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The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical
general-purpose computer A computer is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine is a m ...
designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer
Charles Babbage Charles Babbage (; 26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a subs ...

Charles Babbage
. It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's
difference engine A difference engine is an automatic mechanical calculator A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic automatically. Most mechanical calculators were comparable i ...
, which was a design for a simpler mechanical computer. The Analytical Engine incorporated an
arithmetic logic unit In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...
,
control flow In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of com ...
in the form of
conditional branching In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of co ...
and loops, and integrated
memory Memory is the faculty of the brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exis ...
, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as
Turing-complete In computability theory Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set t ...
. In other words, the logical structure of the Analytical Engine was essentially the same as that which has dominated computer design in the electronic era. The Analytical Engine is one of the most successful achievements of Charles Babbage. Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding. It was not until 1941 that
Konrad Zuse Konrad Zuse (; 22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discipli ...

Konrad Zuse
built the first general-purpose computer, Z3, more than a century after Babbage had proposed the pioneering Analytical Engine in 1837.


Design

Babbage's first attempt at a mechanical computing device, the
Difference Engine A difference engine is an automatic mechanical calculator A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic automatically. Most mechanical calculators were comparable i ...
, was a special-purpose machine designed to tabulate
logarithm In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...

logarithm
s and
trigonometric function In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...

trigonometric function
s by evaluating
finite difference A finite difference is a mathematical expression of the form . If a finite difference is divided by , one gets a difference quotient. The approximation of derivatives by finite differences plays a central role in finite difference methods for the ...
s to create approximating
polynomial In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...

polynomial
s. Construction of this machine was never completed; Babbage had conflicts with his chief engineer,
Joseph Clement Joseph Clement (13 June 1779 – 28 February 1844) was a British engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex systems, ...
, and ultimately the British government withdrew its funding for the project. During this project, Babbage realised that a much more general design, the Analytical Engine, was possible. The work on the design of the Analytical Engine started in c. 1833. The input, consisting of programs ("formulae") and data was to be provided to the machine via
punched card A punched card (also punch cardSteven Pinker, in ''The Stuff of Thought'', Viking, 2007, p.362, notes the loss of ''-ed'' in pronunciation ''as it did in ice cream, mincemeat, and box set, formerly iced cream, minced meat, and boxed set.'' or p ...

punched card
s, a method being used at the time to direct mechanical
loom A loom is a device used to weaving, weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the Warp (weaving), warp threads under tension (mechanics), tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape o ...

loom
s such as the
Jacquard loom The Jacquard machine () is a device fitted to a loom A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension Tension may refer to: Science * Psychological stress * Tensi ...

Jacquard loom
. For output, the machine would have a printer, a curve plotter and a bell. The machine would also be able to punch numbers onto cards to be read in later. It employed ordinary
base-10 The decimal numeral system (also called the base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary or decanary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers. It is the extension to non-integer numbers of the Hi ...
fixed-point arithmetic. There was to be a store (that is, a memory) capable of holding 1,000 numbers of 40 decimal digits each (ca. 16.6 kB). An arithmetic unit (the "mill") would be able to perform all four
arithmetic operations Arithmetic (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is app ...
, plus comparisons and optionally
square root In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities ...

square root
s. Initially (1838) it was conceived as a
difference engine A difference engine is an automatic mechanical calculator A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic automatically. Most mechanical calculators were comparable i ...
curved back upon itself, in a generally circular layout, with the long store exiting off to one side. Later drawings (1858) depict a regularised grid layout. Like the
central processing unit A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just processor, is the electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of individual electroni ...

central processing unit
(CPU) in a modern computer, the mill would rely upon its own internal procedures, to be stored in the form of pegs inserted into rotating drums called "barrels", to carry out some of the more complex instructions the user's program might specify. The programming language to be employed by users was akin to modern day
assembly language In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, gene ...
s. Loops and conditional branching were possible, and so the language as conceived would have been
Turing-complete In computability theory Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set t ...
as later defined by
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numb ...

