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Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر;
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...
: ''Dzayer;''
French
French
'': Alger'') is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city of
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber language, Berber: ''Dzayer;'' French language, French'': Alger'') is ...

Algeria
. The city's population at the 2008 Census was 2,988,145Census 14 April 2008: Office National des Statistiques de l'Algérie (web). and in 2011 was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located on the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
and in the north-central portion of Algeria. Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. The modern part of the city is built on the level ground by the seashore; the old part, the ancient city of the
dey Dey (Arabic: داي), from the Turkish honorific title ''dayı'', literally meaning uncle, was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers The Regency of Algiers (in ar, الجزائر, translit=al Jaza'ir), was a state in Nor ...

dey
s, climbs the steep hill behind the modern town and is crowned by the
Casbah A kasbah (, also ; ar, قَـصَـبَـة, qaṣaba, , Moroccan Arabic Moroccan Arabic ( ar, اللهجة المغربية, ), known as Darija in Morocco, is a form of vernacular Arabic spoken in Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (ortho ...

Casbah
or citadel, above the sea. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle.


Names

The city's name is derived via and
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
''Origins of Algiers'' by
Louis Leschi Louis Leschi (2 December 1893 – 7 January 1954) was a 20th-century French historian, epigrapher and archaeologist, a specialist of ancient North Africa. Biography The son of academics, Louis Leschi followed himself an exemplary curriculum who ...

Louis Leschi
, speech delivered June 16, 1941, published in ''El Djezair Sheets'', July 194
History of Algeria
.
from the Arabic name ''al-Jazāʾir'' (), "The Islands". This name refers to the four former islands which lay off the city's coast before becoming part of the mainland in 1525. ''Al-Jazāʾir'' is itself a truncated form of the city's older name ''Jazaʾir Banī Mazghanna'' (), "The Islands of the Banu Mazghanna, Sons of Mazghana", used by early medieval geographers such as and
Yaqut al-Hamawi Yāqūt Shihāb al-Dīn ibn-'Abdullāh al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) ( ar, ياقوت الحموي الرومي) is famous for his great "geography", ''Mu'jam ul-Buldān'', an encyclopedia of Islam written in the late Abbāsid era and as muc ...
. In
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
, the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
knew the town as ''Ikósion'' ( grc, Ἰκόσιον), which was
Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
as
Icosium Icosium ( grc, Ἰκόσιον, Ikósion) was a Berber city that was part of Numidia Numidia ( Berber: ''Inumiden''; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from Algeria ) ...
under Roman rule. The Greeks explained the name as coming from their word for "twenty" (, ''eíkosi''), supposedly because it had been founded by 20 companions of
Hercules Hercules (, ) is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divinity, divine hero Heracles, son of Jupiter (mythology), Jupiter and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventur ...

Hercules
when he visited the
Atlas Mountains The Atlas Mountains ( ar, جِبَال ٱلْأَطْلَس, jibāl al-ʾaṭlas /ʒibaːl al atˤlas/, Tamazight The Berber languages, also known as the Amazigh languages (Berber name: , ; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifin ...

Atlas Mountains
during his labors.. Algiers is also known as ''el-Behdja'' (, "The Joyous") or "Algiers the White" (french: Alger la Blanche, links=no) for its whitewashed buildings, seen rising from the sea.


History


Early history

The city's earliest history was as a small port in the Numedia where
Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, the Canary Islands, and to a lesser ...

Berbers
were trading with other Mediterraneans. After the
Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of wars (taking place between 264 and 146BC) that were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run thr ...
, the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
eventually took over administration of the town, which they called
Icosium Icosium ( grc, Ἰκόσιον, Ikósion) was a Berber city that was part of Numidia Numidia ( Berber: ''Inumiden''; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from Algeria ) ...
. Its ruins now form part of the modern city's marine quarter, with the Rue de la Marine following a former
Roman road Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Rep ...

Roman road
. Roman cemeteries existed near '' Bab-el-Oued'' and '' Bab Azoun''. The city was given
Latin rights Latin Rights (also latin citizenship, Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through ...
by the emperor
Vespasian Vespasian (; la, Vespasianus ; 17 November AD 9 – 23/24 June 79) was a Roman emperor who reigned from 69 to 79 AD. The fourth and last emperor who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors, he founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire ...

