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The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American multinational commercial broadcast
television network A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes interconnected by links that are used to exchange messages between the nodes. The links may use a variety of technologies bas ...
that is a flagship property of
Walt Disney Television Walt Disney Television is an American entertainment company Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest Interest, in finance and economics, is payment from a debtor, borrower or deposit-taking financial ...
, a division of
Disney General Entertainment Content Walt Disney Television is an American entertainment company that oversees television content and assets owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multi ...
of
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It ...
. The network is headquartered in
Burbank, California Burbank is a city in the southeastern end of the San Fernando Valley The San Fernando Valley, known locally as "the Valley", is an urbanized valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which ...
, on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from
Walt Disney StudiosWalt Disney Studios may refer to: * Walt Disney Studio (1926–1929) the second name of The Walt Disney Company * Walt Disney Studios (division), the Walt Disney Company's Studio Entertainment unit, which includes Disney's motion picture studios, mus ...
and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building. The network's secondary offices, and headquarters of its news division, is in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
, at its broadcast center at 77 West 66th Street on the
Upper West Side The Upper West Side (UWS) is a neighborhood in the boroughs of New York City, borough of Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by Central Park on the east, the Hudson River on the west, 59th Street (Manhattan), West 59th Street to the south, a ...
of
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
. Since 2007, when
ABC RadioABC Radio may refer to: * Australian Broadcasting Corporation ** ABC Local Radio, a network of local radio stations in Australia ** ABC Radio National, an Australia-wide radio network ** ABC News (Australian radio network), ABC NewsRadio, a national ...
(also known as Cumulus Media Networks) was sold to
Citadel Broadcasting Citadel Broadcasting Corporation was a Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish language, Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the List of United States cities by population, 28th-most pop ...
, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations almost exclusively to television. It is the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the American
Big Three television networks In television network A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes interconnected by links that are used to exchange messages between the nodes. The links may use a ...
. ABC is nicknamed "The Alphabet Network", as its
initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In ma ...
also represents the first three letters of the
English alphabet The modern English alphabet is a consisting of 26 , each having an form. It originated around the 7th century from . Since then, letters have been added or removed to give the current Modern English of 26 letters with no s, , no ...
, in order. ABC launched as a
radio network There are two types of radio network currently in use around the world: the one-to-many (simplex communication) broadcast network commonly used for public information and mass media, mass-media entertainment, and the two-way radio (Duplex (telecommu ...

radio network
in 1943, which served as the successor to the
NBC Blue Network The Blue Network (previously the NBC Blue Network) was the on-air name of a now defunct American Commercial broadcasting, radio network, which broadcast from 1927 through 1945. Beginning as one of the two radio networks owned by the NBC, National ...
, which had been purchased by Edward J. Noble. It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks
CBS CBS is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...

CBS
and
NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), co ...
. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with
United Paramount Theatres American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres, Inc. (originally United Paramount Theatres, later the American Broadcasting Companies and ABC Television) was the post-merger parent company of the American Broadcasting Company The American Broadca ...
(UPT), a chain of movie theaters that formerly operated as a subsidiary of
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation (common : Par) is an American film and television and company and a subsidiary of . It is the fifth oldest in the world, the second oldest film studio in the United States (behind ), and the sole member of the ...

Paramount Pictures
.
Leonard Goldenson Leonard H. Goldenson (December 7, 1905 – December 27, 1999) was the founder and president of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous ...
, who had been the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and
greenlighting To green-light is to give permission to move forward with a project. The term is a reference to the green traffic signal, indicating "go ahead". Film industry In the context of the Film industry, film and Television programs#Development, t ...
many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel
ESPN ESPN (originally an initialism for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is an American multinational basic cable Cable television Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequen ...

ESPN
, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., merged with
Capital Cities Communications Capital Cities/ABC Inc., was an American media company. It was founded in 1985 when Capital Cities Communications purchased the much larger American Broadcasting Company The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American American(s ...
, owner of several print publications, and television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by Disney. ABC has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some ABC-affiliated stations can also be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, and certain other affiliates can also be received over-the-air in areas near the
Canada–United States border The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border Borders are geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of sc ...
.
ABC News ABC News is the news News is information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at a restaurant is data ...
provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by
Cumulus Media Cumulus Media, Inc. is an American broadcasting company and is the third largest owner and operator of AM and FM radio stations in the United States behind Audacy and iHeartMedia, Inc. As of June 2019, Cumulus lists ownership of 428 stations ...
, as these stations are former ABC Radio properties.


History

The network's history dates back to 1927, when it was created as an
NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), co ...
-operated radio network called the
NBC Blue Network The Blue Network (previously the NBC Blue Network) was the on-air name of a now defunct American Commercial broadcasting, radio network, which broadcast from 1927 through 1945. Beginning as one of the two radio networks owned by the NBC, National ...
. It would later become an independent television network known as the American Broadcasting Company in 1943, and be purchased by
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It ...
on February 6, 1996.


