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Ann Arbor is a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...
in the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a W ...
of
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
and the
county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Hungary and the United States. County towns have a similar fu ...
of Washtenaw County. The
2010 census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
recorded its population to be 113,934. In 2019, its population was recorded at 120,735. It is the principal city of the Ann Arbor
Metropolitan Statistical Area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are neither ...
, which encompasses all of Washtenaw County. Ann Arbor is also included in the larger
Greater Detroit The Detroit metropolitan area, often referred to as Metro Detroit, is a major metropolitan area in the U.S. State of Michigan, consisting of the city of Detroit and its Southeast Michigan, surrounding area. There are varied definitions of the ar ...
Combined Statistical Area Combined statistical area (CSA) is a United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent f ...
. Ann Arbor is home to the
University of Michigan , mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. ...

University of Michigan
. The university significantly shapes Ann Arbor's economy as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. The city's economy is also centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development infrastructure. Ann Arbor was founded in 1824, named for wives of the village's founders, both named Ann, and the stands of
bur oak ''Quercus macrocarpa'', the bur oak, commonly spelled burr oak, is a species of oak tree native to eastern North America. It is in the white oak section, ''Quercus'' sect. ''Quercus'', and is also called mossycup oak, mossycup white oak, blue oa ...

bur oak
trees.Marwil, pp. 1–2 The University of Michigan moved from
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town Tha ...
to Ann Arbor in 1837, and the city grew at a rapid rate in the early to mid-20th century. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as a center for left-wing politics. Ann Arbor became a focal point for political activism, such as
opposition to the Vietnam War Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War{{native name, vi, Chiến tranh Việt Nam , partof = the Indochina Wars and the Cold War , image ...
and support for the legalization of cannabis.


History

In about 1774, the
Potawatomip The Potawatomi , also spelled Pottawatomi and Pottawatomie (among many variations), are a Native American people of the western Great Lakes upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America ...
founded two villages in the area of what is now Ann Arbor. Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Allen and Elisha Walker Rumsey. On May 25, 1824, the town
plat In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Wash ...

plat
was registered with Wayne County as "Annarbour", the earliest known use of the town's name. Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their wives, both named Ann, and for the stands of
bur oak ''Quercus macrocarpa'', the bur oak, commonly spelled burr oak, is a species of oak tree native to eastern North America. It is in the white oak section, ''Quercus'' sect. ''Quercus'', and is also called mossycup oak, mossycup white oak, blue oa ...

bur oak
in the of land they purchased for $800 from the federal government at $1.25 per acre. The local
Ojibwa The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous ...
named the settlement ''kaw-goosh-kaw-nick'', after the sound of Allen's
sawmill A sawmill (saw mill, saw-mill) or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood that has been processed into Beam (structure), beams and plank (wood), planks, a stage in the proce ...

sawmill
. Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, and was incorporated as a village in 1833. The Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capitol, but lost the bid to
Lansing Lansing () is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is mostly in Ingham County, Michigan, Ingham County, although portions of the city extend west into Eaton County, Michigan, Eaton County and north into Clinton County, Michigan, Clinton ...
. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the
University of Michigan , mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. ...

University of Michigan
, which moved from Detroit. Since the university's establishment in the city in 1837, the histories of the University of Michigan and Ann Arbor have been closely linked. The town became a regional transportation hub in 1839 with the arrival of the
Michigan Central Railroad The Michigan Central Railroad (reporting mark MC) was originally incorporated in 1846 to establish rail service between Detroit, Michigan, and St. Joseph, Michigan. The railroad later operated in the states of Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois in th ...
, and a north–south railway connecting Ann Arbor to
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
and other markets to the south was established in 1878.Marwil, p. 49 Throughout the 1840s and the 1850s settlers continued to come to Ann Arbor. While the earlier settlers were primarily of British ancestry, the newer settlers also consisted of Germans, Irish, and African-Americans. In 1851, Ann Arbor was chartered as a city, though the city showed a drop in population during the
Depression of 1873 The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered an depression (economics), economic depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 to 1877 or 1879 in France and in United Kingdom, Britain. In Britain, the Panic started two d ...
. It was not until the early 1880s that Ann Arbor again saw robust growth, with new emigrants from Greece, Italy, Russia, and Poland. Ann Arbor saw increased growth in manufacturing, particularly in
milling Milling may refer to: * Milling (grinding), breaking solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting in a mill * Milling (machining), a process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece * Milling (military tra ...
. Ann Arbor's
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is t ...
community also grew after the turn of the 20th century, and its first and oldest synagogue, Beth Israel Congregation, was established in 1916. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor also became a locus for left-wing activism and
anti-Vietnam War movement Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the United States in the Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years. This movement ...
, as well as the student movement. The first major meetings of the national left-wing campus group
Students for a Democratic Society Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a national student activist organization in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United St ...
took place in Ann Arbor in 1960; in 1965, the city was home to the first U.S.
teach-in A teach-in is similar to a general educational forum on any complicated issue, usually an issue involving current political affairs. The main difference between a teach-in and a seminar A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an a ...
against the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars and the Cold War , image = VNWarMontage.png , image_size = 300px , caption = Clockwise, from top left: U.S. ...
. During the ensuing 15 years, many
countercultural A counterculture is a culture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, sometimes diametrically opposed to mainstream cultural mores.Eric Donald Hirsch. ''The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy''. Houg ...
and
New Left The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nation A nation is a community of people fo ...
enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city. These influences washed into municipal politics during the early and mid-1970s when three members of the Human Rights Party (HRP) won city council seats on the strength of the student vote. During their time on the council, HRP representatives fought for measures including pioneering antidiscrimination ordinances, measures decriminalizing marijuana possession, and a rent-control ordinance; many of these progressive organizations remain in effect today in modified form. Two religious-conservative institutions were created in Ann Arbor; the Word of God (established in 1967), a
charismatic Charisma () is compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others. Scholars in sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that s ...
inter-denominational movement; and the
Thomas More Law Center Image:Thomas More Law Center Domino Farms Ann Arbor Township Michigan.JPG, Thomas More Law Center offices lobby, Domino Farms The Thomas More Law Center is a Christian, conservative, nonprofit, public interest law firm based in Ann Arbor, Michiga ...
(established in 1999). Following a 1956 vote, the city of East Ann Arbor merged with Ann Arbor to encompass the eastern sections of the city. In the past several decades, Ann Arbor has grappled with the effects of sharply rising land values,
gentrification Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases th ...

