HOME

TheInfoList




Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some f ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
. Albert was born in the
Saxon duchy The Ernestine duchies (), also known as the Saxon duchies (''Sächsische Herzogtümer'', although the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg and Zeitz were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changi ...
of
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld () was one of the Ernestine duchies, Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the House of Wettin, Wettin Dynasty. Established in 1699, the Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield line lasted until the reshuffle of the Ernestine territories ...
to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of twenty, he married his cousin, Victoria; they had nine children. Initially he felt constrained by his role of
prince consort A prince consort is the husband of a king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the con ...
, which did not afford him power or responsibilities. He gradually developed a reputation for supporting public causes, such as
educational reform Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education State schools ( British English) or public schools ( North American English) are generally primary or secondary educational institution, schools that educate all chi ...
and the
abolition of slavery Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is t ...
worldwide, and was entrusted with running the Queen's household, office and estates. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the
Great Exhibition The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, also known as the Great Exhibition or the Crystal Palace Exhibition (in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held), was an international exhibition which took p ...
of 1851, which was a resounding success. Victoria came to depend more and more on Albert's support and guidance. He aided the development of Britain's
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
by persuading his wife to be less partisan in her dealings with
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
—although he actively disagreed with the interventionist foreign policy pursued during
Lord Palmerston Henry John "Harry" Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman, who was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government ...

Lord Palmerston
's tenure as
Foreign Secretary The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, also referred to as the foreign secretary, is a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o th ...
. Albert died at the relatively young age of 42. Victoria was so devastated at the loss of her husband that she entered into a deep state of mourning and wore black for the rest of her life. On her death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as
Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of Engla ...

Edward VII
, the first
British monarch The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established ...
of the
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (; german: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press ...

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
, named after the
ducal A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the f ...
house to which Albert belonged.


Early life

Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near
Coburg Coburg () is a Town#Germany, town located on the Itz (river), Itz river in the Upper Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany. Long part of one of the Thuringian states of the Ernestine duchies, Wettin line, it joined Bavaria by popular vote only ...

Coburg
, Germany, the second son of
Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Ernest is a given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of prop ...
, and his first wife,
Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Louise or Luise may refer to: * Louise (given name) Louise and Luise are, respectively, French language, French and German language, German feminine forms of Louis (name), Louis. Louise has been regularly used as a female name in English language, ...

Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
. Albert's first cousin and future wife, Victoria, was born earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife, Charlotte von Siebold. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, the
Itz The Itz is a river of Thuringia and Bavaria, Germany. The Itz is long and a right tributary of the Main (river), Main. The Itz begins in Sachsenbrunn Sachsenbrunn is a village and a former municipality in the Hildburghausen (district), district ...

Itz
. His godparents were his paternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; his maternal grandfather, the
Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg () was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany. The extinction of the line in 1825 led to a major re-organisation of the Thuringian states. History In 1640 ...
; the
Emperor of Austria The Emperor of Austria (german: Kaiser von Austria, Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A hereditary imperial title and office proclaimed in 1804 by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman ...

Emperor of Austria
; the
Duke of Teschen The Duchy of Teschen (german: Herzogtum Teschen), also Duchy of Cieszyn ( pl, Księstwo Cieszyńskie) or Duchy of Těšín ( cs, Těšínské knížectví), was one of the Duchies of Silesia centered on Cieszyn (''Teschen'') in Upper Silesia. It w ...
; and Emanuel, Count of Mensdorff-Pouilly. In 1825, Albert's great-uncle,
Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (Gotha (town), Gotha, 28 November 1774 – Gotha, 11 February 1825), was the last duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. He was the third but second surviving son of Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg an ...
, died. His death led to a realignment of the
Saxon duchies The Ernestine duchies (), also known as the Saxon duchies (''Sächsische Herzogtümer'', although the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg and Zeitz were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changi ...
the following year and Albert's father became the first reigning duke of
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine, Thuringian states, Thuringian duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day ...
. Albert and his elder brother,
Ernest Ernest is a given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of prop ...

Ernest
, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents' turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Pölzig and Beiersdorf. She presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. The following year, their father married his niece, his sons' cousin Princess Marie of Württemberg; their marriage was not close, however, and Marie had little—if any—impact on her stepchildren's lives. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and later studied in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
, where
Adolphe Quetelet Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet FRSF or FRSE Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's national academy of science and Literature, letters, judged t ...
was one of their tutors. Like many other German princes, Albert attended the
University of Bonn The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn (german: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is ...

University of Bonn
, where he studied law, political economy, philosophy and the history of art. He played music and excelled at sport, especially
fencing Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil (fencing), foil, the épée, and the sabre (fencing), sabre (also ''saber''); winning points are made through the weapon's contact with an ...
and riding. His tutors at Bonn included the philosopher
Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (; ; 19 May 1762 – 29 January 1814) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Meta ...
and the poet
Schlegel Schlegel is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Anthony Schlegel (born 1981), former American football linebacker * August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845), German poet, older brother of Friedrich * Brad Schlegel (born 1968), ...
.


