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The Antarctic (US English or , UK English or and or ) is a
polar region Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple The Polar Regions, also called the frigid zones Zone or The Zone may refer to: Places Climate and altitude zones * Death zone (originally the lethal zone), altitudes above a ...
around
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
's
South Pole The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole, Terrestrial South Pole or 90th Parallel South, is one of the where intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on Earth and lies on the of Earth from the . Situated on the ...
, opposite the
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Danish Realm, ...

Arctic
region around the
North Pole Sea ice in 2006 as observed from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration North Pole Web Cam, part of the North Pole Environmental Observatory The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is ...
. The Antarctic comprises the continent of
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is 's southernmost . It contains the geographic and is situated in the region of the , almost entirely south of the , and is surrounded by the . At , it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of . At 0.00 ...

Antarctica
, the
Kerguelen Plateau The Kerguelen Plateau (, ), also known as the Kerguelen–Heard Plateau, is an oceanic plateau and a large igneous province (LIP) located on the Antarctic Plate, in the southern Indian Ocean. It is about to the southwest of Australia and is ne ...
and other island territories located on the
Antarctic Plate The Antarctic Plate is a tectonic plate containing the continent of Antarctica, the Kerguelen Plateau and extending outward under the surrounding oceans. After breakup from Gondwana (the southern part of the supercontinent Pangea), the Antarctic p ...
or south of the
Antarctic Convergence The Antarctic Convergence or Antarctic Polar Front is a curve continuously encircling Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is 's southernmost . It contains the geographic and is situated in the region of the , almost entirely south of the , and ...
. The Antarctic region includes the
ice shelves An ice shelf is a large floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier A glacier ( or ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its Abl ...
, waters, and all the
island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, i ...

island
territories in the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of t ...

Southern Ocean
situated south of the
Antarctic Convergence The Antarctic Convergence or Antarctic Polar Front is a curve continuously encircling Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is 's southernmost . It contains the geographic and is situated in the region of the , almost entirely south of the , and ...
, a zone approximately wide varying in latitude seasonally. The region covers some 20 percent of the
Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere ** Southern Hemisphere ** Eastern Hemisphere ** Western He ...

Southern Hemisphere
, of which 5.5 percent (14 million km2) is the surface area of the Antarctic continent itself. All of the land and
ice shelves An ice shelf is a large floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier A glacier ( or ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its Abl ...
south of 60°S latitude are administered under the
Antarctic Treaty System The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the ...
.
Biogeographically
Biogeographically
, the
Antarctic realm The Antarctic realm is one of eight terrestrial biogeographic realms. The ecosystem includes Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of th ...
is one of eight
biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeography, biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial animal, terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classif ...
s of Earth's land surface.


Geography

As defined by the
Antarctic Treaty System The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the ...
, the Antarctic region is everything south of the 60°S latitude. The Treaty area covers Antarctica and the
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
s of the
Balleny Islands The Balleny Islands () are a series of uninhabited islands in the Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be sout ...

Balleny Islands
,
Peter I Island Peter I Island ( no, Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. ...
,
Scott Island Scott Island is a small uninhabited island of volcanic origin in the Ross Sea The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost wa ...

Scott Island
, the
South Orkney Islands The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean, about north-east of the tip of the Antarctic PeninsulaSouth Shetland Islands The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of . They lie about north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between to southwest from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Trea ...
. However, this area does not include the
Antarctic Convergence The Antarctic Convergence or Antarctic Polar Front is a curve continuously encircling Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is 's southernmost . It contains the geographic and is situated in the region of the , almost entirely south of the , and ...
, a transition zone where the cold waters of the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of t ...

Southern Ocean
collide with the warmer waters of the north, forming a natural border to the region. Because the Convergence changes seasonally, the
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, also known as the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, and CCAMLR, is part of the Antarctic Treaty System russian: link=no, Договор ...
(CCAMLR) approximates the Convergence line by joining specified points along parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. The implementation of the convention is managed through an international Commission headquartered in
Hobart Hobart () is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

Hobart
, Australia, by an efficient system of annual
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
quotas, licenses and international inspectors on the fishing vessels, as well as
satellite In the context of spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with or uncrewed spaceflight, without humans on board. Most spaceflight ...

satellite
surveillance The islands situated between 60°S latitude parallel to the south and the
Antarctic Convergence The Antarctic Convergence or Antarctic Polar Front is a curve continuously encircling Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is 's southernmost . It contains the geographic and is situated in the region of the , almost entirely south of the , and ...
to the north, and their respective exclusive economic zones fall under the national jurisdiction of the countries that possess them:
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, and ...