Programming

The ABC television network provides 89 hours of regularly scheduled network programming each week. It provides 22 hours of prime-time programming to affiliated stations from 8:00 to 11:00 p.m. Monday through Saturday (all times Eastern and Pacific Time) and 7:00–11:00 p.m. on Sundays. Daytime programming is also provided from 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. weekdays (with a one-hour break at 12:00 p.m. Eastern/Pacific for stations to air newscasts, locally produced programming or syndicated programs) featuring the talk-lifestyle shows '' The View'' and ''
GMA3: What You Need To Know ''GMA3: What You Need To Know'' (often shortened to simply ''GMA3'') is an American daytime On Earth, daytime is the period of the day during which a given location experiences Daylight, natural illumination from direct sunlight. Daytime o ...
'', and the soap opera ''
General Hospital ''General Hospital'' (often abbreviated as ''GH'') is an American daytime television soap opera A soap opera or ''soap'' for short is a radio or television dealing especially with domestic situations and frequently characterized by , s, a ...

General Hospital
''. ABC News programming includes ''Good Morning America'' from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. weekdays (along with one-hour weekend editions); nightly editions of ''
ABC World News Tonight ''ABC World News Tonight'' (titled as ''ABC World News Tonight with David Muir'' for its weeknight broadcasts since September 2014 and simply ''ABC World News Tonight'' for its weekend broadcasts) is the flagship daily evening television news pr ...
'' (whose weekend editions are occasionally subject to abbreviation or preemption due to sports telecasts overrunning into the program's timeslot), the Sunday political talk show '' This Week'', early morning news programs ''
World News Now ''World News Now'' (or WNN) is an American overnight news broadcasting that is broadcast on American Broadcasting Company, ABC. Airing during the early morning hours each Monday through Friday, the program features a mix of general news and off ...
'' and ''
America This Morning ''America This Morning'' is an American early morning news broadcasting that is broadcast on ABC on weekday mornings. The newscast is anchored by Kenneth Moton and Mona Kosar Abdi, who also serve as anchors of ABC's overnight news program ''Wor ...
'' and the late night newsmagazine ''
Nightline ''Nightline'' (or ''ABC News Nightline'') is ABC News ABC News is the journalism, news division of Walt Disney Television's American Broadcasting Company, ABC broadcast network. Its flagship program is the daily evening newscast ''ABC World ...
''. Late-nights feature the weeknight talk show ''
Jimmy Kimmel Live! ''Jimmy Kimmel Live!'' is an American late-night talk show, created and hosted by Jimmy Kimmel, broadcast on American Broadcasting Company, ABC. The nightly hour-long show made its debut on January 26, 2003 at Hollywood Masonic Temple in Hollywood ...
''. The network's three-hour Saturday morning children's programming timeslot is programmed by syndication distributor
Litton Entertainment Litton Entertainment (formerly Litton Syndication) is an American media and production company based in Charleston, South Carolina Charleston is the largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, South ...
, which produces '' Litton's Weekend Adventure'' under an arrangement in which the
programming block Block programming is the arrangement of programs on radio or television so that those of a particular genre, theme, or target audience are grouped together. Overview Block programming involves scheduling a series of related shows which are likely ...
is syndicated exclusively to ABC owned-and-operated and affiliated stations, rather than being leased out directly by the network to Litton.


Daytime

ABC's daytime schedule currently features the talk show '' The View'', news show '' GMA3'', and the soap opera ''
General Hospital ''General Hospital'' (often abbreviated as ''GH'') is an American daytime television soap opera A soap opera or ''soap'' for short is a radio or television dealing especially with domestic situations and frequently characterized by , s, a ...

General Hospital
''. Originally premiering in 1963, ''General Hospital'' is ABC's longest-running entertainment program. In addition to the long-running ''
All My Children ''All My Children'' (often shortened to ''AMC'') is an American television soap opera that aired on American Broadcasting Company, ABC from January 5, 1970, to September 23, 2011, and on The Online Network (TOLN) from April 29 to September 2, 20 ...
'' (1970–2011) and ''
One Life to Live ''One Life to Live'' (often abbreviated as ''OLTL'') is an American soap opera A soap opera or ''soap'' for short is a radio or television serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential ...
'' (1968–2012), notable past soap operas seen on the daytime lineup include ''
Ryan's Hope ''Ryan's Hope'' is an American soap opera created by Claire Labine and Paul Avila Mayer, originally airing for 13 years on American Broadcasting Company, ABC from July 7, 1975 to January 13, 1989. It revolves around the trials and tribulations with ...
'', ''
Dark Shadows ''Dark Shadows'' is an American gothic soap opera A soap opera is a radio or television serial dealing especially with domestic situations and frequently characterized by melodrama, ensemble casts, and sentimentality. The term "soap opera" ...
'', '' Loving'', '' The City'' and ''
Port Charles ''Port Charles'' (commonly abbreviated as ''PC'') is an American television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in ...
''. ABC also aired the last nine years of the
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A final good or consumer good is a final product In Production (economics), production, a final product, or finished product is a product (business), product th ...
-produced soap ''
The Edge of Night ''The Edge of Night'' is an American television mystery crime drama series and soap opera, created by Irving Vendig and produced by Procter & Gamble Productions. It debuted on CBS on April 2, 1956, and ran as a live broadcast on that network ...
'', following its cancellation by CBS in 1975. ABC Daytime has also aired a number of game shows, including ''
The Dating Game ''The Dating Game'' is an American television game show A game show is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time ...
'', ''
The Newlywed Game ''The Newlywed Game'' is an American television game show that puts newly married couples against each other in a series of revealing question rounds to determine how well the spouses know or do not know each other. The program, originally created ...
'', ''
Let's Make a Deal#REDIRECT Let's Make a Deal ''Let's Make a Deal'' (also known as ''LMAD'') is an American television game show that originated in the United States in 1963 and has since been produced in many countries throughout the world. The program was created ...
'', ''
Password A password, sometimes called a passcode (for example in Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown specie ...
'', '' Split Second'', '' The $10,000/$20,000 Pyramid'', ''
Family Feud ''Family Feud'' is an American television game show A game show is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. I ...
'', '' The Better Sex'', ''
Trivia Trap ''Trivia Trap'' is an American game show A game show is a type of radio, television or stage show where contestants regularly compete for a reward. The history of game shows dates back to the invention of television as a medium. On most game sho ...
'', ''
All-Star Blitz ''All-Star Blitz'' is an American game show that aired on American Broadcasting Company, ABC from April 8 to December 20, 1985, with reruns airing on the USA Network from March 31 to December 26, 1986. Peter Marshall (U.S. entertainer), Peter Marsh ...
'' and '' Hot Streak''.