Marriage

The idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, Victoria, was first documented in an 1821 letter from his paternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, who said that he was "the pendant to the pretty cousin". By 1836, this idea had also arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle
Leopold Leopold may refer to: People * Leopold (given name) * Leopold (surname) Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional characters * Leopold (The Simpsons), Leopold (''The Simpsons''), Superintendent Chalmers' assistant on ''The Simpsons'' * Leopold B ...

Leopold
, who had been
King of the Belgians Belgium is a Constitutional monarchy, constitutional, Inheritance, hereditary, and popular monarchy. The monarch is titled king or queen of the Belgians ( nl, Koning(in) der Belgen, french: Roi / Reine des Belges}, german: König(in) der Be ...
since 1831. At this time, Victoria was the
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in questio ...
to the British throne. Her father,
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, (Edward Augustus; 2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was the fourth son and fifth child of King George III. His only legitimate child became Queen Victoria. Prince Edward was created Duke of Kent an ...
, the fourth son of King
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
, had died when she was a baby, and her elderly uncle, King
William IV William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837. The third son of George III, William succeeded his e ...

William IV
, had no legitimate children. Her mother, the
Duchess of Kent Duchess of Kent is the principal Courtesy titles in the United Kingdom, courtesy title held by the wife of the Duke of Kent. There have been four Duchesses of Kent since the title's creation. The current duchess is Katharine, Duchess of Kent, Kat ...
, was the sister of both Albert's father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victoria's mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his two sons to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of meeting Victoria. William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the
Prince of Orange Prince of Orange (or Princess of Orange if the holder is female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or ...

Prince of Orange
. Victoria was well aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. She wrote, " lbertis extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."Victoria quoted in . Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain". Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him "for the prospect of ''great'' happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy." Although the parties did not undertake a formal engagement, both the family and their retainers widely assumed that the match would take place. Victoria came to the throne aged eighteen on 20 June 1837. Her letters of the time show interest in Albert's education for the role he would have to play, although she resisted attempts to rush her into marriage. In the winter of 1838–39, the prince visited Italy, accompanied by the Coburg family's confidential adviser,
Baron Stockmar Christian Friedrich Freiherr von Stockmar (22 August 1787 – 9 July 1863) was a German physician and statesman, who was a leading player in the affairs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom under Victoria of the Unite ...
. Albert returned to the United Kingdom with Ernest in October 1839 to visit the Queen, with the objective of settling the marriage. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839. Victoria's intention to marry was declared formally to the
Privy Council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's per ...
on 23 November, and the couple married on 10 February 1840 at the
Chapel Royal The Chapel Royal is an establishment in the Royal Household serving the spiritual needs of the sovereign and the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal o ...
,
St James's Palace St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom. It gives its name to the Court of St James's, which is the monarch's royal court and is located in the City of Westminster in London. Although no longer the principal resi ...
. Just before the marriage, Albert was naturalised by Act of Parliament, and granted the style of ''Royal Highness'' by an
Order in Council An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that ...
. Initially Albert was not popular with the British public; he was perceived to be from an impoverished and undistinguished minor state, barely larger than a small English county. The
British Prime Minister The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), b ...
,
Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 177924 November 1848), in some sources called Henry William Lamb, was a British Whig The Whigs were a political faction Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated ...

Lord Melbourne
, advised the Queen against granting her husband the title of "
King Consort A prince consort is the husband of a king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the con ...
"; Parliament also objected to Albert being created a
peer Peer may refer to: Sociology * Peer, an equal in age, education or social class; see Peer group * Peer, a member of the peerage Computing * Peer, one of several functional units in the same layer of a network; See Peer group (computer networking) ...
—partly because of anti-German sentiment and a desire to exclude Albert from any political role. Albert's religious views provided a small amount of controversy when the marriage was debated in Parliament: although as a member of the Lutheran Evangelical Church Albert was a Protestant, the non-
Episcopal Episcopal may refer to: *Of or relating to a bishop, an overseer in the Christian church *Episcopate, the see of a bishop – a diocese *Episcopal Church (disambiguation), any church with "Episcopal" in its name ** Episcopal Church (United State ...
nature of his church was considered worrisome. Of greater concern, however, was that some of Albert's family were Roman Catholic. Melbourne led a
minority government A minority government, minority cabinet, minority administration, or a minority parliament is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Art ...
and the opposition took advantage of the marriage to weaken his position further. They opposed the ennoblement of Albert and granted him a smaller annuity than previous consorts, £30,000 instead of the usual £50,000. Albert claimed that he had no need of a British peerage, writing: "It would almost be a step downwards, for as a Duke of Saxony, I feel myself much higher than a Duke of York or Kent." For the next seventeen years, Albert was formally titled "HRH Prince Albert" until, on 25 June 1857, Victoria formally granted him the title
Prince Consort A prince consort is the husband of a king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the con ...
.