Vespasian
. The
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
s of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century, but the ancient town fell into obscurity during the
Muslim conquest of North Africa The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb ( ar, الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ) continued the century of rapid Early Muslim conquests, Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad in 632 and i ...
. The present city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...
Zirid The Zirid dynasty ( ar, الزيريون, translit=Al-Zīryūn), Banu Ziri ( ar, بنو زيري, translit=Banu Zīry), or the Zirid state ( ar, الدولة الزيرية, translit=Al-dawla al-Zīrya) was a Sanhaja Berbers, Berber dynasty from ...
Sanhaja The Sanhaja ( ber, Aẓnag, pl. Iẓnagen, and also Aẓnaj, pl. Iẓnajen; ar, صنهاجة, ''Ṣanhaja'' or زناگة ''Znaga'') were once one of the largest Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazigh ...
dynasty. He had earlier (935) built his own house and a
Sanhaja The Sanhaja ( ber, Aẓnag, pl. Iẓnagen, and also Aẓnaj, pl. Iẓnajen; ar, صنهاجة, ''Ṣanhaja'' or زناگة ''Znaga'') were once one of the largest Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazigh ...
center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by
Roger II of Sicily Roger II ( it, Ruggero II; 22 December 1095 – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana ...

Roger II of Sicily
in 1148, the Zirids had already lost control of Algiers to their cousins the
Hammadid The Hammadid dynasty or Kingdom of Hammadid () was a branch of the Sanhaja Berbers, Berber dynasty that ruled an area roughly corresponding to north-eastern modern Algeria between 1008 and 1152. Its realm was conquered by the Almohad Caliphate, Al ...
s in 1014. The city was wrested from the Hammadids by the
Almohads The Almohad Caliphate (International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA: ; from ar, المُوَحِّدون, translit=al-Muwaḥḥidūn, lit=those who profess the unity of God) was a North African Berbers, Berber Muslim empire founded in the 12th century. ...

Almohads
in 1159, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of
Tlemcen Tlemcen (; ar, تلمسان ''Tilimsān'') is the second-largest city in north-western Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates ...
. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under
ThaalibaThe Thaaliba were a sub-tribe of the Maqil The Maqil ( ar, المعقل) is an Arabian nomadic tribe that emigrated to the Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar, المغرب , "the west"), also known as Northwest Africa, the Arab Maghreb ( ), and historic ...
amir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elemen ...
s of its own due to
Oran Oran ( ar, وَهران, Wahrān) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its population, commercial, industrial, and cultural impo ...

Oran
being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids. The Peñón of Algiers, an islet in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by the Spaniards as early as 1302. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. However, Algiers continued to be of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the islet of Peñon and imposed a levy intended to suppress
corsair A corsair is a privateer or pirate, especially: * Barbary corsair, Ottoman and Berber pirates and privateers operating from North Africa * French corsairs, privateers operating on behalf of the French crown Corsair may also refer to: Arts and e ...
activity.


Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
rule

In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin ''Barbarossa'' to expel the Spaniards. Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, and seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the
Capture of Algiers (1516) The Capture of Algiers in 1516 was accomplished by the Ottoman brothers Oruç and Hayreddin Barbarossa Hayreddin Barbarossa ( ar, خير الدين بربروس, Khayr al-Din Barbarus, original name Khiḍr), also known as Hızır Hayrettin ...
. Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen (1517), was the founder of the ''
pashaluk Eyalets (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت, , English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire. From Fall of Constantinople, 1453 to the beginning of the nineteenth century the Ot ...
'', which subsequently became the ''
bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic Turkic may refer to: ...
lik'', of Algeria. Barbarossa lost Algiers in 1524 but regained it with the
Capture of Algiers (1529)Battle of Algiers or Algiers expedition may refer to: * Capture of the Peñón of Algiers (1510), during the Spanish expansion to the Maghreb * Capture of Algiers (1516), during the Spanish-Otoman conflict in the Maghreb * Algiers expedition (1516), ...
, and then formally invited the Sultan
Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I ( ota, سليمان اول, Süleyman-ı Evvel; tr, I. Süleyman; 6 November 14946 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( ota, قانونى سلطان سليمان, Ḳā ...