Alan Turing
. Three different types of punch cards were used: one for arithmetical operations, one for numerical constants, and one for load and store operations, transferring numbers from the store to the arithmetical unit or back. There were three separate readers for the three types of cards. Babbage developed some two dozen programs for the Analytical Engine between 1837 and 1840, and one program later. These programs treat polynomials, iterative formulas,
Gaussian elimination In mathematics, Gaussian elimination, also known as row reduction, is an algorithm In and , an algorithm () is a finite sequence of , computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation. Al ...
, and
Bernoulli numbers In mathematics, the Bernoulli numbers are a sequence of rational numbers which occur frequently in number theory. The Bernoulli numbers appear in (and can be defined by) the Taylor series expansions of the tangent function, tangent and Hyperbo ...
. In 1842, the Italian mathematician
Luigi Federico Menabrea Luigi Federico Menabrea (4 September 1809 – 24 May 1896), later made 1st Count Menabrea and 1st Marquess of Valdora, was an Italian general, statesman and mathematician who served as the seventh prime minister of Italy from 1867 to 1869. Bio ...

Luigi Federico Menabrea
published a description of the engine based on a lecture by Babbage in French. In 1843, the description was translated into English and extensively annotated by
Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (''née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's ...

Ada Lovelace
, who had become interested in the engine eight years earlier. In recognition of her additions to Menabrea's paper, which included a way to calculate
Bernoulli number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...
s using the machine (widely considered to be the first complete computer program), she has been described as the first
computer programmer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or ...
.


Construction

Late in his life, Babbage sought ways to build a simplified version of the machine, and assembled a small part of it before his death in 1871. In 1878, a committee of the
British Association for the Advancement of Science The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being of persons * Charity (practice), ...
described the Analytical Engine as "a marvel of mechanical ingenuity", but recommended against constructing it. The committee acknowledged the usefulness and value of the machine, but could not estimate the cost of building it, and were unsure whether the machine would function correctly after being built. Intermittently from 1880 to 1910, Babbage's son Henry Prevost Babbage was constructing a part of the mill and the printing apparatus. In 1910 it was able to calculate a (faulty) list of multiples of . This constituted only a small part of the whole engine; it was not programmable and had no storage. (Popular images of this section have sometimes been mislabelled, implying that it was the entire mill or even the entire engine.) Henry Babbage's "Analytical Engine Mill" is on display at the Science Museum in London. Henry also proposed building a demonstration version of the full engine, with a smaller storage capacity: "perhaps for a first machine ten (columns) would do, with fifteen wheels in each". Such a version could manipulate 20 numbers of 25 digits each, and what it could be told to do with those numbers could still be impressive. "It is only a question of cards and time", wrote Henry Babbage in 1888, "... and there is no reason why (twenty thousand) cards should not be used if necessary, in an Analytical Engine for the purposes of the mathematician". In 1991, the
London Science Museum The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London. It was founded in 1857 and to date is one of the city's major tourist attractions, attracting 3.3 million visitors annually. Like other publicly funded ...

London Science Museum
built a complete and working specimen of Babbage's Difference Engine No. 2, a design that incorporated refinements Babbage discovered during the development of the Analytical Engine. This machine was built using materials and
engineering tolerance Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in: # a physical dimension; # a measured value or physical property of a material, manufacturing, manufactured object, system, or service; # other measured values (such as tem ...
s that would have been available to Babbage, quelling the suggestion that Babbage's designs could not have been produced using the manufacturing technology of his time. In October 2010,
John Graham-Cumming John Graham-Cumming is a British software engineer and writer best known for starting a successful petition to the Government of the United Kingdom asking for an apology for its persecution of Alan Turing. , he serves as Chief Technology Officer ...
started a "Plan 28" campaign to raise funds by "public subscription" to enable serious historical and academic study of Babbage's plans, with a view to then build and test a fully working virtual design which will then in turn enable construction of the physical Analytical Engine. As of May 2016, actual construction had not been attempted, since no consistent understanding could yet be obtained from Babbage's original design drawings. In particular it was unclear whether it could handle the indexed variables which were required for Lovelace's Bernoulli program. By 2017, the "Plan 28" effort reported that a searchable database of all catalogued material was available, and an initial review of Babbage's voluminous Scribbling Books had been completed.


Instruction set

Babbage is not known to have written down an explicit set of instructions for the engine in the manner of a modern processor manual. Instead he showed his programs as lists of states during their execution, showing what operator was run at each step with little indication of how the control flow would be guided. Allan G. Bromley has assumed that the card deck could be read in forwards and backwards directions as a function of conditional branching after testing for conditions, which would make the engine Turing-complete:
...the cards could be ordered to move forward and reverse (and hence to loop)...
The introduction for the first time, in 1845, of user operations for a variety of service functions including, most importantly, an effective system for user control of looping in user programs. There is no indication how the direction of turning of the operation and variable cards is specified. In the absence of other evidence I have had to adopt the minimal default assumption that both the operation and variable cards can only be turned backward as is necessary to implement the loops used in Babbage's sample programs. There would be no mechanical or microprogramming difficulty in placing the direction of motion under the control of the user.
In their emulator of the engine, Fourmilab say:
The Engine's Card Reader is not constrained to simply process the cards in a chain one after another from start to finish. It can, in addition, directed by the very cards it reads and advised by whether the Mill's run-up lever is activated, either advance the card chain forward, skipping the intervening cards, or backward, causing previously-read cards to be processed once again.
This emulator does provide a written symbolic instruction set, though this has been constructed by its authors rather than based on Babbage's original works. For example, a factorial program would be written as: N0 6 N1 1 N2 1 × L1 L0 S1 – L0 L2 S0 L2 L0 CB?11 where the CB is the conditional branch instruction or "combination card" used to make the control flow jump, in this case backward by 11 cards.