Consort of the Queen

The position in which the prince was placed by his marriage, while one of distinction, also offered considerable difficulties; in Albert's own words, "I am very happy and contented; but the difficulty in filling my place with the proper dignity is that I am only the husband, not the master in the house." The Queen's household was run by her former governess,
Baroness Lehzen Johanna Clara Louise Lehzen (3 October 17849 September 1870), also known as Baroness Louise Lehzen, was the governess and later companion to Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the Un ...

Baroness Lehzen
. Albert referred to her as the "House Dragon", and manoeuvred to dislodge the Baroness from her position. Within two months of the marriage, Victoria was pregnant. Albert started to take on public roles; he became President of the Society for the Extinction of Slavery (which was still legal in many parts of the world beyond the British Empire); and helped Victoria privately with her government paperwork. In June 1840, while on a public carriage ride, Albert and the pregnant Victoria were shot at by
Edward Oxford Edward Oxford (19 April 1822 – 23 April 1900) was the first of seven people who tried to assassinate Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and ...
, who was later judged insane. Neither Albert nor Victoria was hurt and Albert was praised in the newspapers for his courage and coolness during the attack. Albert was gaining public support as well as political influence, which showed itself practically when, in August, Parliament passed the Regency Act 1840 to designate him
regent A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
in the event of Victoria's death before their child reached the age of majority. Their first child,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia) Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a in southeastern . It is the second-smallest state with a of and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bord ...

Victoria
, named after her mother, was born in November. Eight other children would follow over the next seventeen years. All nine children survived to adulthood, which was remarkable for the era and which biographer
Hermione Hobhouse Mary Hermione Hobhouse (2 February 1934 – 17 October 2014) was a British architectural historian and prominent Historic preservation, preservation campaigner. Family and early life Hobhouse was born on 2 February 1934 to Arthur Hobhouse, Sir ...
credited to Albert's "enlightened influence" on the healthy running of the nursery. In early 1841, he successfully removed the nursery from Lehzen's pervasive control, and in September 1842, Lehzen left Britain permanently—much to Albert's relief. After the 1841 general election, Melbourne was replaced as Prime Minister by
Sir Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (soci ...

Sir Robert Peel
, who appointed Albert as chairman of the
Royal Commission A royal commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry A tribunal of inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by a government body. In many common law countries, such as the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of ...
in charge of redecorating the new
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
. The Palace had burned down seven years before, and was being rebuilt. As a patron and purchaser of pictures and sculpture, the commission was set up to promote the fine arts in Britain. The commission's work was slow, and the architect,
Charles Barry Sir Charles Barry (23 May 1795 – 12 May 1860) was a British architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The ...
, took many decisions out of the commissioners' hands by decorating rooms with ornate furnishings that were treated as part of the architecture. Albert was more successful as a private patron and collector. Among his notable purchases were early German and Italian paintings—such as
Lucas Cranach the Elder Lucas Cranach the Elder (german: Lucas Cranach der Ältere ;  – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known ...
's ''Apollo and Diana'' and
Fra Angelico Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian ...
's ''St Peter Martyr''—and contemporary pieces from
Franz Xaver Winterhalter Franz Xaver Winterhalter (20 April 1805 – 8 July 1873) was a German painter and lithographer Lithography () is a method of printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earl ...
and
Edwin Landseer Sir Edwin Henry Landseer (7 March 1802 – 1 October 1873) was an English art, English painter and sculptor, well known for his animal art, paintings of animals – particularly horses, dogs, and stags. However, his best-known works are the li ...

Edwin Landseer
. Ludwig Gruner, of Dresden, assisted Albert in buying pictures of the highest quality. Albert and Victoria were shot at again on both 29 and 30 May 1842, but were unhurt. The culprit, John Francis, was detained and condemned to death, although he was later reprieved. Some of their early unpopularity came about because of their stiffness and adherence to protocol in public, though in private the couple were more easy-going. In early 1844, Victoria and Albert were apart for the first time since their marriage when he returned to Coburg on the death of his father. By 1844, Albert had managed to modernise the royal finances and, through various economies, had sufficient capital to purchase
Osborne House Osborne House is a former royal residence in East Cowes East Cowes is a town and civil parishes in England, civil parish to the north of the Isle of Wight, on the east bank of the River Medina, next to its west bank neighbour Cowes. The two ...

Osborne House
on the
Isle of Wight The Isle of Wight () is a Counties of England, county and the List of islands of England, largest and second-most populous island of England. It is in the English Channel, between two and five miles off the coast of Hampshire, from which it is ...

