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The Anglosphere is a group of English-speaking nations that share common cultural and historical ties to the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, and which today maintain close political, diplomatic and military co-operation. While the nations included in different sources vary, the Anglosphere is usually not considered to include all countries where English is an official language, so it is not synonymous with anglophone, though the nations that are commonly included were all once part of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. The definition is usually taken to include these
developed countries A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country) is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized governmen ...
:
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
in a grouping called the core Anglosphere. This term can also encompass the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a in north-western consisting of 26 of the 32 of the island of . The capital and largest city is , on the eastern side of the island. Around 40% of the country's popula ...

Republic of Ireland
and the
Commonwealth Caribbean The Commonwealth Caribbean is the region of the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label= Antillean Creole, Kawayib; nl, Caraïben; Papiamento: ) is a region of the Americas that compris ...

Commonwealth Caribbean
countries such as
The Bahamas The Bahamas (), known officially as The Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a sovereign country within the of the in the . It takes up 97% of the Lucayan Archipelago's land area and is home to 88% of the archipelago's population. The consists ...
,
Barbados Barbados is an in the of the , in the region of , and the most easterly of the Caribbean Islands. It is in length and up to in width, covering an area of . It is in the western part of the North Atlantic, east of the and the . Barbad ...

Barbados
, and
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola). Jamaica lies about south of Cuba, and west of Hispanio ...

Jamaica
.


Definitions and variable geometry

The term ''Anglosphere'' was first coined, but not explicitly defined, by the science fiction writer
Neal Stephenson Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer known for his works of speculative fiction. His novels have been categorized as science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in ...

Neal Stephenson
in his book ''
The Diamond Age ''The Diamond Age: Or, A Young Lady's Illustrated Primer'' is a science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination.'' Science fictio ...
'', published in 1995. John Lloyd adopted the term in 2000 and defined it as including English-speaking countries like the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...

South Africa
, and the
British West Indies The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories historically established in the Anglo-Caribbean: Anguilla Anguilla ( ) is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean Th ...
. The
Merriam-Webster Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books A reference work is a work such as a book or periodical literature, periodical (or electronic publishing, its electronic equivalent) to which one can refer for info ...

Merriam-Webster
dictionary defines the Anglosphere as "the countries of the world in which the English language and cultural values predominate".


Core Anglosphere

The five main ("core") countries in the Anglosphere (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States) are all
developed countries A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country) is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized governmen ...
and maintain a close affinity of cultural, diplomatic and military links with one another. All are aligned under such programmes as: * ABCANZ Armies *
Air and Space Interoperability Council The Air Force Interoperability Council or AFIC is an organisation tasked with enhancing military coalition, coalition military aviation amongst the "Five Eyes" countries, which consist of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Unit ...
(air forces) * AUSCANNZUKUS (navies) * Border Five *
Combined Communications Electronics BoardThe Combined Communications-Electronics Board (CCEB) is a five-nation joint military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially au ...
(communications electronics) * Five Country Conference (immigration) *
Five Eyes The Five Eyes (FVEY) is an intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialec ...
(intelligence) *
Five Nations Passport Group The Five Nations Passport Group is an international forum between the passport issuing authorities of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States to share best practices in the issuance, development, and management of pa ...
*
The Technical Cooperation Program The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) is a long-standing international organisation concerned with cooperation on defence science and technology matters, including national security and civil defence. Its membership comprises Australia, Canada, ...
(technology and science) *The
UKUSA Agreement The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA, ) is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is list of intelligence gathering disciplines, intelligence-gathering by ...
(signals intelligence). In terms of political systems, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke of York, Duke and Duchess of York (later Ki ...

Elizabeth II
as
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
, form part of the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territorial evolution of the British Empire, territories of the British Empire. The chief ins ...