Sports

Sports programming is provided on occasion, primarily on weekend afternoons. Since 2006, the ABC Sports division has been defunct, with all sports telecasts on ABC being produced in association with sister cable network
ESPN ESPN (originally an initialism for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is an American multinational basic cable Cable television Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequen ...

ESPN
under the branding
ESPN on ABC#REDIRECT ESPN on ABC ESPN on ABC (known as ABC Sports from 1961 to 2006) is the brand used for sports event and documentary programming televised by the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) in the United States. Officially, the broadcast netwo ...

ESPN on ABC
. While ABC has, in the past, aired notable sporting events such as the NFL's ''
Monday Night Football ''ESPN Monday Night Football'' (abbreviated as ''MNF'' and also known as ''ESPN Monday Night Football on ABC'' for simulcasts) is a live television Live television is a television production A television show – or simply TV show – ...
'', and various
college football College football (french: football universitaire) is gridiron football Gridiron football,
bowl game In North America, a bowl game is one of a number of post-season college football College football (french: football universitaire) is gridiron football Gridiron football,National Basketball Association The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball sports league, league in North America. The league is composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada) and is one of the four major professional sports leagu ...
(NBA), with its package (under the ''
NBA on ESPN The ''NBA on ESPN'' is branding used for the presentation of National Basketball Association The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball sports league, league in North America. The league is composed of 30 teams ...
'' branding) traditionally beginning with its Christmas Day games, followed by a series of Saturday night and Sunday afternoon games through the remainder of the season, weekend
playoff The playoffs, play-offs, postseason or finals of a sports league A sports league is a group of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activi ...
games, and all games of the
NBA Finals The NBA Finals is the annual championship series of the National Basketball Association The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport p ...
. During
college football College football (french: football universitaire) is gridiron football Gridiron football,
season, ABC typically carries an afternoon doubleheader on Saturdays, along with the primetime ''
Saturday Night Football ''ESPN Saturday Night Football on ABC'' (branded for sponsorship purposes as ''ESPN Saturday Night Football on ABC presented by Capital One Capital One Financial Corporation is an American bank holding company specializing in credit cards, aut ...
''. ABC also airs coverage of selected bowl games. Beginning in the
2015 NFL season The 2015 NFL season was the 96th season in the history of the National Football League The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States ...
, ESPN agreed to begin simulcasting a wild card playoff game on ABC. The Saturday afternoon lineup outside of football season typically features airings of ESPN Films documentaries and other studio programs under the banner '' ESPN Sports Saturday'', while Sunday afternoons usually feature either
brokered programming Brokered programming (also known as time-buy and blocktime) is a form of broadcast content in which the show's producer pays a radio or television station for air time, rather than exchanging programming for pay or the opportunity to play spot comme ...
, or encore and burn-off airings of ABC programs. In 2015, ESPN's annual
ESPY Awards An ESPY Award (short for Excellence in Sports Performance Yearly Award) is an accolade currently presented by the American broadcast television network American Broadcasting Company, ABC, and previously ESPN (as of the 2017 ESPY Awards the latter ...
presentation moved to ABC from ESPN. Bolstered by
Caitlyn Jenner Caitlyn Marie Jenner (born William Bruce Jenner, October 28, 1949) is an American television personality, transgender rights activist, and retired Olympic gold medal-winning decathlete. Jenner played college football for the Graceland Ye ...
accepting the inaugural
Arthur Ashe Courage Award The Arthur Ashe Courage Award (sometimes called the Arthur Ashe Award for Courage or Arthur Ashe Courage and Humanitarian Award) is presented as part of the ESPY Awards. It is named for the American tennis player Arthur Ashe Arthur Robert Ash ...
during the ceremony, the
2015 ESPY Awards The 2015 ESPY Awards was the annual ESPY Award An ESPY Award (short for Excellence in Sports Performance Yearly Award) is an accolade currently presented by the American broadcast television network ABC, and previously ESPN ESPN (original ...
' viewership was roughly tripled over the 2014 ceremony on ESPN.