gentrification
, and
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning. In addition to d ...
stretching into outlying countryside. On November 4, 2003, voters approved a
greenbelt A green belt is a policy and land use zone designation used in land use planning Land-use planning is the process of regulating the use of land by a central authority. Usually, this is done in an effort to promote more desirable social and envi ...

greenbelt
plan under which the city government bought development rights on agricultural parcels of land adjacent to Ann Arbor to preserve them from sprawling development. Since then, a vociferous local debate has hinged on how and whether to accommodate and guide development within city limits. Ann Arbor consistently ranks in the "top places to live" lists published by various mainstream media outlets every year. In 2008, it was ranked by CNNMoney.com 27th out of 100 "America's best small cities". And in 2010, ''
Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family (publishers), Forbes family. Published eight times a year, it features articles on finance, industry, investing, and marketing to ...

Forbes
'' listed Ann Arbor as one of the most liveable cities in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
.


Geography and cityscape

According to the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, f ...
, the city has a total area of , of which, of it is land and is water, much of which is part of the Huron River. Ann Arbor is road miles west of . Ann Arbor is also road miles west of
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town Tha ...
. Ann Arbor Charter Township adjoins the city's north and east sides. Ann Arbor is situated on the Huron River in a productive agricultural and fruit-growing region. The landscape of Ann Arbor consists of hills and valleys, with the terrain becoming steeper near the Huron River. The elevation ranges from about along the Huron River to on the city's west side, near the intersection of Maple Road and Pauline Blvd. Generally, the west-central and northwestern parts of the city and U-M's North Campus are the highest parts of the city; the lowest parts are along the Huron River and in the southeast.
Ann Arbor Municipal Airport Ann Arbor Municipal Airport is a general aviation airport in Washtenaw County, Michigan, Washtenaw County, Michigan, United States. It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017 t ...
, which is south of the city at , has an elevation of . Ann Arbor's "Tree Town" nickname stems from the dense forestation of its parks and residential areas. The city contains more than 50,000 trees along its streets and an equal number in parks. In recent years, the
emerald ash borer The emerald ash borer (''Agrilus planipennis''), also known by the acronym EAB, is a green buprestid or jewel beetle native to north-eastern Asia that feeds on ash trees, ash species. Females lay eggs in bark crevices on ash trees, and larvae fee ...
has destroyed many of the city's approximately 10,500
ash tree ''Fraxinus'' , English name ash, is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The t ...
s. The city contains 157 municipal parks ranging from small neighborhood green spots to large recreation areas. Several large city parks and a university park border sections of the Huron River. Fuller Recreation Area, near the
University Hospital A university hospital is an institution which combines the services of a hospital A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of ho ...
complex, contains sports fields, pedestrian and
bike path A bike path is a bikeway Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure permissible for use by cyclists, including the network of roads and streets used by Motor vehicle, motorists, except where cyclists are excluded (e.g., many Controll ...
s, and swimming pools. The Nichols Arboretum, owned by the
University of Michigan , mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. ...

University of Michigan
, is a
arboretum An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees. More commonly a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for s ...