Suleiman the Magnificent
to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the
Barbary pirates The Barbary pirates, or Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God) is an Abrahamic religio ...
. In October 1541 in the Algiers expedition, the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, and his army of some 30,000, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their
Pasha Pasha or Paşa ( ota, پاشا; tr, paşa; sq, Pashë; ar, باشا), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dig ...

Pasha
, Hassan. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but essentially free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers turned to piracy and ransoming. Due to its location on the periphery of both the Ottoman and European economic spheres, and depending for its existence on a Mediterranean that was increasingly controlled by European shipping, backed by European navies, piracy became the primary economic activity. Repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland. The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
fought two wars (the
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and
Second Barbary War The Second Barbary War (1815) or the U.S.–Algerian War was fought between the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primar ...
s) over Algiers' attacks on shipping. Among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist
Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. He is best known for his novel ''D ...

Miguel de Cervantes
, who was captive in Algiers almost five years, and who wrote two plays set in Algiers of the period. The primary source for knowledge of Algiers of this period, since there are no contemporary local sources, is the ''Topografía e historia general de Argel'' (1612, but written earlier), published by Diego de Haedo, but whose authorship is disputed. This work describes in detail the city, the behavior of its inhabitants, and its military defenses, with the unsuccessful hope of facilitating an attack by Spain so as to end the piracy. A significant number of renegades lived in Algiers at the time, Christians converted voluntarily to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, many fleeing the law or other problems at home. Once converted to Islam, they were safe in Algiers. Many occupied positions of authority, such as , an Englishman who became Treasurer of Algiers. The city under Ottoman control was enclosed by a wall on all sides, including along the seafront. In this wall, five gates allowed access to the city, with five roads from each gate dividing the city and meeting in front of the Ketchaoua Mosque. In 1556, a citadel was constructed at the highest point in the wall. A major road running north to south divided the city in two: The upper city (al-Gabal, or 'the mountain') which consisted of about fifty small quarters of Andalusian,
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...
,
Moorish '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors in ...

Moorish
and Kabyle communities, and the lower city (al-Wata, or 'the plains') which was the administrative, military and commercial centre of the city, mostly inhabited by Ottoman Turkish dignitaries and other upper-class families. In August 1816, the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth (a descendant of Thomas Pellew, taken in an Algerian slave raid in 1715), assisted by
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
men-of-war, destroying the corsair fleet harboured in Algiers.


French rule

The history of Algiers from 1830 to 1962 is bound to the larger history of
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber language, Berber: ''Dzayer;'' French language, French'': Alger'') is ...

Algeria
and its relationship to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. On July 4, 1830, under the pretext of an affront to the French consul—whom the
dey Dey (Arabic: داي), from the Turkish honorific title ''dayı'', literally meaning uncle, was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers The Regency of Algiers (in ar, الجزائر, translit=al Jaza'ir), was a state in Nor ...

dey
had hit with a
fly-whisk A fly-whisk (or fly-swish) is a tool that is used to swat flies. A similar gadget is used as a hand fan in hot tropical climates, sometimes as part of regalia, and is called a ''chowrie'', ''chāmara'', or ''prakirnaka'' in South Asia South ...
when the consul said the French government was not prepared to pay its large outstanding debts to two Algerian merchants—a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city in the 1830 invasion of Algiers. The city capitulated the following day. Algiers became the capital of
French Algeria French Algeria (french: Alger to 1839, then afterwards; unofficially , ar, الجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, refers to the France, French colonisation of Algeria. French rule in the region began in 1830 with t ...
. Many Europeans settled in Algiers, and by the early 20th century they formed a majority of the city's population. During the 1930s, the architect
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
drew up plans for a complete redesign of the colonial city. Le Corbusier was highly critical of the urban style of Algiers, describing the European district as "nothing but crumbling walls and devastated nature, the whole a sullied blot". He also criticised the difference in living standards he perceived between the European and African residents of the city, describing a situation in which "the 'civilised' live like rats in holes" whereas "the 'barbarians' live in solitude, in well-being". However, these plans were ultimately ignored by the French administration. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Algiers was the first city to be seized from the Axis by the Allies during
Operation Torch Operation Torch (8 November 1942 – 16 November 1942) was an Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, wheth ...

Operation Torch
. In 1962, after a bloody independence struggle in which hundreds of thousands (estimates range between 350,000 and 1,500,000) died (mostly Algerians but also French and
Pieds-Noirs The ''Pieds-Noirs'' (, "Blackfeet"), singular ''Pied-Noir'', are the people of French and other European origin who were born in Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = ...