Specials

ABC currently holds the broadcast rights to the
Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking F ...
s,
Emmy Award The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the television industry. It is considered one of the four major entertainment awards in the United States, the others being the Grammy The Grammy Award (stylized ...

Emmy Award
s,
American Music Award The American Music Awards (AMAs) is an annual American music awards show, generally held in the fall, created by Dick Clark in 1973 for ABC when the network's contract to air the Grammy Awards expired. Until the American Music Awards of 2005, 20 ...
s, and the
Country Music Association Awards The Country Music Association Awards, also known as the CMA Awards or CMAs, are presented to country music Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. The term al ...
. ABC has also aired the
Miss America Miss America is an annual competition that is open to women from the United States between the ages of 17 and 25. Originating in 1921 as a "bathing beauty revue", the contest is now judged on competitors' talent performances and interviews. As ...
competition from 1954 to 1956, 1997 to 2005, and 2011 to 2018. From 2000 to 2019, ABC has also owned the television rights to most of the ''
Peanuts ''Peanuts'' is a print syndication, syndicated daily strip, daily and Sunday strip, Sunday American comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz. The strip's original run extended from 1950 to 2000, continuing in reruns afterward. '' ...

Peanuts
'' television specials, having acquired the broadcast rights from CBS, which originated the specials in 1965 with the debut of ''
A Charlie Brown Christmas ''A Charlie Brown Christmas'' is a 1965 animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to ...
'' (other ''Peanuts'' specials broadcast annually by ABC, including ''A Charlie Brown Christmas'', include ''
It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown ''It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown'' is a 1966 American prime time The prime time or the peak time is the block of broadcast programming taking place during the middle of the evening for a television show Image:MDR Kripo live.jpg, uprig ...
'' and ''
A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving ''A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving'' is the tenth prime-time The prime time or the peak time is the block of broadcast programming Broadcast programming is the practice of organizing and/or ordering (scheduling) of broadcast media shows, typic ...
''). Since 2020, all of the ''Peanuts'' TV specials were acquired by
Apple TV+ Apple TV+ is an advertisement, ad-free subscription video on demand streaming television service of Apple Inc. that debuted on November 1, 2019. It was announced during their list of Apple Inc. media events#Apple Special Event (March 25, 2019), ...
while some of the specials were later moved to
PBS The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster Public broadcasting involves , and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is . In many countries of the world, comes from governments, especially vi ...
under a sub-licensing agreement with Apple. ABC also broadcasts the annual '' Disney Parks Christmas Day Parade'' special on Christmas morning. Since 1974, ABC has generally aired ''Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve'' – a New Year's Eve special featuring music performances and coverage of festivities in New York's Times Square Ball, Times Square. ABC is also among the broadcasters of the Rose Parade, Tournament of Roses Parade (although as mentioned, the Rose Bowl Game now airs exclusively on ESPN as a College Football Playoff "New Year's Six" bowl).


Programming library

ABC owns nearly all of its in-house television and theatrical productions made from the 1970s onward, with the exception of certain co-productions (for example, ''The Commish'' is now owned by the estate of its producer, Stephen J. Cannell, Stephen Cannell). Worldwide video rights are currently owned by various companies; for example, Kino Lorber owns the North American home video rights to the ABC feature film library (along with some lesser known live action films from Disney's library, mostly from Touchstone Pictures, Hollywood Pictures and 20th Century Studios). When the FCC imposed its Financial Interest and Syndication Rules rules in 1970, ABC proactively created two companies: Worldvision Enterprises as a syndication distributor, and ABC Circle Films as a production company. However, between the publication and implementation of these regulations, the separation of the network's catalog was made in 1973. The broadcast rights to pre-1973 productions were transferred to Worldvision, which became independent in the same year. The company has been sold several times since Paramount Television acquired it in 1999, and has most recently been absorbed into CBS Television Distribution, a unit of ViacomCBS. Nonetheless, Worldvision sold portions of its catalog, including the Ruby-Spears and Hanna-Barbera libraries, to Turner Broadcasting System in 1991. With Disney's 1996 purchase of ABC, ABC Circle Films was absorbed into Touchstone Television, a Disney subsidiary which in turn was renamed ABC Studios in 2007. Also part of the library are most films in the David O. Selznick library, the Cinerama Productions/Palomar theatrical library (with the exception of those films produced in Cinerama which are now under the control of Pacific Theatres and Flicker Alley), the Selmur Productions catalog that the network acquired some years back, and the in-house productions it continues to produce (such as ''America's Funniest Home Videos'', ''General Hospital'', ABC News productions, and series from Walt Disney Television, Disney Television Studios (ABC Signature and 20th Television). Disney–ABC Domestic Television (formerly known as Buena Vista Television and 20th Television) handles domestic television distribution, while Disney Media Distribution, Disney–ABC International Television (formerly known as Buena Vista International Television) handles international television distribution.