Commonwealth of Nations
and use of the Westminster parliamentary system of government. Most of the core countries have
first-past-the-post In a first-past-the-post electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are org ...
electoral systems, though
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...
and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...
have reformed their systems and there are other systems used in some elections in the UK. As a consequence, most core Anglosphere countries have politics dominated by two major parties. Public opinion research has found that people in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand consistently rank each other's countries as their country's most important allies in the world. Relations have traditionally been warm between Anglosphere countries, with bilateral partnerships such as those between
Australia and New Zealand Australasia is a region which comprises Australia, New Zealand, and some neighbouring islands. The term is used in a number of different contexts including geopolitically, physiogeographically, and ecologically where the term covers several sl ...
, the US and Canada and the US and UK constituting among the most successful partnerships in the world. Below is a table comparing the five core countries of the Anglosphere (data are for 2019):


Culture and economics

Due to their historic links, the Anglosphere countries share some cultural traits that still persist today. Most countries in the Anglosphere follow the
rule of law The rule of law is defined in the ''Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language ...

rule of law
through
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or ) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ' is the most-used legal dictionary used among legal profe ...
instead of
civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United ...
, and favour
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polit ...

democracy
with
legislative chamber A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the body of ethics, Procedural law, rules, a ...
s above other political systems. Private property is protected by law or constitution. Market freedom is high in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
, as all five share the Anglo-Saxon economic model – a
capitalist Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for Profit (economics), profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, a price s ...

capitalist
model that emerged in the 1970s based on the
Chicago school of economics The Chicago school of economics is a Neoclassical economics, neoclassical Schools of economic thought, school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularize ...
with origins from the 18th century
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. The shared sense of
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which ha ...

globalization
led cities such as
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
,
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the L.A., is the in . With a 2020 population of 3,898,747, it is the in the , following . Los Angeles is known for its , ethnic and cultural diversity, a ...

Los Angeles
,
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
, and
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
to have considerable impacts on the
financial market A financial market is a market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Ma ...
s and the
global economy Global means of or referring to a globe A globe is a spherical of , of some other , or of the . Globes serve purposes similar to s, but unlike maps, they do not distort the surface that they portray except to scale it down. A model globe of Ear ...

global economy
. Global
popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the cultural practice, practices, beliefs, and cultural objects, objects that are dominant or prevalent in a society at a give ...
has been highly influenced by
Americanization Americanization is the influence American culture and business has on other countries outside the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous U ...
.
Imperial and US customary measurement systems Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...
are often used in Anglosphere countries in addition to or instead of the
International System of Units International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * International (Kevin Michael album), ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * International (New Order album), '' ...
.


Proponents and critics

Proponents of the Anglosphere idea typically come from the
political right Right-wing politics embraces the view that certain social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structures and institution Institutions, according to Samuel ...
(such as Andrew Roberts of the
UK Conservative Party The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
), and critics from the
centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of gramma ...
(for example
Michael Ignatieff Michael Grant Ignatieff (; born May 12, 1947) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) ...

Michael Ignatieff
of the
Liberal Party of Canada The Liberal Party of Canada (french: Parti libéral du Canada, region=CA) is the longest-serving and oldest active federal political party in Canada. The party has dominated federal politics of Canada The politics of Canada function within ...
).


Proponents

The American businessman James C. Bennett, a proponent of the idea that there is something special about the cultural and legal (
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or ) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ' is the most-used legal dictionary used among legal profe ...
) traditions of English-speaking nations, writes in his 2004 book ''The Anglosphere Challenge'': Bennett argues that there are two challenges confronting his concept of the Anglosphere. The first is finding ways to cope with rapid technological advancement and the second is the geopolitical challenges created by what he assumes will be an increasing gap between anglophone prosperity and economic struggles elsewhere. British historian Andrew Roberts claims that the Anglosphere has been central in the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
,
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
and
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
. He goes on to contend that anglophone unity is necessary for the defeat of
Islamism Islamism (also often called political Islam Political Islam is any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and/or groups who advocate the formation of state and society a ...
. According to a 2003 profile in ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'', historian
Robert Conquest George Robert Acworth Conquest (15 July 1917 – 3 August 2015) was a British historian and poet. A long-time research fellow at Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research u ...
favoured a British withdrawal from the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
in favour of creating "a much looser association of English-speaking nations, known as the 'Anglosphere'".


CANZUK

Favourability ratings tend to be overwhelmingly positive between countries within a subset of the Anglosphere known as
CANZUK CANZUK is an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures ...
(consisting of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom), whose members form part of the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territorial evolution of the British Empire, territories of the British Empire. The chief ins ...