Influence


Predicted influence

Babbage understood that the existence of an automatic computer would kindle interest in the field now known as
algorithmic efficiency In computer science, algorithmic efficiency is a property of an algorithm which relates to the amount of computational resources used by the algorithm. An algorithm must be analysis of algorithms, analyzed to determine its resource usage, and the ...
, writing in his ''Passages from the Life of a Philosopher'', "As soon as an Analytical Engine exists, it will necessarily guide the future course of the science. Whenever any result is sought by its aid, the question will then arise—By what course of calculation can these results be arrived at by the machine in the ''shortest time''?"


Computer science

From 1872 Henry continued diligently with his father's work and then intermittently in retirement in 1875.
Percy Ludgate Percy Edwin Ludgate (2 August 1883 – 16 October 1922) was an Ireland, Irish amateur scientist who designed the second analytical engine (general-purpose Turing-complete computer) in history. Life Ludgate was born on 2 August 1883 in Skibb ...

Percy Ludgate
wrote about the engine in 1914 and published his own design for an Analytical Engine in 1908. It was drawn up in detail, but never built, and the drawings have never been found. Ludgate's engine would be much smaller (about ) than Babbage's, and hypothetically would be capable of multiplying two 20-decimal-digit numbers in about six seconds.
Leonardo Torres y Quevedo Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (; 28 December 1852 – 18 December 1936) was a Spanish civil engineer and mathematician of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Quevedo was a pioneer in the development of the radio control and automate ...
wrote about Babbage's engines in ''Essays on Automatics'' (1913). The book contains a design for an electromechanical machine capable of calculating the value of a function completely automatically and also included the idea of
floating-point arithmetic In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...
. Torres demonstrated twice, in 1914 and in 1920, that all of the cogwheel functions of a calculating machine like that of Babbage could be implemented using electromechanical parts. His 1914 analytical machine used a small memory built with electromagnets; his 1920 machine used a typewriter to receive its commands and print its results.
Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex syste ...

Vannevar Bush
's paper ''Instrumental Analysis'' (1936) included several references to Babbage's work. In the same year he started the Rapid Arithmetical Machine project to investigate the problems of constructing an electronic digital computer. Despite this groundwork, Babbage's work fell into historical obscurity, and the Analytical Engine was unknown to builders of electromechanical and electronic computing machines in the 1930s and 1940s when they began their work, resulting in the need to re-invent many of the architectural innovations Babbage had proposed.
Howard Aiken Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was an American physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical metho ...
, who built the quickly-obsoleted electromechanical calculator, the
Harvard Mark I The IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New Yor ...

Harvard Mark I
, between 1937 and 1945, praised Babbage's work likely as a way of enhancing his own stature, but knew nothing of the Analytical Engine's architecture during the construction of the Mark I, and considered his visit to the constructed portion of the Analytical Engine "the greatest disappointment of my life". The Mark I showed no influence from the Analytical Engine and lacked the Analytical Engine's most prescient architectural feature,
conditional branching In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of co ...
.
J. Presper Eckert John Adam Presper Eckert Jr. (April 9, 1919 – June 3, 1995) was an American electrical engineer and computer pioneer. With John Mauchly John William Mauchly (August 30, 1907 – January 8, 1980) was an American physicist A physicist ...
and John W. Mauchly similarly were not aware of the details of Babbage's Analytical Engine work prior to the completion of their design for the first electronic general-purpose computer, the
ENIAC ENIAC (; Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first programmable, electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission ...

ENIAC
.


Comparison to other early computers

If the Analytical Engine had been built, it would have been
digital Digital usually refers to something using discrete digits, often binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electr ...
, programmable and
Turing-complete In computability theory Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set t ...
. It would, however, have been very slow. Luigi Federico Menabrea reported in ''Sketch of the Analytical Engine'': "Mr. Babbage believes he can, by his engine, form the product of two numbers, each containing twenty figures, in three minutes". By comparison the
Harvard Mark I The IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New Yor ...