Stations

Since its inception, ABC has had over 300 television stations that have carried programming from the network at various times throughout its history, including its first two owned-and-operated and affiliated stations, founding O&O WABC-TV and inaugural affiliate WPVI-TV. , ABC has eight owned-and-operated stations, and current and pending affiliation agreements with 236 additional television stations encompassing 49 states, the District of Columbia, four U.S. possessions, Bermuda and Saba. This makes ABC the largest U.S. broadcast television network by total number of affiliates. The network has an estimated national reach of 97.72% of all households in the United States (or 305,347,338 Americans with at least one television set). Currently, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Delaware are the only U.S. states where ABC does not have a locally licensed affiliate (New Jersey is served by New York City O&O WABC-TV in the north half of the state and Philadelphia O&O WPVI-TV in the south; Rhode Island is served by Boston, Massachusetts-licensed WCVB-TV and New Bedford, Massachusetts-licensed WLNE-TV, WLNE, though outside of the transmitter, all other operations for the station are based in Providence, Rhode Island, Providence; and Delaware is served by WPVI in the northern third and Salisbury, Maryland, affiliate WMDT in the southern two-thirds of the state). ABC maintains affiliations with low-power stations (broadcasting either in analog or digital) in a few markets, such as Birmingham, Alabama (WBMA-LD), Lima, Ohio (WPNM-LD) and South Bend, Indiana (WBND-LD). In some markets, including the former two mentioned, these stations also maintain digital simulcasts on a subchannel of a co-owned/co-managed full-power television station. The network has the unusual distinction of having separately owned-and-operated affiliates which serve the same market in Tampa, Florida (WFTS-TV and WWSB), Lincoln, Nebraska (KLKN-TV and KHGI-TV), and Grand Rapids, Michigan (WZZM and WOTV), with an analogous situation arising in Kansas City, Missouri (KMBC-TV and KQTV). KQTV is licensed to St. Joseph, Missouri, St. Joseph, which Nielsen Holdings, Nielsen designates as a separate market from Kansas City, despite a mere distance between the two cities and the Kansas City-based stations (including KMBC) providing better broadcast range, city-grade to Grade B coverage to the area compared to the signals of the primary ABC affiliates in the other aforementioned dual-affiliate markets. (KQTV was St. Joseph's lone major network affiliate until 2011, when locally based News-Press & Gazette Company began establishing low-power affiliates of ABC's four English-language competitors and Telemundo on three low-power stations to end St. Joseph's dependence on Kansas City.) WWSB, KHGI and WOTV, meanwhile, serve areas that do not receive an adequate signal from their market's primary ABC affiliate. (Of note, ABC initially affiliated with WWSB to cover southern portions of the Tampa–St. Petersburg market—including WWSB's city of license, Sarasota, Florida, Sarasota—as the transmitters of WTSP, the market's former primary ABC affiliate from 1965 to 1994, and Miami affiliate WPLG had been short-spaced to avoid interference between their respective analog-VHF channel 10 signals; WWSB remained an ABC affiliate after its Tampa affiliation moved from WTSP to WFTS in December 1994, even though WFTS's signal reaches Sarasota and some surrounding areas.) The Sinclair Broadcast Group is the largest operator of ABC stations by numerical total, owning or providing services to 28 full, primary ABC affiliates and two subchannel-only affiliates. Sinclair owns the largest ABC subchannel affiliate by market size, WABM, WABM-DT2/WTTO, WDBB-DT2 in the Birmingham market, which serve as repeaters of WBMA-LD (which itself is also simulcast on a subchannel of former WBMA satellite WGWW, owned by Sinclair partner company Howard Stirk Holdings). The E. W. Scripps Company is the largest operator of ABC stations in terms of overall market reach, owning 15 ABC-affiliated stations (including affiliates in larger markets such as WEWS, Cleveland, KNXV-TV, Phoenix, WXYZ-TV, Detroit and KMGH-TV, Denver), and through its ownership of Phoenix, Arizona, Phoenix affiliate KNXV, Las Vegas, Nevada, Las Vegas affiliate KTNV-TV and Tucson, Arizona, Tucson affiliate KGUN-TV, it is the only provider of ABC programming for the majority of Arizona (outside the Yuma, Arizona, Yuma-El Centro, California, El Centro market) and Southern Nevada. Scripps also owns and operates several ABC stations in the Mountain and Pacific time zones, including in Denver, KGTV, San Diego, KERO-TV, Bakersfield, California, and KIVI-TV, Boise, Idaho, and when combined with ABC Owned Television Stations, the ABC-owned stations in KABC-TV, Los Angeles, KFSN-TV, Fresno, and KGO-TV, San Francisco, the affiliations from the News-Press & Gazette Company in KEYT-TV, Santa Barbara, KESQ-TV, Palm Springs, KECY-TV, Yuma-El Centro, and KRDO-TV, Colorado Springs-Pueblo, and Sinclair's affiliations in KOMO-TV, Seattle and KATU, Portland, Oregon, these four entities control the access of ABC network programming in most of the Western United States, particularly in terms of audience reach.