arboretum
that contains hundreds of plant and tree species. It is on the city's east side, near the university's Central Campus. Located across the Huron River just beyond the university's North Campus is the university's Matthaei Botanical Gardens, which contains 300 acres of gardens and a large tropical conservatory as well as a wildflower garden specializing in the vegetation of the southern Great Lakes Region.. The Kerrytown Shops, Main Street Business District, the State Street Business District, and the South University Business District are commercial areas in downtown Ann Arbor. Three commercial areas south of downtown include the areas near I-94 and Ann Arbor-Saline Road,
Briarwood Mall Briarwood Mall is a shopping mall in Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Soci ...
, and the South Industrial area. Other commercial areas include the Arborland/Washtenaw Avenue and Packard Road merchants on the east side, the Plymouth Road area in the northeast, and the Westgate/West Stadium areas on the west side. Downtown contains a mix of 19th- and early-20th-century structures and modern-style buildings, as well as a farmers' market in the Kerrytown district. The city's commercial districts are composed mostly of two- to four-story structures, although downtown and the area near Briarwood Mall contain a small number of high-rise buildings. Ann Arbor's residential neighborhoods contain architectural styles ranging from classic 19th- and early 20th-century designs to
ranch-style house File:RamblerHouse.JPG, Smaller ranch-style house in West Jordan, Utah, with brick exterior and side drop gable roof Ranch (also known as American ranch, California ranch, rambler, or rancher) is a domestic architectural style that originated in the ...
s. Among these homes are a number of kit houses built in the early 20th century. Contemporary-style houses are farther from the downtown district. Surrounding the University of Michigan campus are houses and apartment complexes occupied primarily by student renters. , a 26-story condominium building located between the University of Michigan campus and downtown, is the tallest building in Ann Arbor. The 19th-century buildings and streetscape of the Old West Side neighborhood have been preserved virtually intact; in 1972, the district was listed on the
National Register of Historic Places The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official United States National Register of Historic Places listings, list of Historic districts in the United States, districts, sites, buildings, struc ...
, and it is further protected by city ordinances and a nonprofit preservation group.


Climate

Ann Arbor has a typically
Midwestern The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of ...
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold ( ...
( Köppen ''Dfa''), which is influenced by the
Great Lakes upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a ...

Great Lakes
. There are four distinct seasons: winters are cold and snowy, with average highs around . Summers are warm to hot and humid, with average highs around and with slightly more precipitation. Spring and autumn are transitional between the two. The area experiences lake effect weather, primarily in the form of increased cloudiness during late fall and early winter. The monthly daily average temperature in July is , while the same figure for January is . Temperatures reach or exceed on 10 days, and drop to or below on 4.6 nights. Precipitation tends to be the heaviest during the summer months, but most frequent during winter. Snowfall, which normally occurs from November to April but occasionally starts in October, averages per season. The lowest recorded temperature was on February 11, 1885 and the highest recorded temperature was on July 24, 1934.


Demographics

As of the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 113,934 people, 20,502 families, and 47,060 households residing in the city. The population density was 4,093.9 people per square mile (1,580.7/km), making it less densely populated than Detroit proper and its inner-ring suburbs like Oak Park and Ferndale, but more densely populated than outer-ring suburbs like
Livonia Livonia ( liv, Līvõmō, et, Liivimaa, fi, Liivinmaa, German and North Germanic languages, Scandinavian languages: ', archaic German: ''Liefland'', nl, Lijfland, Latvian language, Latvian and lt, Livonija, pl, Inflanty, archaic English: ...
and
Troy Troy ( grc, Τροία, ''Troía'', , ''Ī́lion'' or , ''Ī́lios''; la, Troia, also ;''Troia'' is the typical Latin name for the city. ''Īlium'' is a more poetic term: Hittite language, Hittite: 𒌷𒃾𒇻𒊭 ''Wilusa'' or 𒋫𒊒𒄿 ...
. The racial makeup of the city was 73.0%
White White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue). It is the color of snow, chalk, and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully diffuse reflection, reflect and scattering, scatter all the visible spectrum, visible wa ...
(70.4% non-Hispanic White), 7.7%
Black or African American Black is a color which results from the absence or complete Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorption of visible spectrum, visible light. It is an achromatic color, without hue, like white and gray. It is often used symbolically or fig ...
, 0.3%
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, 14.4%
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
, 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 1.0% from
other races Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
, and 3.6% from two or more races.
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...
or
Latino Latino or Latinos most often refers to: * Latino (demonym), a term used in the United States for people with cultural ties to Latin America * Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States * The people or cultures of Latin America; ** Latin Am ...
residents of any race made up 4.1% of the population. Ann Arbor has a small population of
Arab Americans Arab Americans ( ar, عَرَبٌ أَمْرِيكِا or ) are American citizens of Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronuncia ...
, including students as well as local
Lebanese Lebanese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Lebanon * Lebanese people, people from Lebanon or of Lebanese descent * Lebanese Arabic, the colloquial form of Arabic spoken in Lebanon * Lebanese culture * Lebanese cuisine See also

and
Palestinians The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, links=no, ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn''; he, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian A ...
. In 2013, Ann Arbor had the second-largest community of
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...
citizens in the state of Michigan, at 1,541; this figure trailed only that of Novi, which had 2,666 Japanese nationals.Stone, Cal.
State's Japanese employees increasing
"
Archive
''Observer & Eccentric''.
Gannett Company Gannett Co., Inc. () is an American mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media (communication), media technology, technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communicat ...
. April 11, 2013. Retrieved on May 5, 2013.
In 2010, out of 47,060 households, 43.6% were family households, 20.1% had individuals under the age of 18 living in them, and 17.0% had individuals over age 65 living in them. Of the 20,502 family households, 19.2% included children under age 18, 34.2% were husband-wife families (estimates did not include same-sex married couples), and 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present. The average household size was 2.17 people, and the average family size was 2.85 people. The median age was 27.8; 14.4% of the population was under age 18, and 9.3% was age 65 or older. According to the 2012–2016
American Community Survey The American Community Survey (ACS) is a demographics survey program conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, such as ancestry, citizenship, educati ...
estimates, the median household income was $57,697, and the median family income was $95,528. Males over age 25 and with earnings had a median income of $51,682, versus $39,203 for females. The per capita income for the city was $37,158. Nearly a quarter (23.4%) of people and 6.7% of families had incomes below the poverty level.