Harvard Mark I
could perform the same task in just six seconds. A modern PC can do the same thing in well under a billionth of a second.


In popular culture

* The
cyberpunk Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a dystopian Futurism, futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of low-life, lowlife and high tech", featuring futuristic technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial ...
novelists
William Gibson William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction Speculative fiction is a broad category of fiction encompassing genres with elements that do not exist in reality, recorded history, nature, or the presen ...

William Gibson
and
Bruce Sterling Michael Bruce Sterling (born April 14, 1954) is an American science fiction author known for his novels and short fiction and editorship of the ''Mirrorshades'' anthology. Sterling's first science fiction story, ''Man-Made Self'', was sold in 19 ...

Bruce Sterling
co-authored a
steampunk Steampunk is a subgenre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of be ...

steampunk
novel of alternative history titled ''
The Difference Engine ''The Difference Engine'' (1990) is an alternative history novel by William Gibson William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction ...

The Difference Engine
'' in which Babbage's Difference and Analytical Engines became available to Victorian society. The novel explores the consequences and implications of the early introduction of computational technology. * There is also mention of the Analytical Engine (or the Clockwork Ouroboros as it is also known there) in ''
The Book of the War ''The Book of the War'' is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or text form. A monitor usually comprises a electronic visual dis ...
'', a
Faction Paradox ''Faction Paradox'' is a series of novels, audio stories, short story anthologies, and comics set in and around a "War in Heaven", a history-spanning conflict between godlike "Great Houses" and their mysterious enemy. The series is named after a ...
anthology edited by
Lawrence Miles Lawrence Miles (born 15 March 1972 in Middlesex) is a science fiction author known for his work on original ''Doctor Who'' novels (for both the Virgin New Adventures and BBC Books series) and the subsequent spin-off Faction Paradox. He is also ...
. This machine was used to calculate a way into the "Eleven Day Empire". Its use resulted in the destruction of the original
Houses of Parliament The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Houses of Parliament
. * In the novel ''
Perdido Street Station ''Perdido Street Station'' is a novel by British writer China Miéville. Often described as weird fiction Weird fiction is a subgenre of speculative fiction originating in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.John Clute,Weird Fiction", in '' ...
'', by British author
China Miéville China Tom Miéville ( ; born 6 September 1972) is a British speculative fiction author, essayist, comic book writer, Socialism, socialist political activist, and Literary criticism, literary critic. He often describes his work as ''weird ficti ...

China Miéville
, engines similar to Babbage's serve as "brains" for the robotic constructs of the city of New Crobuzon. One such engine even develops sentient thought due to a recursive algorithmic loop. * The
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
of ''
The Peshawar Lancers ''The Peshawar Lancers'' is an alternate history, steampunk, post-apocalyptic fiction adventure novel by S. M. Stirling, with its point of divergence occurring in 1878 when the Earth is struck by a devastating meteor shower. The novel's plot takes ...
'' by
S. M. Stirling Stephen Michael Stirling (born September 30, 1953) is a Canadian-American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuri ...
features a massive water-powered analytical engine at
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
, used by two of the main characters. It is noted that most of the engines run on steam, and that an even larger one is under construction at the British Capital in Delhi. * In the
Michael Flynn Michael Thomas Flynn (born December 24, 1958) is a retired United States Army Lieutenant General (United States), lieutenant general who was the 25th U.S. National Security Advisor for the first 22 days of the Trump administration. He resigned ...
novel ''
In the Country of the Blind IN, In or in may refer to: Places * India (country code IN) * Indiana, United States (postal code IN) * Ingolstadt, Germany (license plate code IN) Businesses and organizations * Independent Network, a UK-based political association * Indiana ...
'', a secret society calling itself the Babbage Society secretly financed the building of Babbage Engines in the mid-19th century. In the novel, the Society uses the Babbage engines along with a statistical science called Cliology to predict and manipulate future history. In the process, they predict the rise of the Nazis and accidentally start the US Civil War. * In the
Neal Stephenson Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer known for his works of speculative fiction. His novels have been categorized as science fiction, historical fiction, cyberpunk, postcyberpunk, and baroque. Stephenson's work exp ...