Facilities and studios

All of ABC's owned-and-operated stations and affiliates have had their own facilities and studios, but transverse entities have been created to produce national programming. As a result, television series were produced by ABC Circle Films beginning in 1962 and by Touchstone Television beginning in 1985, before Touchstone was reorganized as ABC Studios in February 2007 and later renamed to its current name ABC Signature in August 2020. Since the 1950s, ABC has had two main production facilities: the ABC Television Center (now The Prospect Studios) on Hollywood Boulevard, Prospect Avenue in Hollywood, California, shared with the operations of KABC-TV until 1999; and the ABC Television Center, East, a set of studios located throughout New York City. In addition to the headquarters building on Riverside Drive, other ABC facilities in Burbank include a building at 3800 West Alameda, known as 'Burbank Center', which is primarily associated with
Walt Disney Television Walt Disney Television is an American entertainment company Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest Interest, in finance and economics, is payment from a debtor, borrower or deposit-taking financial ...
and functions as the headquarters and broadcast center for Disney Channel, Disney Junior, Disney XD, Freeform (TV channel), Freeform, FX (TV channel), FX, National Geographic (American TV channel), National Geographic, and Radio Disney. Additionally, Disney Television Animation has a facility on Empire Avenue near the Hollywood Burbank Airport. In nearby Glendale, California, Glendale, Disney/ABC also maintains the Grand Central Airport (California)#Grand Central Creative Campus, Grand Central Creative Campus, which houses other company subsidiaries, including the studios of KABC-TV and the Los Angeles bureau of ABC News. ABC owns several facilities in New York grouped mainly on West 66th Street, with the main set of facilities on the corner of Columbus Avenue. In total, ABC's facilities occupy a combined of the of the blocks they encompass. This main set of buildings includes: * 77 West 66th Street, a 22-story building built in 1988 on a plot; * A pair of buildings at 147–155 Columbus Avenue (ten and seven stories) connected by glass bays, constructed on a plot; * 30 West 67th Street, a 15-story building with a facade on 67th Street on a plot; * 55 West 67th Street, the former First Battery of the New York National Guard, a five-story building on a plot. ABC also owns 7, 17 and 47 West 66th Street, three buildings on a plot. Disney formerly leased at 157 Columbus Avenue, on the other side of 67th Street. File:ABC 77 W66 jeh.JPG, Entrance of ABC's headquarters at 77 West 66 Street File:WABC-TV Columbus Av jeh.JPG, WABC-TV buildings at 147–155 Columbus Avenue and behind 157 Columbus Avenue File:First Battery Armory 66th jeh.JPG, ABC facilities in the former First Battery of the New York National Guard ABC also owns the Times Square Studios at 1500 Broadway, on land owned by a development fund for the 42nd Street (Manhattan), 42nd Street Project. Opened in 1999, ''Good Morning America'' is broadcast from this facility. ABC News has premises on West 66th Street, in a six-story building occupying a plot at 121–135 West End Avenue. The block of West 66th street between Central Park West and Columbus Ave which houses the ABC News building was renamed Peter Jennings Way in 2006 in honor of the then-recently deceased news anchor. On July 9, 2018, the Walt Disney Company announced that it was selling its two West 66th Street campuses (except for the National Guard Amory) to Silverstein Properties and purchasing one square block of property in lower Manhattan to build a new New York-based broadcast center.


Related services


Video-on-demand services

ABC maintains several video-on-demand (VOD) services for delayed viewing of the network's programming, including a traditional VOD service called ABC on Demand, which is carried on most traditional cable and IPTV providers. The Walt Disney Company is also a part-owner of Hulu, and has offered full-length episodes of most of ABC's programming through this streaming media, streaming service since July 6, 2009. In May 2013, ABC launched "WatchABC", a revamp of its traditional multi-platform streaming services encompassing the network's existing streaming portal at ABC.com and a mobile app for smartphones and tablet computers. This service provides full-length episodes of ABC programs and live streams of local affiliates in select markets (this was the first such offering by a U.S. broadcast network). However, live streams are only available to TV Everywhere, authenticated subscribers of participating pay television providers. WABC-TV New York and WPVI-TV Philadelphia were the first stations to offer streams of their programming on the service, with the six remaining ABC O&Os offering streams by the start of the 2013–14 season. Hearst Television also reached a deal to offer streams of its ABC affiliates on the service, though these stations are only available for live-streaming for DirecTV subscribers. In November 2015, it was reported that ABC had been developing a slate of original digital series for the WatchABC service, internally codenamed ABC3. In July 2016, ABC re-launched its streaming platforms, dropping the WatchABC brand, adding a streaming library of 38 classic ABC series, and introducing 7 original short-form series under the blanket branding ABCd. The most recent episodes of the network's shows are usually made available on the ABC app, Hulu and ABC on Demand the day after their original broadcast. In addition, ABC on Demand disallows fast forwarding of accessed content. Restrictions implemented on January 7, 2014, restrict streaming of the most recent episode of any ABC program on Hulu and the ABC app until eight days after their initial broadcast, in order to encourage live or same-week viewing (via digital video recorder, DVR and cable on demand), with day-after-air streaming on either service limited to subscribers of participating pay television providers using an authenticated internet account.