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom),
Bouvet Island Bouvet Island ( ) is an uninhabited subantarctic high island, volcanic island located in the South Atlantic Ocean at . Politically, it is a dependencies of Norway, dependency of Norway and, because it lies north of the region covered by the An ...

Bouvet Island
(Norway), and
Heard and McDonald Islands The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands (HIMI) is an Australian external territory comprising a volcanic group of mostly barren Antarctic The Antarctic (US English or , UK English or and or ) is a polar region around Ear ...
(Australia).
Kerguelen Islands The Kerguelen Islands ( or ; in French commonly ' but officially ', ), also known as the Desolation Islands (' in French), are a group of islands in the Antarctic constituting one of the two exposed parts of the Kerguelen Plateau, a large ig ...
(France; also an EU Overseas territory) are situated in the Antarctic Convergence area, while the
Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego Isla may refer to: Business * International Securities Lending Association, ISLA, the International Securities Lending Association, a trade association People * Isla (given name) * Víctor Isla, Peruvian politician and a Congressman representing ...

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego
,
Falkland Islands The Falkland Islands (; es, Islas Malvinas, ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece ...

Falkland Islands
,
Isla de los Estados Isla de los Estados (English: Staten Island, from the Dutch ''Stateneiland'') is an Argentina, Argentine island that lies off the eastern extremity of Tierra del Fuego, from which it is separated by the Le Maire Strait. It was named after the Est ...

Isla de los Estados
,
Hornos Island Hornos Island ( es, Isla Hornos) is a Chilean island at the southern tip of South America. The island is mostly known for being the location of Cape Horn. It is generally considered South America's southernmost island, but the Diego Ramírez Islands ...
with
Cape Horn Cape Horn ( es, Cabo de Hornos, ) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego #REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego#REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire", formerly also Fireland in English) is an archipelag ...
,
Diego Ramírez Islands The Diego Ramírez Islands ( es, Islas Diego Ramírez) are a small group of subantarctic islands located in the southernmost extreme of Chile. History They were first sighted on 12 February 1619 by the Spanish Garcia de Nodal expedition, and name ...
,
Campbell IslandCampbell Island may refer to: * Campbell Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia * Campbell Island (British Columbia), Canada * Campbell Island, New Zealand * Campbell Island (Maine), USA * Campbell Island (North Carolina), USA {{geodis ...
,
Macquarie Island Macquarie Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies in the Southwestern Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica. Regionally part of Oceania and politically a part of Tasmania, Australia, since 1900, it became a Protec ...
,
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...
and
Saint Paul Paul the Apostle,; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח; – AD commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Hebrew name Saul of Tarsus,; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, ...

Saint Paul
Islands,
Crozet Islands The Crozet Islands (french: Îles Crozet; or, officially, ''Archipel Crozet'') are a sub-Antarctic The sub-Antarctic zone is a physiographic regions of the world, region in the Southern Hemisphere, located immediately north of the Antarctic re ...

Crozet Islands
,
Prince Edward Islands The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the that are part of . The islands are named Marion Island (named after ) and Prince Edward Island (named after , 1767–1820). The islands in the group have been declared Special Nature ...

Prince Edward Islands
, and
Gough Island upright=1.3, Map of Gough island Gough Island (), also known historically as Gonçalo Álvares after the Portuguese explorer Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Descobrimentos portugueses'') are the numerous territori ...
and Tristan da Cunha group remain north of the Convergence and thus outside the Antarctic region.


Ecology


Antarctica

A variety of animals live in Antarctica for at least some of the year, including: *
Seals Seals may refer to: * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely and diverse of , -footed, , mostly s. They comprise the (whose only living member is the ), (the eared seals: s and s), and (the earless sea ...
*
Penguins Penguins (order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and th ...

Penguins
* South Georgia pipits *
Albatrosses
Albatrosses
* Antarctic petrels *
Whales Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully Aquatic ecosystem, aquatic placental mammal, placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea, which usually excludes dolphins and porpoises. W ...

Whales
* Fish, such as Antarctic icefish,
Antarctic toothfish The Antarctic toothfish (''Dissostichus mawsoni'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often d ...
*
Squid Squid are cephalopod A cephalopod is any member of the mollusca Mollusca is the second-largest phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is ...