Pieds-Noirs
) during fighting between the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
and the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale, Algeria gained its independence, with Algiers as its capital. Since then, despite losing its entire ''
pied-noir The ''Pieds-Noirs'' (, 'Black Feet'), singular ''Pied-Noir'', are the people of French and other European origin who were born in Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

pied-noir
'' population, the city has expanded massively. It now has about five million inhabitants, or 10 percent of Algeria's population—and its suburbs now cover most of the surrounding Mitidja plain.


Algerian War

Algiers also played a pivotal role in the
Algerian War The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence,( ar, الثورة الجزائرية '; '' ber, Tagrawla Tadzayrit''; french: Guerre d'Algérie or ') and sometimes in Algeria as the War of 1 November ...
(1954–1962), particularly during the Battle of Algiers when the 10th Parachute Division of the French Army, starting on January 7, 1957, and on the orders of the French Minister of Justice
François Mitterrand François Marie Adrien Maurice Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office in the history of France. As First Secretary of the Socialist Pa ...
(who authorized any means "to eliminate the insurrectionists"), led attacks against the Algerian fighters for independence. Algiers remains marked by this battle, which was characterized by merciless fighting between FLN forces which carried out a guerrilla campaign against the French military and police and pro-French Algerian soldiers, and the French Army which responded with a bloody repression, torture and blanket terrorism against the native population. The demonstrations of May 13 during the crisis of 1958 provoked the fall of the Fourth Republic in France, as well as the return of General de Gaulle to power.


Independence

Algeria achieved
independence Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or Sovereign state, state in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independe ...

independence
on July 5, 1962. Run by the FLN that had secured independence, Algiers became a member of
Non-Aligned Movement The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world Image:Imf-advanced-un-least-developed-2008.svg, 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the International Monetary Fund, IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A deve ...
during the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
. In October 1988, one year before the fall of the
Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall (german: Berliner Mauer, ) was a guarded concrete barrier A barrier or barricade is a physical structure which blocks or impedes something. Barrier may also refer to: Places * Barrier, Kentucky, a community in the Unite ...

Berlin Wall
, Algiers was the site of demonstrations demanding the end of the single-party system and the creation of a ''real''
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
baptized the "Spring of Algier". The demonstrators were repressed by the authorities (more than 300 dead), but the movement constituted a turning point in the political history of modern Algeria. In 1989, a new constitution was adopted that put an end to the one-party rule and saw the creation of more than fifty political parties, as well as official freedom of the press.


Crisis of the 1990s

The city became the theatre of many political demonstrations of all descriptions until 1993. In 1991, a political entity dominated by religious conservatives called the
Islamic Salvation Front The Islamic Salvation Front ( ar, الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ, ''al-Jabhah al-Islāmiyah lil-Inqādh''; french: Front Islamique du Salut, FIS) was an Islamist political party A political party is an organization that coor ...
engaged in a political test of wills with the authorities. In the 1992 elections for the Algerian National Assembly, the Islamists garnered a large amount of support in the first round. Fearing an eventual win by the Islamists, the army canceled the election process, setting off a
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
between the State and armed religious conservatives which would last for a decade. On December 11, 2007, two car bombs exploded in Algiers. One bomb targeted two
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
office buildings and the other targeted a government building housing the Supreme Court. The death toll was at least 62, with over two hundred injured in the attacks. However, only 26 remained hospitalized the following day. , it is speculated that the attack was carried out by the Al Qaida cell within the city. Indigenous terrorist groups have been actively .


Geography


Districts of Algiers

* (of '' Al Qasbah'', "the Citadel"), Ier District of Algiers: called '' Al-Djazaïr Al Mahroussa '' (“Well Kept Algiers”), it is founded on the ruins of old Icosium. It is a small city which, built on a hill, goes down towards the sea, divided in two: the High city and the Low city. One finds there masonries and mosques of the 17th century; Ketchaoua mosque (built in 1794 by the Dey Baba Hassan) flanked by two minarets, mosque el Djedid (built in 1660, at the time of Turkish regency) with its large finished ovoid cupola points some and its four coupolettes, mosque El Kébir (oldest of the mosques, it was built by
Almoravid The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the weste ...
Youssef Ibn Tachfin and rebuilt later in 1794), mosque Ali Betchnin (Raïs, 1623), Dar Aziza, palate of Jénina. In the Kasbah, there are also labyrinths of lanes and houses that are very picturesque, and if one gets lost there, it is enough to go down again towards the sea to reposition oneself. *
Bab El Oued Bab El Oued is a neighbourhood in Algiers, the Capital (political), capital of Algeria, along the coast north of the Alger Centre, city centre. As of 2008, the population of the commune of Bab El Oued was 64,732. History During the existence of Fre ...