ABC HD

ABC's network feeds are transmitted in 720p high-definition television, high definition (HD), the native resolution format for The Walt Disney Company's U.S. television properties. However, most of Hearst Television's 16 ABC-affiliated stations transmit the network's programming in 1080i HD, while 11 other affiliates owned by various companies carry the network feed in 480i standard-definition television, standard definition either due to technical considerations for affiliates of other major networks that carry ABC programming on a digital subchannel or because a primary feed ABC affiliate has not yet upgraded their transmission equipment to allow content to be presented in HD. Although ABC has not fully transitioned to 1080p or even up to Ultra High Definition (UHD), ABC affiliate station KNXV-TV in Phoenix, Arizona has transmit the network's programming at 1080p via an ATSC 3.0 multiplex station KASW. ABC began its conversion to high definition with the launch of its simulcast feed, ABC HD, on September 16, 2001, at the start of the 2001–02 United States network television schedule, 2001–02 season, with its scripted prime time series becoming the first shows to upgrade to the format. Both new and returning scripted series were broadcast in high definition. In 2011, ''Extreme Makeover: Home Edition'' was the last program on the network's schedule that was broadcast in 4:3 standard definition. All of the network's new programming has been presented in HD since January 2012. The affiliate-syndicated Saturday morning educational and informative (E/I) block ''Litton's Weekend Adventure'' was the first children's program block on U.S. network television to feature programs available in HD upon its September 2011 debut. On September 1, 2016, ABC began to use 16:9 aspect ratio, 16:9 framing for all of most graphical imaging (primarily the network's logo bug, in-program promotions and generic closing credit sequences as well as sports telecasts, where the BottomLine and scoreboard elements now extend outside the 4:3 frame), requiring its stations and pay television providers to display its programming in a compulsory widescreen format, either in high definition or standard definition. With this change, some programs also began positioning their main on-screen credits outside the 4:3 aspect ratio.


Visual identity

The ABC logo has evolved many times since the network's creation in 1943. The network's first logo, introduced in 1946, consisted of a television screen containing the letters "T" and "V", with a vertical ''ABC'' microphone in the center, referencing the network's roots in radio. When the ABC-UPT merger was finalized in 1953, the network introduced a new logo based on the FCC seal, with the letters "ABC" enclosed in a circular Heraldry, shield surmounted by a bald eagle. In 1957, just before the television network began its first color broadcasts, the ABC logo consisted of a tiny lowercase "abc" in the center of a large lowercase letter ''a'', a design known as the ABC Circle A. In 1962, graphic designer Paul Rand redesigned the ABC logo into its current and best-known form, with the lowercase letters "abc" enclosed in a single black circle. The new logo debuted on-air for ABC's promos at the start of the 1963–64 season. The letters are strongly reminiscent of the Bauhaus (typeface), Bauhaus typeface designed by Herbert Bayer in the 1920s, but also share similarities with several other fonts, such as ITC Avant Garde and Horatio, and most closely resembling Chalet. The logo's simplicity made it easier to redesign and duplicate, which was beneficial before the advent of computer graphics. A color version of the logo was also developed around 1963, and animated as a brief 10-second intro to be shown before the then-small handful of network programs broadcast in color (similar to the NBC "Laramie" peacock intro used during that era). The "a" was rendered in red, the "b" in blue, and the "c" in green, against the same single black circle. A variant of this color logo, with the colored letters against a white circle, was also commonly used throughout the 1960s. The 1970s and 1980s saw the emergence of many graphical imaging packages for the network which based the logo's setting mainly on special lighting effects then under development including white, blue, pink, rainbow neon, and glittering dotted lines. Among the ABC Circle logo's many variants was a 1977 ID sequence that featured a bubble on a black background representing the circle with glossy gold letters, and was the first ABC identification card to simulate a three-dimensional appearance. In 1983, for the 40th anniversary of the network's founding, ID sequences had the logo appear in a gold Computer-generated imagery, CGI design on a blue background, accompanied by the slogan "That Special Feeling" in a script font. Ten years later, in 1993, the "ABC Circle" logo reverted to its classic white-on-black color scheme, but with gloss effects on both the circle and the letters, and a bronze border surrounding the circle. The ABC logo first appeared as an digital on-screen graphic, on-screen bug in the 1993–94 United States network television schedule, 1993–94 season, appearing initially only for 60 seconds at the beginning of an act or segment, then appearing throughout programs beginning in the 1995–96 United States network television schedule, 1995–96 season; the respective iterations of the translucent logo bug were also incorporated within program promotions until the 2011–12 season. During the 1998–99 season, the network began using a minimalist graphical identity with a yellow and black motif, designed by Pittard Sullivan, featuring a small black-and-white "ABC Circle" logo on a yellow background (promotions during this time also featured a sequence of still photos of the stars of its programs during the timeslot card as well as the schedule sequence that began each night's prime time lineup). A new four-note theme tune was introduced alongside the package, based around the network's then-new "We Love TV" image campaign from the 1998–99 season, creating an Sound trademark#Sound logos, audio signature in comparative parlance to the NBC chimes, CBS's various four-note soundmarks (including the current version introduced in 1992) and the 20th Century Fox#Logo and fanfare, Fox Fanfare. The four-note signature has been updated with every television season thereafter. In 2000, ABC launched a web-based promotional campaign focused around its circle logo, also called 'the dot', in which comic book character Little Dot prompted visitors to "download the dot", a program which would cause the ABC logo to fly around the screen and settle in the bottom-right corner. The network hired the Troika Design Group to design and produce its 2001–02 identity, which continued using the black-and-yellow coloring of the logo and featured dots and stripes in various promotional and identification spots. On June 16, 2007, ABC began to phase-in a new imaging campaign for the upcoming 2007–08 season, Start Here. Also developed by Troika, the on-air design was intended to emphasize the availability of ABC content across multiple platforms (in particular, using a system of icons representing different devices, such as television, computers and mobile devices). It also sought to "simplify and bring a lot more consistency and continuity to the visual representation of ABC". The ABC logo was given a glossy "ball" effect that was specifically designed for HD. On-air, the logo was accompanied by animated water and ribbon effects. Red ribbons were used to represent the entertainment division, while blue ribbons were used for ABC News. A revised version of the ABC logo was introduced for promotions for the 2013–14 season during the network's Upfront (advertising), upfront presentation on May 14, 2013, and officially introduced on-air on May 30 (although some affiliates implemented the new design prior to then), as part of an overhaul of ABC's identity by design agency LoyalKaspar. The updated logo carries a simpler gloss design than the previous version, and contains lettering more closely resembling Paul Rand's original version of the circle logo. A new custom typeface inspired by the ABC logotype, ABC Modern (which closely resembles the Lucas Sharp-designed Sharp Sans font family), was also created for use in advertising and other promotional materials. The logo was used in various color schemes, with a gold version used primarily for ABC's entertainment divisions, a red version used primarily for ESPN on ABC, steel blue and dark grey versions used primarily by ABC News, and all four colors used interchangeably in promotions. As part of a reimaging for the 2018–19 season, the color variants were dropped in favor of the dark grey version. The Circle 7 logo, designed in 1962, is also commonly associated with ABC affiliates who broadcast on channel 7, including its flagship local stations WABC-TV (New York City), KABC-TV (Los Angeles), KGO-TV (San Francisco) and WLS-TV (Chicago). This logo was intended to be used somewhat interchangeably by these stations with the main circular network logo and has itself also become an iconic symbol of the ABC network. KGO was the first of the ABC-owned stations to use the Circle 7 logo, starting on August 27, 1962; by the end of the year, the other ABC-owned stations began using the logo, and have continued to do so since.


