United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) ...

American Samoa
depart from here. Apia is served by a good road network, which is generally kept reasonably well maintained. Most of the main roads are sealed; the unsealed roads have lower use. Vehicles drive on the left-hand side of the road since 7 September 2009. The Samoan government started the second phase of a major upgrading of arterial routes around the Apia Urban Area in 2012, with incremental widening of major roads around the city. The country has no trains or trams, but is served by an extensive, privatised bus and taxi system. People commonly walk around the town, or even some distances outside it. There are few bicycles and motorcycles, but traffic congestion due to a huge increase in vehicle ownership has necessitated a major upgrade in road infrastructure. Fagali'i Airport, the small airstrip in Fagali'i, is used for internal flights and some international flights to
Pago Pago Pago Pago ( ; Samoan Samoan may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the Samoan Islands, an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean ** Something of, from, or related to Samoa, a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands ...
in
American Samoa #REDIRECT American Samoa American Samoa ( sm, Amerika Sāmoa, ; also ' or ') is an unincorporated territory of the United States Under United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) ...

American Samoa
. The main international airport,
Faleolo International Airport Faleolo International Airport is an airport located west of Apia, the capital of Samoa. Until 1984, Faleolo could not accommodate jets larger than a Boeing 737. Services to the United States, Australia, or New Zealand, could only land at Pago P ...

Faleolo International Airport
, is a 40-minute drive west of the city. Samoa's major domestic airlines, Polynesian Airlines and Talofa Airways, service this airport.


Education

Apia is home to a number of pre-schools, primary, secondary and post-secondary institutions, including Samoa's only university, the
National University of Samoa The National University of Samoa (''Lē Iunivesitē Aoao o Sāmoa'') is the only national university in Samoa. Established in 1984 by an act of parliament, it is coeducational and provides certificate, diploma, and undergraduate degree programs, as ...
. In addition, the
University of the South Pacific The University of the South Pacific (USP) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (En ...
School of Agriculture maintains a campus at
AlafuaAlafua is an Urban area, urban village in the Faleata District in the Samoan capital of Apia. Alafua had 1,347 residents according to the 2016 census. The village is home to the Samoan campus of the University of the South Pacific. It is also near t ...
, on the outskirts of Apia. Another major
School A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. They p ...

School
in Apia is Robert Louis Stevenson School which is a private primary and secondary school. Robert Louis Stevenson school is known as Samoa's
upper class Upper class in modern societies is the social class A social class is a set of concepts in the social sciences Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social rel ...
school, due to many children of Samoa's wealthy classes attending it.


Universities

*
National University of Samoa The National University of Samoa (''Lē Iunivesitē Aoao o Sāmoa'') is the only national university in Samoa. Established in 1984 by an act of parliament, it is coeducational and provides certificate, diploma, and undergraduate degree programs, as ...
*
University of the South Pacific The University of the South Pacific (USP) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (En ...

Oceania University of Medicine


Colleges in Upolu Island

* LDS Church College of Pesega, Pesega * Faatuatua Christian College, Vaitele Fou * Leififi College, Leififi * Leulumoega-fou College, Malua * Maluafou College, Maluafou * Saint Joseph's College, Alafua * Saint Mary's College, Vaimoso * Samoa College, Vaivase Tai * Seventh Day Adventist College, Lalovaea * Robert Louis Stevenson College, Tafaigata * Wesley College, Faleula * Nuuausala College, Nofoalii * Paul V1 College, Leulumoega Tuai * Chanel College, Moamoa * Avele College, Vailima * Lepa Lotofaga College * Palalaua College, Siumu * Aleipata College * Anoamaa College * Falealili Coleege * Safata College * Aana No. 1 College * Aana No. 2 College * Sagaga College


Colleges in Savaii Island

* Tuasivi College * LDS Church College of Vaiola * Wesleyan College (Uesiliana) * Don Bosco College * Itu O Tane College * Palauli college * Palauli I Sisifo College * Amoa College * Vaimauga College * Papauta Girls College *


Primary schools

Most of the villages have their own primary schools, but the Churches run most of the primary schools in downtown Apia. * Robert Louis Stevenson School, Lotopa * Marist Brothers' School, Mulivai * Saint Mary's School, Savalalo * Peace Chapel School, Vaimea * Apia Baptist School, Aai o Niue * Seventh-day Adventist primary school, Lalovaea * All Saints Anglican School, Malifa


Sport


Pacific Games

Apia hosted the
Pacific Games The Pacific Games (formerly known as the South Pacific Games) is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia' ...
in 1983 for the first time in the country's history. The Games returned to Apia for the 2007 Pacific Games, in which
Samoa Samoa (, ), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "i ...

Samoa
finished third. A crowd of 20,000 attended the 2007 Games closing ceremony at
Apia Park Apia Park is a multi-function sports complex located in Apia Apia is the capital of Samoa Samoa (), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Sam ...
.


Association football

Apia hosted the
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania
region's qualification matches for the
2010 FIFA World Cup The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a ...
. As such, Apia was the location of the first goal scored in the 2010 qualifiers, by Pierre Wajoka of
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , s ...
against
Tahiti Tahiti (; Tahitian ; ; previously also known as Otaheite) is the largest island of the Windward group of the Society Islands The Society Islands (french: Îles de la Société, officially ''Archipel de la Société;'' ty, Tōtaiete mā) a ...
. The qualification matches commenced on 27 August 2007 and finished on 7 September 2007. All matches were played at the Toleafoa J.S. Blatter Complex, which is named after
FIFA FIFA ( french: Fédération Internationale de Football Association; en, International Federation of Association Football, link=yes; : ''Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociación''; : ''Internationaler Verband des Association-Fußball'' ...
president
Sepp Blatter Joseph "Sepp" Blatter (born 10 March 1936) is a retired Swiss association football, football Administrator (business), administrator who was the list of Presidents of FIFA, eighth President of the FIFA (french: Fédération Internationale de Fo ...

Sepp Blatter
. The complex, based in Apia, is also the venue of the
Samoa national football team The Samoa national association football team ( sm, Sāmoa soka au) represents Samoa Samoa (), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a ...
's home matches and has a capacity of 3,500.


Judo

The capital also hosted from 2009 to 2012 the IJF Judo World Cup, which was downgraded in 2013 to become a regional tournament called the 'Oceania Open'.


Cricket

Apia hosted the 2012 ICC World Cricket League Division Eight tournament at the Faleata Oval's, which consists of four
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...

cricket
grounds. The national teams of
Samoa Samoa (, ), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "i ...
,
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...
, Japan national cricket team, Japan, Suriname national cricket team, Suriname, Ghana national cricket team, Ghana, Bhutan national cricket team, Bhutan, Norway national cricket team, Norway and Vanuatu national cricket team, Vanuatu took part. It was the first time a tournament officially sanctioned by the International Cricket Council had been held in the region.


Basketball

Apia hosted the 2018 FIBA Polynesia Basketball Cup where Samoa's national basketball team finished runner-up.


Sister cities

* Shenzhen, Guangdong, China (2015) * Compton, CA, Compton, California, United States (2010)


See also

* 1889 Apia cyclone


References


External links


View of Apia, the Capital of Samoa, One of the Islands in the Pacific Ocean
from ''Harper's Weekly'', 12 January 1895 by D.J. Kennedy, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania {{Authority control Apia, Capitals in Oceania Port cities in Oceania Populated places in Tuamasaga 1850s establishments in Oceania Populated places established in the 1850s