Economy

The University of Michigan shapes Ann Arbor's economy significantly. It employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. Other employers are drawn to the area by the university's research and development money, and by its graduates.
High tech High technology (high tech), also known as frontier technology (frontier tech), is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum ...
, health services and
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...

biotechnology
are other major components of the city's economy; numerous medical offices, laboratories, and associated companies are located in the city.
Automobile manufacturers The automotive industry comprises a wide range of company, companies and organizations involved in the design, Business development, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest industry (e ...
, such as
General Motors General Motors Company (GM) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, United States. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 ...
and
Visteon upright=1.35, Visteon offices, facing Grace Lake, Van Buren Township Visteon Corporation (VC) is an American global automotive electronics Automotive electronics are electronic systems used in vehicles, including engine An engine or motor is ...

Visteon
, also employ residents. High tech companies have located in the area since the 1930s, when
International Radio Corporation The International Radio Corporation (IRC) was an American receiver (radio), radio receiver manufacturing company based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was established in 1931 by Charles Albert Verschoor with financial backing from Ann Arbor mayor Willia ...
introduced the first mass-produced AC/DC radio (the Kadette, in 1931) as well as the first pocket radio (the Kadette Jr., in 1933). The Argus camera company, originally a subsidiary of International Radio, manufactured cameras in Ann Arbor from 1936 to the 1960s. Current firms include
Arbor Networks Arbor Networks is a software company founded in 2000"Arbor Netwo ...
(provider of Internet traffic engineering and security systems),
Arbortext Arbortext Advanced Print Publisher (APP, formerly Advent 3B2) is a commercial typesetting software application sold by Parametric Technology Corporation. The software contains an automated publishing engine that can manually or automatically produc ...
(provider of XML-based publishing software),
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City. Originally containing digitized Digitization
(the digital scholarly journal archive), MediaSpan (provider of software and online services for the media industries),
Truven Health Analytics Truven Health Analytics is an IBM Watson Health Company that provides healthcare data and analytics services. It provides information, analytic tools, benchmarks, research, and services to the healthcare industry, including hospitals, government ...
, and ProQuest, which includes University Microfilms International, UMI. Ann Arbor Terminals manufactured a video-display terminal called the Ann Arbor Ambassador during the 1980s. Barracuda Networks, which provides networking, security, and storage products based on network appliances and cloud services, opened an engineering office in Ann Arbor in 2008 on Depot St. and currently occupies the building previously used as the Borders Books, Borders headquarters on Maynard Street.Duo Security, a cloud-based access security provider protecting thousands of organizations worldwide through two-factor authentication, is headquartered in Ann Arbor. It was formally a Unicorn (finance), unicorn and continues to be headquartered in Ann Arbor after its acquisition by Cisco Systems. Websites and online media companies in or near the city include All Media Guide, the Weather Underground (weather service), Weather Underground, and Zattoo. Ann Arbor is the home to Internet2 and the Merit Network, a not-for-profit research and education computer network. Both are located in the South State Commons 2 building on South State Street, which once housed the Michigan Information Technology Center Foundation. The city is also home to a secondary office of Google's AdWords program—the company's primary revenue stream. The recent surge in companies operating in Ann Arbor has led to a decrease in its office and flex space vacancy rates. As of December 31, 2012, the total market vacancy rate for office and flex space is 11.80%, a 1.40% decrease in vacancy from one year previous, and the lowest overall vacancy level since 2003. The office vacancy rate decreased to 10.65% in 2012 from 12.08% in 2011, while the flex vacancy rate decreased slightly more, with a drop from 16.50% to 15.02%. Pfizer, once the city's second largest employer, operated a large pharmaceutical research facility on the northeast side of Ann Arbor. On January 22, 2007, Pfizer announced it would close operations in Ann Arbor by the end of 2008. The facility was previously operated by Warner-Lambert and, before that, Parke-Davis. In December 2008, the University of Michigan Board of Regents approved the purchase of the facilities, and the university anticipates hiring 2,000 researchers and staff during the next 10 years. It is now known as North Campus Research Complex. The city is the home of other research and engineering centers, including those of Lotus Cars, Lotus Engineering, General Dynamics and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Other research centers sited in the city are the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory and the Toyota, Toyota Technical Center. The city is also home to National Sanitation Foundation International (NSF International), the nonprofit non-governmental organization that develops generally accepted standards for a variety of public health related industries and subject areas. Borders Books, started in Ann Arbor, was opened by brothers Tom and Louis Borders in 1971 with a stock of used books. The Borders chain was based in the city, as was its flagship store until it closed in September 2011. Domino's Pizza's headquarters is near Ann Arbor on Domino's Farms, a Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired complex just northeast of the city. Another Ann Arbor-based company is Zingerman's, Zingerman's Delicatessen, which serves sandwiches and has developed businesses under a variety of brand names. Zingerman's has grown into a family of companies which offers a variety of products (bake shop, mail order, creamery, coffee) and services (business education). Flint Ink Corp., another Ann Arbor-based company, was the world's largest privately held ink manufacturer until it was acquired by Stuttgart-based XSYS Print Solutions in October 2005. Avfuel, a global supplier of aviation fuels and services, is also headquartered in Ann Arbor. Aastrom Biosciences, a publicly traded company that develops stem cell treatments for cardiovascular diseases, is also headquartered in Ann Arbor. Many cooperative enterprises were founded in the city; among those that remain are the People's Food Co-op and the Inter-Cooperative Council at the University of Michigan, a student housing cooperative founded in 1937. There are also three cohousing communities—Sunward Cohousing, Sunward, Great Oak, and Touchstone—located immediately to the west of the city limits.