Squid
, including the
colossal squid The colossal squid (''Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni'') is part of the family Cranchiidae The family Cranchiidae comprises the approximately 60 species of glass squid, also known as cockatoo squid, cranchiid, cranch squid, or bathyscaphoid squid ...
* Antarctic krill Most of the Antarctic continent is permanently covered by ice and snow, leaving less than 1 percent of the land exposed. There are only two species of flowering plant,
Antarctic hair grass ''Deschampsia antarctica'', the Antarctic hair grass, is one of two flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders ...
and
Antarctic pearlwort
Antarctic pearlwort
, but a range of
mosses Mosses are small, non-vascular flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plant ...

mosses
,
liverworts The Marchantiophyta () are a division of non-vascular plant, non-vascular embryophyte, land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts. Like mosses and hornworts, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which cells of the plan ...

liverworts
,
lichens A lichen ( , ) is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among Hypha, filaments of multiple Fungus, fungi species in a mutualism (biology), mutualistic relationship.
and macrofungi.


Sub-Antarctic Islands

Biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Genetics, genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near ...

Biodiversity
among terrestrial flora and fauna is low on the islands: studies have theorized that the harsh climate was a major contributor towards species richness, but multiple correlations have been found with area, temperature, remoteness of islands, and food chain stability. For example, herbivorous insects are poor in number due to low plant richness, and likewise, indigenous bird numbers are related to insects, which are a major food source. *
Isla de los Estados Isla de los Estados (English: Staten Island, from the Dutch ''Stateneiland'') is an Argentina, Argentine island that lies off the eastern extremity of Tierra del Fuego, from which it is separated by the Le Maire Strait. It was named after the Est ...

Isla de los Estados
(
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
) *
Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego Isla may refer to: Business * International Securities Lending Association, ISLA, the International Securities Lending Association, a trade association People * Isla (given name) * Víctor Isla, Peruvian politician and a Congressman representing ...

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego
(
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
)


Conservation

The Antarctic hosts the world's largest
protected area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...
comprising 1.07 million km2, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Marine Protection Area created in 2012. The latter exceeds the surface area of another vast protected territory, the Greenland National Park’s 972,000 km2. (While the
Ross Sea The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctic ...

Ross Sea
Marine Protection Area established in 2016 is still larger at 1.55 million km2, its protection is set to expire in 35 years.)


Society


People

The first recorded sighting of Antarctica is credited to the Spaniard Gabriel de Castilla, who reported seeing distant southern snow-capped mountains in 1603. The first Antarctic land discovered was the island of
South Georgia South Georgia ( es, Isla San Pedro, pt, Ilha São Pedro / Geórgia do Sul) is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas Territory The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Ove ...

South Georgia
, visited by the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
merchant
Anthony de la Roché Anthony de la Roché, born sometime in the 17th century, (spelled also ''Antoine de la Roché'', ''Antonio de la Roché'' or ''Antonio de la Roca'' in some sources) was an English merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities ...
in 1675. Although myths and speculation about a ''
Terra Australis Terra Australis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...
'' ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent of
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is 's southernmost . It contains the geographic and is situated in the region of the , almost entirely south of the , and is surrounded by the . At , it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of . At 0.00 ...

Antarctica
is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of
Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen (russian: Фадде́й Фадде́евич Беллинсга́узен, translit=Faddéj Faddéevič Bellinsgáuzen; – ) was a Russian Empire, Russian naval officer, cartographer and explorer, ...