Commonwealth of Nations
and retain Elizabeth II as head of state. In the wake of the as a result of a referendum held in 2016, there has been mounting political and popular support for a loose free travel and common market area to be formed between the CANZUK countries. While the in 2016 has had little impact on its favourability ratings with other members of the Anglosphere, there has been a marked drop in the United States favourability ratings with other Anglosphere nations since the election of
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
as the 45th
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of ...

President of the United States
in 2016. In 2017, the United States had negative favourability ratings with the CANZUK countries.


Criticisms

In 2000,
Michael Ignatieff Michael Grant Ignatieff (; born May 12, 1947) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) ...

Michael Ignatieff
wrote in an exchange with
Robert Conquest George Robert Acworth Conquest (15 July 1917 – 3 August 2015) was a British historian and poet. A long-time research fellow at Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research u ...
, published by the ''
New York Review of Books New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
'', that the term neglects the evolution of fundamental legal and cultural differences between the US and the UK, and the ways in which UK and European norms have been drawn closer together during Britain's membership in the EU through regulatory harmonisation. Of Conquest's view of the Anglosphere, Ignatieff writes: "He seems to believe that Britain should either or refuse all further measures of cooperation, which would jeopardize Europe's real achievements. He wants Britain to throw in its lot with a union of English-speaking peoples, and I believe this to be a romantic illusion". In 2016,
Nick Cohen Nicholas Cohen (born 1961) is a British journalist, author and political commentator. He is a columnist for ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sundays. In the same place on the political spectrum A ...
wrote in an article titled "It's a Eurosceptic fantasy that the 'Anglosphere' wants Brexit" for ''
The Spectator ''The Spectator'' is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs. It was first published in July 1828, making it the oldest weekly magazine in the world. It is owned by David and Frederick Barclay, Frederick Barclay, ...
s Coffee House blog: "'Anglosphere' is just the right's PC replacement for what we used to call in blunter times 'the white Commonwealth'." He repeated this criticism in another article for ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'' in 2018. Similar criticism was presented by other critics such as Canadian academic Srđan Vučetić. In 2018, amidst the aftermath of the
Brexit referendum The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, commonly referred to as the EU referendum or the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar ) , anthem = " God Save the Queen" , song ...
, two British professors of public policy Michael Kenny and Nick Pearce published a critical scholarly monograph titled ''Shadows of Empire: The Anglosphere in British Politics'' (). In one of a series of accompanying opinion pieces, they questioned: They stated in another article:


See also

*
British diaspora The British diaspora consists of people of British ancestry (and their descendants) who emigrated from the British Isles The British Isles is a group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean off the north-western coast of continental Europe ...
*
English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
*
Eurosphere The Eurosphere or the European Empire is a concept associated with the public intellectual Mark Leonard, Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimate ...

Eurosphere
; Francosphere (French),
Hispanosphere Hispanophone and Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Hispanidad, Spanish language, Spanish culture, culture, or Spanish people, people. The term commonly applies to coun ...
(Spanish),
Lusosphere File:WIKITONGUES- Freddie speaking Portuguese.webm, A Lusophone speaking Portuguese, recorded in the United States. Lusophones ( pt, Lusófonos) are an ethnolinguistic group of peoples and nations that comprise an estimated 270 million people spre ...
(Portuguese) *
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant In the United States, White Anglo-Saxon Protestants or WASPs are the white White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue). It is the color of snow, chalk, and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully diffuse ...
(WASP) * '' History of the English Speaking Peoples'' (Winston Churchill) *
Five Power Defence Arrangements The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA), also called the Durian Pact, are a series of defence relationships and mutual cooperation established by a series of multi-lateral agreements between Australia Australia, officially the Commonw ...
* JUSCANZ *
List of countries by English-speaking population The following is a list of English-speaking population by country, including information on both native speaker A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a la ...
*
List of countries where English is an official language The following is a list of countries and territories where English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieva ...


Notes


References


Citations


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


James C. Bennett (2002) An Anglosphere Primer
presented to the
Foreign Policy Research Institute The Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI) is an American think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research ...

BBC Radio 4: Archive on 4 (2017-12-16): Return of the Anglosphere
{{English official language clickable map British Empire Commonwealth of Nations Historical regions