Culture

Several performing arts groups and facilities are on the University of Michigan's campus, as are Museums at the University of Michigan, museums dedicated to art, archaeology, and natural history and sciences. Founded in 1879, the University Musical Society is an independent performing arts organization that presents over 60 events each year, bringing international artists in music, dance, and theater. Since 2001 Shakespeare in the Arb has presented one play by Shakespeare each June, in a large park near downtown. Regional and local performing arts groups not associated with the university include the Ann Arbor Civic Theatre, the Arbor Opera Theater, the Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra, the Ann Arbor Ballet Theater, the Ann Arbor Civic Ballet (established in 1954 as Michigan's first chartered ballet company), The Ark (folk venue), The Ark, and Performance Network Theatre. Another unique piece of artistic expression in Ann Arbor is the Fairy Doors of Ann Arbor, MI, fairy doors. These small portals are examples of installation art and can be found throughout the downtown area. The Ann Arbor Hands-On Museum is located in a renovated and expanded historic downtown fire station. Multiple art galleries exist in the city, notably in the downtown area and around the University of Michigan campus. Aside from a large restaurant scene in the Main Street, South State Street, and South University Avenue areas, Ann Arbor ranks first among U.S. cities in the number of booksellers and books sold per capita. The Ann Arbor District Library maintains four branch outlets in addition to its main downtown building. The city is also home to the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. Several annual events—many of them centered on performing and visual arts—draw visitors to Ann Arbor. One such event is the Ann Arbor Art Fairs, a set of four concurrent juried fairs held on downtown streets. Scheduled on Thursday through Sunday of the third week of July, the fairs draw upward of half a million visitors. Another is the Ann Arbor Film Festival, held during the third week of March, which receives more than 2,500 submissions annually from more than 40 countries and serves as one of a handful of Academy Award–qualifying festivals in the United States. Ann Arbor has a long history of openness to marijuana, given Ann Arbor's decriminalization of cannabis (drug), cannabis, the large number of medical marijuana dispensaries in the city (one dispensary, called People's Co-op, was directly across the street from Michigan Stadium until zoning forced it to move one mile to the west), the large number of pro-marijuana residents, and the annual Hash Bash: an event that is held on the first Saturday of April. Until (at least) the successful passage of Michigan's medical marijuana law, the event had arguably strayed from its initial intent, although for years, a number of attendees have received serious legal responses due to marijuana use on University of Michigan property, which does not fall under the city's progressive and compassionate ticketing program. Ann Arbor is a major center for college sports, most notably at the University of Michigan, a member of the Big Ten Conference. Several well-known college sports facilities exist in the city, including Michigan Stadium, the largest American football stadium in the world and the List of stadiums by capacity, third-largest stadium of any kind in the world. Michigan Stadium has a capacity of 107,601, with the final "extra" seat said to be reserved for and in honor of former athletic director and Hall of Fame football coach Fritz Crisler, Fitz Crisler. The stadium was completed in 1927 and cost more than $950,000 to build. The stadium is colloquially known as "The Big House" due to its status as the largest American football stadium. Crisler Center and Yost Ice Arena play host to the school's basketball (both Michigan Wolverines men's basketball, men's and Michigan Wolverines women's basketball, women's) and Michigan Wolverines men's ice hockey, ice hockey teams, respectively. Concordia University, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Concordia University, a member of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, NAIA, also fields sports teams. Ann Arbor is represented in the National Premier Soccer League, NPSL by semi-pro soccer team AFC Ann Arbor, a club founded in 2014 who call themselves The Mighty Oak. A person from Ann Arbor is called an "Ann Arborite", and many long-time residents call themselves "townies". The city itself is often called "A²" ("A-squared") or "A2" ("A two") or "AA", "The Deuce" (mainly by Chicagoans), and "Tree Town". With tongue-in-cheek reference to the city's liberal political leanings, some occasionally refer to Ann Arbor as "The People's Republic of Ann Arbor" or "25 square miles surrounded by reality", the latter phrase being adapted from Wisconsin Governor Lee Dreyfus's description of Madison, Wisconsin. In ''A Prairie Home Companion'' broadcast from Ann Arbor, Garrison Keillor described Ann Arbor as "a city where people discuss socialism, but only in the fanciest restaurants." Ann Arbor sometimes appears on citation indexes as an author, instead of a location, often with the academic degree ''MI'', a misunderstanding of the abbreviation for Michigan. Ann Arbor is also the city that rock band Tally Hall (band), Tally Hall is based in.