Bab El Oued
: Literally ''the River's Gate'', the popular district which extends from the Casbah beyond "the gate of the river". It is the capital's darling and best liked borough. Famous for its square with "the three clocks" and for its "market Triplet", it is also a district of workshops and manufacturing plants. * Edge of sea: from 1840, the architects Pierre-August Guiauchain and Charles Frédéric Chassériau designed new buildings apart from the Casbah, town hall, law courts, buildings, theatre, palace of the Governor, and casino, to form an elegant walk bordered by arcades which is today the boulevard Che Guevara (formerly the Boulevard of the Republic). * Kouba, Algeria, Kouba (will daira of Hussein-dey): Kouba is an old village which was absorbed by the expansion of the town of Algiers. Kouba quickly developed under the French colonial era then continued growing due to formidable demographic expansion that Algiers saw after the independence of Algeria in 1962. It is today a district of Algiers which is largely made up of houses, villas and buildings not exceeding five stories. * El Harrach, a suburb of Algiers, is located about to the east of the city. * The communes of Hydra (Algiers) will, Hydra, Ben Aknoun, El-Biar and Bouzareah form what the inhabitants of Algiers call the "Heights of Algiers". These communes shelter the majority of the foreign embassies of Algiers, of many ministries and university centers, which makes it one of the administrative and policy centers of the country. * The Didouche Mourad street is located in the 3rd district Of Algiers. It extends from the Grande Post office to the Heights of Algiers. It crosses in particular the place Audin, the Algiers 1 University, Faculty of Algiers, The Crowned Heart and the Freedom Park (formerly Galland). It is bordered by smart stores and restaurants along most of its length. It is regarded as the heart of the capital.


Climate

Algiers has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification ''Csa''). Its proximity to the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
aids in moderating the city's temperatures. As a result, Algiers usually does not see the extreme temperatures that are experienced in the adjacent interior. Algiers on average receives roughly of rain per year, the bulk of which is seen between October and April. The precipitation is higher than in most of coastal Mediterranean
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, and similar to most of coastal Mediterranean
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, as opposed to the interior North African semi-arid or arid climate. Snow is very rare; in 2012, the city received of snowfall, its first snowfall in eight years.


Government

The city (and province) of Algiers is composed of 13 administrative districts, sub-divided into 57 ''communes'' listed below with their populations at the 1998 and 2008 Censuses:


Local architecture

There are many public buildings of interest, including the whole Kasbah quarter, Martyrs Square (''Sahat ech-Chouhada'' ساحة الشهداء), the government offices (formerly the United Kingdom, British consulate), the "Djamaa el Kebir, Grand", "Djamaa el Djedid, New", and Ketchaoua Mosque, Ketchaoua Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of Notre Dame d'Afrique, the Bardo National Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography, Bardo Museum, the old ''Bibliothèque Nationale d'Alger''—a Turkey, Turkish palace built in 1799–1800—and the new National Library of Algeria, National Library, built in a style reminiscent of the British Library. The main building in the Kasbah was begun in 1516 on the site of an older building, and served as the palace of the deys until the French conquest. A road has been cut through the centre of the building, the mosque turned into barracks, and the hall of audience allowed to fall into ruin. There still remain a minaret and some marble arches and columns. Traces exist of the vaults in which were stored the treasures of the dey. Djamaa el Kebir (''Jamaa-el-Kebir'' الجامع الكبير) is the oldest mosque in Algiers. It was first built by Yusuf ibn Tashfin, but reconstructed many times. The pulpit (''minbar'' منبر) bears an inscription showing that the building existed in 1097. The minaret was built by the sultan of Tlemcen, in 1324. The interior of the mosque is square and is divided into aisles by columns joined by
Moorish '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors in ...