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen
and
Mikhail Lazarev Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, ...
on '' Vostok'' and '' Mirny''. The Australian
James Kerguelen Robinson James Kerguelen Robinson (11 March 1859 – 1914) was an Australian prospecting, prospector who was the first person born south of the Antarctic Convergence. Robinson Pass was named after him. Life Robinson was born in March 1859 on the Kerguele ...
(1859–1914) was the first human born in the Antarctic, on board the
sealing
sealing
ship ''Offley'' in
Gulf of Morbihan The Gulf of Morbihan is a natural harbour on the coast of the departments of France, department of Morbihan in southern Brittany, France. Its English name is taken from the French language, French version, ''le golfe du Morbihan'', though it w ...
(Royal Sound then), Kerguelen Island on 11 March 1859. The first human born on an Antarctic island was Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen born on 8 October 1913 in
Grytviken Grytviken ( ) was the largest whaling station on South Georgia Island, South Georgia in the South Atlantic. It is located at the head of King Edward Cove within the larger Cumberland East Bay, considered the best harbour on the island. It was estab ...
, South Georgia. Emilio Marcos Palma (born 7 January 1979) is an Argentine man who was the first documented person born on the continent of Antarctica at the
Esperanza Base ("Permanence, an act of sacrifice") , pushpin_map = Antarctica , pushpin_map_alt = Location of Esperanza Base in Antarctica , pushpin_map_caption = Location of Esperanza Base in Antarctica , pushpin_mapsize = ...
. His father, Captain Jorge Palma, was head of the Argentine Army detachment at the base. While ten people have been born in Antarctica since, Palma's birthplace remains the southernmost. In late 1977, Silvia Morella de Palma, who was then seven months pregnant, was airlifted to
Esperanza Base ("Permanence, an act of sacrifice") , pushpin_map = Antarctica , pushpin_map_alt = Location of Esperanza Base in Antarctica , pushpin_map_caption = Location of Esperanza Base in Antarctica , pushpin_mapsize = ...
, in order to complete her pregnancy in the base. The airlift was a part of the Argentine solutions to the sovereignty dispute over territory in Antarctica. Emilio was automatically granted Argentine citizenship by the government since his parents were both Argentine citizens, and he was born in the claimed
Argentine Antarctica Argentine Antarctica ( es, Antártida Argentina or Sector Antártico Argentino) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by Argentina as part of its national territory consisting of the Antarctic Peninsula and a triangular section extending to the Sou ...

Argentine Antarctica
. Palma can be considered to be the first native Antarctican. The Antarctic region had no
indigenous population Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the b ...
when first discovered, and its present inhabitants comprise a few thousand transient
scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

scientific
and other personnel working on tours of duty at the several dozen research stations maintained by various countries. However, the region is visited by more than 40,000 tourists annually, the most popular destinations being the
Antarctic Peninsula The Antarctic Peninsula, known as O'Higgins Land in Chile and Tierra de San Martin in Argentina, and originally as the Palmer Peninsula in the US and Graham Land in the United Kingdom, is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica. T ...

Antarctic Peninsula
area (especially the
South Shetland Islands The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of . They lie about north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between to southwest from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Trea ...
) and
South Georgia Island South Georgia ( es, Isla San Pedro) is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas Territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The main settlement is Grytviken. South Georgia is 167.4 kilometres ( ...
. In December 2009, the growth of
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...
, with consequences for both the ecology and the safety of the travellers in its great and remote wilderness, was noted at a conference in New Zealand by experts from signatories to the
Antarctic Treaty russian: link=no, Договор об Антарктике es, link=no, Tratado Antártico , name = Antarctic Treaty System , image = Flag of the Antarctic Treaty.svgborder , image_width = 180px , caption ...
. The definitive results of the conference was presented at the Antarctic Treaty states' meeting in Uruguay in May 2010.


Time zones

Because Antarctica surrounds the South Pole, it is theoretically located in all
time zone A time zone is an area that observes a uniform standard time Standard time is the synchronization of clock A clock or a timepiece is a device used to Measurement, measure and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest Invent ...
s. For practical purposes, time zones are usually based on territorial claims or the time zone of a station's owner country or supply base.National Geographic Society. (2012, October 09). South Pole. Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/south-pole/


List of offshore islands


North of 60°S latitude


South of 60°S latitude


See also

*
Antarctic Circle 350px, ''Map of the Antarctic with the Antarctic Circle in blue.'' The Antarctic Circle is the most southerly of the five major circle of latitude, circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. The region south of this circle is known as the An ...

Antarctic Circle
*
Antarctic ice sheet , showing glaciation A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier A glacier ( or ) is a persistent body of dense ice ...
*
History of Antarctica The history of Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is su ...


Notes


References


Further reading

* Krupnik, Igor, Michael A. Lang, and Scott E. Miller, eds
''Smithsonian at the Poles: Contributions to International Polar Year Science''
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2009.


External links


British Services Antarctic Expedition 2012

Committee for Environmental Protection of Antarctica

Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty

CCAMLR Commission

Antarctic Heritage Trusts

International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators

Map of the Antarctic Convergence

The South Atlantic and Subantarctic Islands

Ushuaia is the most popular gateway to Antarctica
{{Authority control Antarctic region Geography of Antarctica