Law and government

Ann Arbor has a Council–manager government, council-manager form of government. The City Council has 11 voting members: the mayor and 10 city council members. Two city council members are elected from each of the city's five wards. The mayor and council serve four-year terms. The mayor and one council member from each ward are elected in Presidential election years, and the other five council members are elected in the alternate even-numbered years. The mayor is elected citywide. The mayor is the presiding officer of the City Council and has the power to appoint all Council committee members as well as board and commission members, with the approval of the City Council. The current mayor of Ann Arbor is Christopher Taylor (politician), Christopher Taylor, a Democratic Party (United States), Democrat who was elected as mayor in 2014. Day-to-day city operations are managed by a City manager, city administrator chosen by the city council. Ann Arbor holds mayoral elections to 2-year terms in even years. Until 2017, City Council held annual elections in which half of the seats (one from each ward) were elected to 2-year terms. These elections were staggered, with each ward having one of their seats up for election in odd years and their other seat up for election in even years. Beginning in 2018 the City Council has had staggered elections to 4-year terms in even years. This means that half of the members (one from each ward) are elected in presidential election years, while the other half are elected in mid-term election years. To facilitate this change in scheduling, the 2017 election elected members to terms that lasted 3-years. In 1960, Ann Arbor voters approved a $2.3 million Bond (finance), bond issue to build the current city hall, which was designed by architect Alden B. Dow. The City Hall opened in 1963. In 1995, the building was renamed the Guy C. Larcom, Jr. Municipal Building in honor of the longtime city administrator who championed the building's construction. Ann Arbor is part of Michigan's 12th congressional district, represented in United States Congress, Congress by United States House of Representatives, Representative Debbie Dingell, a Democrat. On the state level, the city is part of the 18th district in the Michigan Senate, represented by Democrat Rebekah Warren. In the Michigan House of Representatives, representation is split between the 55th district (northern Ann Arbor, part of Ann Arbor Township, and other surrounding areas, represented by Democrat Adam Zemke), the 53rd district (most of downtown and the southern half of the city, represented by Democrat Yousef Rabhi) and the 52nd district (southwestern areas outside Ann Arbor proper and western Washtenaw County, represented by Democrat Donna Lasinski). As the
county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Hungary and the United States. County towns have a similar fu ...
of Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw County Trial Court (22nd Circuit Court) is located in Ann Arbor at the Washtenaw County Courthouse on Main Street. This court has countywide general jurisdiction and has two divisions: the Civil/Criminal (Criminal law, criminal and Civil law (common law), civil matters) and the Family Division (which includes Juvenile Court, Guardian ad litem, Friend of the Court, and Probate Court sections). Seven judges serve on the court. Ann Arbor also has a local state district court (15th District Court), which serves only the City of Ann Arbor. In Michigan, the state district courts are limited jurisdiction courts which handle traffic violations, civil cases with claims under $25,000, Landlord–tenant law, landlord-tenant matters, and misdemeanor crimes. The Ann Arbor Federal Building (attached to a post office) on Liberty Street serves as one of the courthouses for the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan and United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.


Politics

Progressive politics have been particularly strong in municipal government since the 1960s. Voters approved charter amendments that have Cannabis laws in Ann Arbor, Michigan, lessened the penalties for possession of marijuana (1974), and that aim to protect access to abortion in the city should it ever become illegal in the State of Michigan (1990). In 1974, Kathy Kozachenko's victory in an Ann Arbor city-council race made her the country's first openly homosexual candidate to win public office. In 1975, Ann Arbor became the first U.S. city to use instant-runoff voting for a mayoral race. Adopted through a ballot initiative sponsored by the local Human Rights Party, which feared a splintering of the liberal vote, the process was repealed in 1976 after use in only one election. As of May 2016, Democratic Party (United States), Democrats hold the mayorship and nine out of the ten council seats.


Crime

In 2015, Ann Arbor was ranked 11th safest among cities in Michigan with a population of over 50,000. It ranked safer than cities such as Royal Oak, Livonia, Canton and Clinton Township. The level of most crimes in Ann Arbor has fallen significantly in the past 20 years. In 1995 there were 294 aggravated assaults, 132 robberies and 43 rapes while in 2015 there were 128 aggravated assaults, 42 robberies and 58 rapes (under the revised definition). Ann Arbor's crime rate was below the national average in 2000. The violent crime rate was further below the national average than the property crime rate; the two rates were 48% and 11% lower than the U.S. average, respectively.


Education


Primary and secondary education

State school, Public schools are part of the Ann Arbor Public Schools (AAPS) district. AAPS has one of the country's leading music programs. In September 2008, 16,539 students had been enrolled in the Ann Arbor Public Schools. Notable schools include Pioneer High School (Ann Arbor, Michigan), Pioneer, Huron High School (Ann Arbor, Michigan), Huron, Skyline High School (Ann Arbor, Michigan), Skyline, and Community High School (Ann Arbor, Michigan), Community high schools, and Ann Arbor Open School. The district has a preschool center with both free and tuition-based programs for preschoolers in the district. The University High School, a "demonstration school" with teachers drawn from the University of Michigan's education program, was part of the school system from 1924 to 1968. Ann Arbor is home to several private schools, including the Father Gabriel Richard High School (Ann Arbor, Michigan), Father Gabriel Richard High School, Rudolf Steiner School of Ann Arbor, Clonlara School, Michigan Islamic Academy, and Greenhills School, a prep school. The city is also home to several charter schools in the United States, charter schools such as Central Academy (Michigan) (PreK-12) of the Global Educational Excellence (GEE) charter school company, and Honey Creek Community School.