Moorish
arches. The Djamaa el Djedid, New Mosque (''Jamaa-el-Jedid'' الجامع الجديد), dating from the 17th century, is in the form of a Greek cross, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small cupolas at the corners. The minaret is high. The interior resembles that of the Grand Mosque. The church of the Holy Trinity (built in 1870) stands at the southern end of the ''rue d'Isly'' near the site of the demolished Fort Bab Azoun باب عزون. The interior is richly decorated with various coloured marbles. Many of these marbles contain memorial inscriptions relating to the British residents (voluntary and involuntary) of Algiers from the time of John Tipton, the first English consul, in 1580 (NB Some sources give 1585). One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in Republic of Ireland, Ireland, sacked Baltimore, County Cork, Baltimore, and enslaved its inhabitants. The Ketchaoua Mosque (''Djamaa Ketchaoua'' جامع كتشاوة), at the foot of the Casbah, was before independence in 1962 the cathedral of St Philippe, itself made in 1845 from a mosque dating from 1612. The principal entrance, reached by a flight of 23 steps, is ornamented with a portico supported by four black-veined marble columns. The roof of the nave is of Moorish Empire, Moorish plaster work. It rests on a series of arcades supported by white marble columns. Several of these columns belonged to the original mosque. In one of the chapels was a tomb containing the bones of San Geronimo. The building seems a curious blend of Moorish and Byzantine Empire, Byzantine styles. Algiers possesses a college with schools of law, medicine, science and letters. The college buildings are large and handsome. The Bardo National Museum (Algiers), Bardo Museum holds some of the ancient sculptures and mosaics discovered in Algeria, together with medals and Algerian money. The port of Algiers is sheltered from all winds. There are two harbours, both artificial—the old or northern harbour and the southern or Agha harbour. The northern harbour covers an area of . An opening in the south jetty affords an entrance into Agha harbour, constructed in Agha Bay. Agha harbour has also an independent entrance on its southern side. The inner harbour was begun in 1518 by Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa (see History, below), who, to accommodated his pirate vessels, caused the island on which was Fort Penon to be connected with the mainland by a mole (architecture), mole. The lighthouse which occupies the site of Fort Penon was built in 1544. Algiers was a walled city from the time of the deys until the close of the 19th century. The French, after their occupation of the city (1830), built a Defensive wall, rampart, parapet and ditch (fortification), ditch, with two terminal forts, Bab Azoun باب عزون to the south and Bab-el-Oued اد to the north. The forts and part of the ramparts were demolished at the beginning of the 20th century, when a line of forts occupying the heights of Bouzareah بوزريعة (at an elevation of above the sea) took their place. Notre Dame d'Afrique, a church built (1858–1872) in a mixture of the Roman Empire, Roman and Byzantine Empire, Byzantine styles, is conspicuously situated overlooking the sea, on the shoulder of the Bouzareah hills, to the north of the city. Above the altar is a statue of the Mary, the mother of Jesus, Virgin depicted as a black woman. The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the confraternity of Naples, Neapolitan fishermen. Villa Abd-el-Tif, former residence of the
dey Dey (Arabic: داي), from the Turkish honorific title ''dayı'', literally meaning uncle, was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers The Regency of Algiers (in ar, الجزائر, translit=al Jaza'ir), was a state in Nor ...

dey
, was used during the French period, to accommodate French artists, chiefly painters, and winners of the Abd-el-Tif prize, among whom Maurice Boitel, for a while of two years. Nowadays, Algerian artists are back in the villa's studios.