International development

The first attempts to internationalize the ABC television network dates to the 1950s, when Goldenson tried to use the same strategies he had in expanding UPT's theater operation to the international market. Goldenson said that ABC's first international activity was broadcasting the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in June 1953; CBS and NBC were delayed in covering the coronation due to flight delays. Goldenson tried international investing, having ABC invest in stations in the Latin American market, acquiring a 51% interest in a network covering Central America and in 1959 established program distributor Worldvision Enterprises. Goldenson also cited interest in Japan in the early 1950s, acquiring a 5% stake in two new domestic networks, the Mainichi Broadcasting System in 1951 and Nihon Educational Television in 1957. Goldenson also invested in broadcasting properties in Beirut in the mid-1960s. The goal was to create a network of wholly and partially owned channels and affiliates to rebroadcast the network's programs. In 1959, this rerun activity was completed with program syndication, with ABC Films selling programs to networks not owned by ABC. The arrival of satellite television ended the need for ABC to hold interests in other countries; many governments also wanted to increase their independence and strengthen legislation to limit foreign ownership of broadcasting properties. As a result, ABC was forced to sell all of its interests in international networks, mainly in Japan and Latin America, in the 1970s. The second period of international expansion is linked to that of the ESPN network in the 1990s, and policies enacted in the 2000s by Disney Media Networks. These policies included the expansion of several of the company's U.S.-based cable networks including Disney Channel and its spinoffs Toon Disney, Playhouse Disney and Jetix; although Disney also sold its 33% stake in European sports channel Eurosport for $155 million in June 2000. In contrast to Disney's other channels, ABC broadcasts in the United States with programming syndicated in other countries. The policy regarding wholly owned international networks was revived and on September 27, 2004, ABC announced the launch of ABC1 (UK), ABC1, a free-to-air channel in the United Kingdom owned by the ABC Group. However, ABC1 could not attain sustainable viewership and was shut down in October 2007. Prior to the ABC1 closure, on October 10, 2006, Disney–ABC Television Group entered into an agreement with satellite provider Dish TV to carry its ABC News Now channel in India. However, this operation was not put into effect.


Canada

Most Canadians have access to at least one U.S.-based ABC affiliate, either over-the-air (in areas located within proximity of the
Canada–United States border The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border Borders are geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of sc ...
) or through a cable, satellite or IPTV provider. Most ABC programs are subject to simultaneous substitution regulations imposed by the CRTC, which require television service providers to replace an American station's signal with the feed of a Television in Canada, Canadian broadcaster carrying the same syndicated program to protect domestic programming rights and advertising revenue.


Films produced by ABC


See also

* ABC Kids (United States), ABC Kids * ABC Productions * ABC Signature * Children's programming on the American Broadcasting Company * Lists of ABC television affiliates * List of United States over-the-air television networks * Litton's Weekend Adventure *
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References


Footnotes


Citations


Bibliography

* * *


External links

* * Unofficial history of ABC'
East Coast production facilities
an
West Coast production facilities
{{Authority control American Broadcasting Company, Television networks in the United States Disney Media Networks Entertainment companies based in New York City Mass media companies based in New York City Disney acquisitions Disney television networks American companies established in 1943 Radio stations established in 1943 Television channels and stations established in 1943 1943 establishments in New York (state) 1996 mergers and acquisitions 1943 establishments in the United States