Higher education

The
University of Michigan , mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. ...

University of Michigan
dominates the city of Ann Arbor, providing the city with its distinctive college town, college-town character. University buildings are located in the center of the city and the campus is directly adjacent to the State Street and South University downtown areas. Other local colleges and universities include Concordia University Ann Arbor, a Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, Lutheran liberal-arts institution; a campus of the University of Phoenix; and Cleary University, a private business school. Washtenaw Community College is located in neighboring Ann Arbor Township. In 2000, the Ave Maria School of Law, a Roman Catholic law school established by Domino's Pizza founder Tom Monaghan, opened in northeastern Ann Arbor, but the school moved to Ave Maria, Florida in 2009, and the Thomas M. Cooley Law School acquired the former Ave Maria buildings for use as a branch campus.


Media

''The Ann Arbor News'', owned by the Michigan-based Booth Newspapers chain, was the major newspaper serving Ann Arbor and the rest of Washtenaw County. The newspaper ended its 174-year daily print run in 2009, due to economic difficulties and began producing two printed editions a week under the name AnnArbor.com, It resumed using its former name in 2013. It also produces a daily digital edition named Mlive.com. Another Ann Arbor-based publication that has ceased production was the ''Ann Arbor Paper'', a free monthly. Ann Arbor has been said to be the first significant city to lose its only daily paper. The ''Ann Arbor Chronicle'', an online newspaper, covered local news, including meetings of the library board, county commission, and DDA until September 3, 2014. Current publications in the city include the ''Ann Arbor Journal'' (''A2 Journal''), a weekly community newspaper; the ''Ann Arbor Observer'', a free monthly local magazine; and ''Current'', a free entertainment-focused Alternative newspaper, alt-weekly. The ''Ann Arbor Business Review'' covers local business in the area. ''Car and Driver'' magazine and ''Automobile Magazine'' are also based in Ann Arbor. The University of Michigan is served by many student publications, including the independent ''Michigan Daily'' student newspaper, which reports on local, state, and regional issues in addition to campus news. Four major amplitude modulation, AM radio stations based in or near Ann Arbor are WAAM 1600, a conservative news and talk station; WLBY 1290, a business news and talk station; WDEO (AM), WDEO 990, Catholic radio; and WTKA 1050, which is primarily a sports station. The city's frequency modulation, FM stations include National Public Radio, NPR affiliate WUOM 91.7; country station WWWW-FM, WWWW 102.9; and adult-alternative station WQKL 107.1. Freeform station WCBN-FM 88.3 is a local community radio/college radio station operated by the students of the University of Michigan featuring noncommercial, eclectic music and public-affairs programming. The city is also served by public and commercial radio broadcasters in Ypsilanti, the Lansing/Jackson area, Detroit, Windsor, and Toledo. Ann Arbor is part of the Detroit television market. WPXD channel 31, the owned-and-operated Detroit outlet of the ION Television, ION Television network, is licensed to the city. Until its sign-off on August 31, 2017, WHTV channel 18, a MyNetworkTV-affiliated station for the
Lansing Lansing () is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is mostly in Ingham County, Michigan, Ingham County, although portions of the city extend west into Eaton County, Michigan, Eaton County and north into Clinton County, Michigan, Clinton ...
market, was broadcast from a transmitter in Lyndon Township, Michigan, Lyndon Township, west of Ann Arbor. Community Television Network (CTN) is a city-provided cable television channel with production facilities open to city residents and nonprofit organizations. Detroit and Toledo-area radio and television stations also serve Ann Arbor, and stations from Lansing and Windsor, Ontario, can be seen in parts of the area.


Health, environment, and utilities

The University of Michigan Health System, University of Michigan Medical Center, the only teaching hospital in the city, took the number 1 slot in ''U.S. News & World Report'' for best hospital in the state of
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
, as of 2015. The University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) includes University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital and Women's Hospital in its core complex. UMHS also operates out-patient clinics and facilities throughout the city. The area's other major medical centers include a large facility operated by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Veterans Affairs in Ann Arbor, and Saint Joseph Mercy Hospital in nearby Superior Township, Washtenaw County, Michigan, Superior Township. The city provides sewage disposal and water supply services, with water coming from the Huron River and groundwater sources. There are two water purification, water-treatment plants, one main and three outlying reservoirs, four pumping station, pump stations, and two water towers. These facilities serve the city, which is divided into five water districts. The city's water department also operates four dams along the Huron River—Argo Dam, Argo, Barton Dam, Barton, Geddes Dam, Geddes, and Superior Dam, Superior—of which Barton and Superior provide hydroelectric power. The city also offers waste management services, with Ecology Center (Ann Arbor), Recycle Ann Arbor handling recycling service. Other utilities are provided by private entities. Electric power, Electrical power and Natural gas, gas are provided by DTE Energy. AT&T Inc. is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Cable television, Cable TV service is primarily provided by Comcast. A plume of the industrial solvent 1,4-Dioxane, dioxane is migrating under the city from the contaminated Gelman Sciences, Inc. property on the westside of Ann Arbor. It's currently detected at 0.039 ppb. The Gelman plume is a potential threat to one of the City of Ann Arbor's drinking water sources, the Huron River, which flows through downtown Ann Arbor.