Neal Stephenson
novel ''
The Diamond Age ''The Diamond Age: Or, A Young Lady's Illustrated Primer'' is a science fiction novel by American writer Neal Stephenson. It is to some extent a Bildungsroman or coming-of-age story, focused on a young girl named Nell, set in a future world in wh ...
'', ubiquitous molecular nanotechnology is described to make use of "rod logic" similar to that imagined by Babbage's design for the Analytical Engine. * ''Moriarty by Modem'', a short story by Jack Nimersheim, describes an alternative history where Babbage's Analytical Engine was indeed completed and had been deemed highly classified by the British government. The characters of
Sherlock Holmes Sherlock Holmes () is a fictional detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer and physician. He created the character Sherlock Holmes ...

Sherlock Holmes
and Moriarty had in reality been a set of prototype programs written for the Analytical Engine. This short story follows Holmes as his program is implemented on modern computers and he is forced to compete against his nemesis yet again in the modern counterparts of Babbage's Analytical Engine. * A similar setting is used by Sydney Padua in the webcomic '' The Thrilling Adventures of Lovelace and Babbage''. It features an alternative history where Ada Lovelace and Babbage have built the Analytical Engine and use it to fight crime at
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
's request. The comic is based on thorough research on the biographies of and correspondence between Babbage and Lovelace, which is then twisted for humorous effect. * ''
Georgia on My Mind "Georgia on My Mind" is a 1930 song written by Hoagy Carmichael and Stuart Gorrell and first recorded that year by Hoagy Carmichael. It has often been associated with Ray Charles, a native of the Georgia (U.S. state), U.S. state of Georgia, who ...
'' is a
novelette Novelette may refer to: * Novelette (ballet), ''Novelette'' (ballet), a solo modern dance work choreographed by Martha Graham * Novelette (music), a short piece of lyrical music * Novelette, the central character of Trey Anthony's 2001 play ''Da Ki ...

novelette
by
Charles Sheffield Charles Sheffield (25 June 1935 – 2 November 2002) was an English-born mathematician, physicist and science fiction writer who served as a President of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America and of the American Astronautical Soci ...

Charles Sheffield
which involves two major themes: being widowed and the quest for a legendary Babbage computer. * Hugh Cook's fantasy novels '' The Wishstone and the Wonderworkers'' and '' The Wazir and the Witch'' feature an Analytical Engine created by the scientist Ivan Petrov. It is used to calculate income tax. * The
Orion's Arm Orion's Arm (also called the Orion's Arm Universe Project, OAUP, or simply OA and formerly known as the Orion's Arm Worldbuilding Group) is a multi-authored online science fiction world-building project, first established in 2000 by M. Alan Kaz ...
online project features the ''Machina Babbagenseii'', fully sentient Babbage inspired mechanical computers. Each is the size of a large asteroid, only capable surviving in microgravity conditions, and processes data at 0.5% the speed of a human brain. * The flying ships in the anime ''
Last Exile is a Japanese anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imag ...
'' are seen to have analytical engines inside of them. Although some have more advanced technology, the common ships use analytical engines, and even some of the advanced ships are seen to have clockwork mechanisms as well. * A working version of the Analytical Engine, created by fictional inventor Ernest Harding (and based on the Babbage concept) was featured on the ''
Murdoch Mysteries ''Murdoch Mysteries'' is a Canadian television drama series that premiered on Citytv on January 20, 2008, and currently airs on CBC. The series is based on characters from the ''Detective Murdoch'' novels by Maureen Jennings and stars Yannick ...

Murdoch Mysteries
'' (also called The Artful Detective), in Season 5, Episode 9, ''Invention Convention''. * In the 12 season episode of ''
Doctor Who ''Doctor Who'' is a British science fiction television programme broadcast by the BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London Lond ...

Doctor Who
'' " Spyfall Part 2", the Analytical machine is shown along with Babbage and Ada Lovelace. * In the role-playing game ''1879'', published by FASA games, the analytical engine has become widespread and is used in everything from banking transactions to switchboard operations, and is a major part of the world.


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


The Analytical Engine at Fourmilab, includes historical documents and online simulations
*

* ttp://www.meccano.us/analytical_engine/index.html First working Babbage "barrel" actually assembled, circa 2005
Special issue, ''IEEE Annals of the History of Computing'', Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2000

''Babbage'', Science Museum, London
* {{Cite news, url=http://sydneypadua.com/2dgoggles/the-marvellous-analytical-engine-how-it-works/, title=The Marvellous Analytical Engine- How It Works, date=31 May 2015, work=2D Goggles, access-date=23 August 2017 Charles Babbage Computer-related introductions in 1837 English inventions Mechanical calculators Mechanical computers One-of-a-kind computers