Monuments

* Notre Dame d'Afrique, accessible by one Aerial tramway, cable car, is one of the city's most outstanding monuments: located in the district of Z' will ghara, the basilica was built around 1858. * Monument des Martyrs (''Marquand E' chahid''): an iconic concrete monument commemorating the Algerian War, Algerian war for independence. The monument was opened in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of Algeria's independence. It is fashioned in the shape of three standing palm leaves which shelter the "Eternal Flame" beneath. At the edge of each palm leaf stands a statue of a soldier, each representing a stage of Algeria's struggle. * The El Jedid mosque at the Place des Martyrs near the port. * Place of the Emir Abdelkader (formerly Thomas-Robert Bugeaud, Bugeaud): in memory of the famous emir Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri, Abd El-Kader, resistant during French conquest of Algeria. * Grand Post Office (1910, by Voinot and Tondoire): construction of the neo-Moorish type which is in full centre town of Algiers. * The Jardin d'essai (''Garden of Test''; ''El-Hamma''): situated in the east of Algiers, it extends over and contains exotic plants and gardens. It was created in 1832 by A. Hardy. * Villa Abd-el-Hair, with the top of the Garden of test, one of the old residences of the dey, where until 1962, were placed the artists prizes winner of Price Abd-el-Hair, and in particular Maurice Boitel and Andre Hamburg. * Citadel. * Riadh El-Feth (shopping centre and art gallery). * Ketchaoua Mosque (This mosque became the Saint-Philippe cathedral during colonization before becoming again a mosque). * National Library of Algeria, National Library, is in the district of El HAMMA and was built in the 1990s. * Djamaa el Kebir at the Rue de la Marine. It is the oldest mosque of Algiers and was built during the reign of the
Almoravid The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the weste ...
sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin. * Palais des Rais, Le Bastion 23 – Palais des Rais, built in 1576 by Dey Ramdhan Pacha and located in the lower Casbah in the Bab El Oued neighborhood.


Demographics

Algiers has a population of about 3,335,418 (2012 estimate). The ethnic distribution is 53% from an Arabic-speaking background, 44% from a Berber-speaking background and 3% foreign-born. * 1940 – 300,000 people lived in Algiers. * 1960 – 900,000 people lived in Algiers. * 1963 – 600,000 people lived in Algiers.


Economy

Algiers is an important economic, commercial and financial center, with in particular a stock exchange with a capitalisation of 60 million euros. The city has the highest cost of living of any city in North Africa, as well as the 50th highest worldwide, as of March 2007, having gained one position compared to the previous year. Mohamed Ben Ali El Abbar, president of the Council of Administration of the Emirate Group EMAAR, presented five "megaprojects" to Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, during a ceremony which took place Saturday, July 15, within the Palace of the People of Algiers. These projects will transform the city of Algiers and its surroundings by equipping them with a retail area and restoration and leisure facilities. The first project will concentrate on the reorganization and the development of the infrastructures of the railway station "Aga" located in the downtown area. The ultramodern station intended to accommodate more than 80.000 passengers per day, will become a center of circulation in the heart of the grid system, surrounded by commercial offices and buildings and hotels intended for travelers in transit. A shopping centre and three high-rise office buildings rising with the top of the commercial zone will accompany the project. The second project will not relate to the bay of Algiers and aims to revitalize the sea front. The development of the sea front will include marinas, channels, luxury hotels, offices, apartments of great standing, luxury stores and leisure amenities. A crescent-shaped peninsula will be set up on the open sea. The project of the bay of Algiers will also comprise six small islands, of which four of round form, connected to each other by bridges and marinas and will include tourist and residential complexes. The third project will relate to restructuring an area of Algiers, qualified by the originators of the project of "city of wellness". El Abbar indicated to the journalists that the complex would be "agreeable for all those which will want to combine tourism and well-being or tourism and relaxation". The complex will include a university, a research center and a medical centre. It should also include a hospital complex, a care centre, a hotel zone, an urban centre and a thermal spa with villas and apartments. The university will include a medical school and a school for care male nurses which will be able to accommodate 500 students. The university campus will have the possibility of seeing setting up broad ranges of buildings of research laboratories and residences. Another project relates to technological implantation of a campus in Sidi Abdellah, south-east from Algiers. This site will include shopping centres, residential zones with high standard apartments and a golf course surrounded by villas and hotels. Two other residential zones, including 1.800 apartments and 40 high standard villas, will be built on the surrounding hills. The fifth project is that of the tourist complex Colonel Abbès, which will be located west from Algiers. This complex will include several retail zones, meeting places, and residential zones composed of apartments and villas with views of the sea. There is another project under construction, by the name of Algiers Medina. The first step of the project is nearly complete. A Hewlett Packard office for French-speaking countries in Africa is in Algiers.