Transportation


Surface roads and paths

The streets in downtown Ann Arbor conform to a grid pattern, though this pattern is less common in the surrounding areas. Major roads branch out from the downtown district like spokes on a wheel to the highways surrounding the city. The city is belted by three freeways: Interstate 94 in Michigan, I-94, which runs along the southern and western portion of the city; U.S. Route 23 in Michigan, U.S. Highway 23 (US 23), which primarily runs along the eastern edge of Ann Arbor; and M-14 (Michigan highway), M-14, which runs along the northern edge of the city. Other nearby highways include U.S. Route 12 in Michigan, US 12 (Michigan Ave.), M-17 (Michigan highway), M-17 (Washtenaw Ave.), and M-153 (Michigan highway), M-153 (Ford Rd.). Several of the major surface arteries lead to the I-94/M-14 interchange in the west, US 23 in the east, and the city's southern areas. The city also has a system of bike routes and bike path, paths and includes the nearly complete Washtenaw County Border-to-Border Trail.


Bus service

The Ann Arbor Area Transportation Authority (AAATA), which brands itself as "TheRide", operates public bus services throughout the city and nearby Ypsilanti, Michigan, Ypsilanti. The AATA operates Blake Transit Center on Fourth Ave. in downtown Ann Arbor, and the Ypsilanti Transit Center. A separate zero-fare bus service operates within and between the University of Michigan campuses. Since April 2012, route 98 (the "AirRide") connects to Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, Detroit Metro Airport a dozen times a day. There are also limited-stop bus services between Ann Arbor and Chelsea, Michigan, Chelsea as well as Canton, Michigan, Canton. These two routes, 91 and 92 respectively, are known as the "ExpressRide". Greyhound Lines provides intercity bus service. The Michigan Flyer, a service operated by Indian Trails, cooperates with AAATA for their AirRide and additionally offers bus service to East Lansing. Megabus (North America), Megabus has direct service to Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, while a bus service is provided by Amtrak for rail passengers making connections to services in East Lansing, Michigan, East Lansing and Toledo, Ohio.


Airports

Ann Arbor Municipal Airport Ann Arbor Municipal Airport is a general aviation airport in Washtenaw County, Michigan, Washtenaw County, Michigan, United States. It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017 t ...
is a small, city-run general aviation airport located south of I-94. Detroit Metropolitan Airport, the area's large international airport, is about east of the city, in Romulus, Michigan, Romulus. Willow Run Airport east of the city near Ypsilanti, Michigan, Ypsilanti serves freight, corporate, and general aviation clients.


Railroads

The city was a major rail hub, notably for freight traffic between
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
and ports north of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, from 1878 to 1982; however, the Ann Arbor Railroad (1895–1976), Ann Arbor Railroad also provided passenger service from 1878 to 1950, going northwest to Frankfort, Michigan, Frankfort and Elberta, Michigan, Elberta on Lake Michigan and southeast to
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
. (In Elberta connections to ferries across the Lake could be made.) The city was served by the
Michigan Central Railroad The Michigan Central Railroad (reporting mark MC) was originally incorporated in 1846 to establish rail service between Detroit, Michigan, and St. Joseph, Michigan. The railroad later operated in the states of Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois in th ...
starting in 1837. The Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti Street Railway, Michigan's first interurban, served the city from 1891 to 1929. Amtrak, which provides service to the city at the Ann Arbor (Amtrak station), Ann Arbor Train Station, operates the ''Wolverine (passenger train), Wolverine'' train between Chicago and Pontiac, Michigan, Pontiac, via Detroit. The present-day train station neighbors the city's old Michigan Central Depot, which was renovated as a restaurant in 1970.


Sister cities

Ann Arbor has seven Twin towns and sister cities, sister cities: * Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (since 1965) * Belize City, Belize (since 1967) * Hikone, Shiga, Japan (since 1969) The schools in Ann Arbor and Hikone have regular exchanges.Hans, Casey.
Hikone delegation comes to Ann Arbor for 32nd cultural exchange
" Ann Arbor Public Schools. Date unstated.
* Peterborough, Ontario, Canada (since 1983) * Juigalpa, Chontales, Nicaragua (since 1986) * Dakar, Senegal (since 1997) * Remedios, Cuba (since 2003)


See also

* Ann Arbor staging * Ardis Publishing * List of people from Ann Arbor * Metro Detroit


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * *


External links


City's official website

Ann Arbor Area Convention and Visitor's BureauCollection: "Ann Arbor and the University of Michigan"
from the University of Michigan Museum of Art {{Authority control Ann Arbor, Michigan, Populated places established in 1824 Academic enclaves County seats in Michigan Cities in Washtenaw County, Michigan Metro Detroit 1824 establishments in Michigan Territory University towns in the United States Geographical articles missing image alternative text