Tourist installations

Some to the west of Algiers are such seaside resorts as Sidi-Ferruch, Sidi Fredj (ex-Sidi Ferruch), Palm Beach (Algeria), Palm Beach, Douaouda, Zéralda, and the '' Club of the Pines '' (residence of State); there are tourist complexes, Algerian and other restaurants, souvenir shops, supervised beaches, and other amenities. The city is also equipped with important hotel complexes such as the hotel Hilton, El-Aurassi or El Djazair. Algiers also has the first water park in the country. The tourism of Algiers is growing but is not as developed as that of the larger cities in Morocco or Tunisia.


Education

The presence of a large diplomatic community in Algiers prompted the creation of multiple international educational institutions. These schools include : * American International School of Algiers; * El Kalimat School (English-language school); * Lycée International Alexandre-Dumas, Lycée International Alexandre-Dumas d'Alger (French school); * Roma Italian School of Algiers; * Russian Embassy School in Algiers. There was formerly the École japonaise d'Alger (アルジェ日本人学校 ''Aruje Nihonjin Gakkō''), a Nihonjin gakko, school for Japanese children.


Public transport

* ETUSA (urban and suburban bus transportation for Algiers) operates bus service in Algiers and the surrounding suburbs. 54 lines are operating, with service from 5:30 a.m. to 12:45 a.m. * SNTF (national railroad company) operates commuter-rail lines connecting the capital to the surrounding suburbs. * Algiers Metro, opened November 1, 2011. * Algiers tramway, opened on May 8, 2011. * Houari Boumediene Airport is located from the city. The airport serves domestics, many European cities, West Africa, the Middle East, Asia and North America. On July 5, 2006, a new international air terminal was opened for service. The terminal is managed by Aéroports de Paris. 4 urban beltways: * El Madania – Belouizdad * Notre Dame d’Afrique – Bologhine * Memorial des Martyres/Riad el Feth – Jardin d’essais * Palais de la culture – Oued Kniss


Sports

Algiers is the sporting centre of
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber language, Berber: ''Dzayer;'' French language, French'': Alger'') is ...

Algeria
. The city has a number of professional clubs in the variety of sports, which have won national and international titles. Among the sports facilities within the city, there is an enormous sporting complex – Complex of OCO – Mohamed Boudiaf. This includes the Stade 5 Juillet 1962 (capacity ), a venue for Athletics (sport), athletics, an Olympic swimming pool, a multisports room (the Cupola), an 18-hole golf course, and several tennis courts. The following major sporting events have been held in Algiers (not-exhaustive list):


Football clubs

Major association football club based in Algiers include:


International relations


Twin towns – Sister cities

Algiers is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with:


Cooperation agreements

Algiers has cooperation agreements with: * Lisbon, Portugal * Paris,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
''In addition, many of the wards and cities within Algiers maintain sister-city relationships with other foreign cities.''


Films about Algiers

* ''Algiers (film), Algiers'', 1938, starring Charles Boyer and Hedy Lamarr, and directed by John Cromwell (director), John Cromwell; * ''The Battle of Algiers (film), The Battle of Algiers'', 1966, directed by Gillo Pontecorvo; * ''Tahya ya Didou, Alger Insolite'', 1970, Mohammed Zinet; * ''Bab El-Oued City'', 1994, directed by Merzak Allouache; * ''Viva Laldjérie'', 2003, directed by Nadir Moknèche, with Biyouna and Lubna Azabal; * ''Bab el Web'', 2004, directed by Merzak Allouache, with Samy Naceri, Julie Gayet, Faudel; * ''Once upon a time in the Oued'', 2005, directed by Djamel Bensalah; * ''Beur, White, Red'', 2005, directed by Mahmoud Zemmouri. * ''Delice Paloma'', 2007, directed by Nadir Moknèche, with Biyouna and Nadia Kaci. * ''Abbott and Costello in the Foreign Legion'', 1950, starring Bud Abbott and Lou Costello.


See also

*
Barbary pirates The Barbary pirates, or Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God) is an Abrahamic religio ...
* Botanical Garden Hamma * List of Ottoman governors of Algiers


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * Emerson, Charles. ''1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War'' (2013) compares Algiers to 20 major world cities; pp 267–79. * . * . * . {{Authority control Algiers, 944 establishments Barbary Wars Capitals in Africa Former Spanish colonies Mediterranean port cities and towns in Algeria Populated coastal places in Algeria World Heritage Sites in Algeria Coastal cities in Algeria Populated places in Algiers Province Province seats of Algeria Populated places established in the 10th century 10th-century establishments in Africa