Isle of Wight
as a private residence for their growing family. Over the next few years a house modelled in the style of an Italianate villa was built to the designs of Albert and
Thomas Cubitt Thomas Cubitt (25 February 1788 – 20 December 1855) was a British master builder, notable for his employment in developing many of the historic streets and squares of London, especially in Belgravia Belgravia () is an affluent district i ...
. Albert laid out the grounds, and improved the estate and farm. Albert managed and improved the other royal estates; his model farm at
Windsor Windsor may refer to: Places Australia *Windsor, New South Wales ** Municipality of Windsor, a former local government area *Windsor, Queensland, a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland **Shire of Windsor, a former local government authority around Winds ...

Windsor
was admired by his biographers, and under his stewardship the revenues of the
Duchy of Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall ( kw, Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England Currently, there are two duchies in England; the royal Duchy of Lancaster and the royal Duchy of Cornwall. Unlike historic duchy, duchies in England, these are no ...

Duchy of Cornwall
—the hereditary property of the Prince of Wales—steadily increased. Unlike many landowners who approved of child labour and opposed Peel's repeal of the
Corn Laws The Corn Laws were tariff A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, ...
, Albert supported moves to raise working ages and free up trade. In 1846, Albert was rebuked by
Lord George Bentinck Lord William George Frederick Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck (27 February 180221 September 1848), better known as Lord George Bentinck, was an English Conservative Party (UK), Conservative politician and racehorse owner noted for his role (with Benja ...

Lord George Bentinck
when he attended the debate on the Corn Laws in the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...

House of Commons
to give tacit support to Peel. During Peel's premiership, Albert's authority behind, or beside, the throne became more apparent. He had access to all the Queen's papers, was drafting her correspondence and was present when she met her ministers, or even saw them alone in her absence. The clerk of the Privy Council, Charles Greville, wrote of him: "He is King to all intents and purposes."


Reformer and innovator

In 1847, Albert was elected
Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
of the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
after a close contest with the Earl of Powis. Albert used his position as
Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
to campaign successfully for reformed and more modern university curricula, expanding the subjects taught beyond the traditional mathematics and classics to include modern history and the natural sciences. That summer, Victoria and Albert spent a rainy holiday in the west of Scotland at
Loch Laggan Loch Laggan is a freshwater loch Loch () is the Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan ...

Loch Laggan
, but heard from their doctor, Sir James Clark, that Clark's son had enjoyed dry, sunny days farther east at
Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle () is a large estate house Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. It is ...

Balmoral Castle
. The tenant of Balmoral, Sir Robert Gordon, died suddenly in early October, and Albert began negotiations to take over the lease from the owner, the Earl Fife. In May the following year, Albert leased Balmoral, which he had never visited, and in September 1848 he, his wife and the older children went there for the first time. They came to relish the privacy it afforded. Revolutions spread throughout Europe in 1848 as the result of a widespread economic crisis. Throughout the year, Victoria and Albert complained about Foreign Secretary Palmerston's independent foreign policy, which they believed destabilised foreign European powers further. Albert was concerned for many of his royal relatives, a number of whom were deposed. He and Victoria, who gave birth to their daughter during that year, spent some time away from London in the relative safety of Osborne. Although there were sporadic demonstrations in England, no effective revolutionary action took place, and Albert even gained public acclaim when he expressed paternalistic, yet well-meaning and philanthropic, views. In a speech to the Society for the Improvement of the Condition of the Labouring Classes, of which he was President, he expressed his "sympathy and interest for that class of our community who have most of the toil and fewest of the enjoyments of this world".The text of the speech was widely reproduced, e.g. "The Condition of the Labouring Classes". ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'', 19 May 1848, p. 6.
It was the "duty of those who, under the blessings of Divine Providence, enjoy station, wealth, and education" to assist those less fortunate than themselves. A man of progressive and relatively liberal ideas, Albert not only led reforms in university education, welfare, the royal finances and slavery, he had a special interest in applying science and art to the manufacturing industry. The
Great Exhibition of 1851 The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, also known as the Great Exhibition or the Crystal Palace Exhibition (in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held), was an international exhibition which took p ...
arose from the annual exhibitions of the
Society of Arts The RSA (The royal society for arts, manufactures and commerce) is a London-based organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges. Founded in 1754 by William Shipley as the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Man ...
, of which Albert was President from 1843, and owed most of its success to his efforts to promote it. Albert served as president of the
Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 The Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 is an institution founded in 1850 to administer the international exhibition of 1851, officially called the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations. The Great Exhibition was held i ...
, and had to fight for every stage of the project. In the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
,
Lord Brougham Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, (; 19 September 1778 – 7 May 1868) was a British statesman who became Lord High Chancellor and played a prominent role in passing the 1832 Reform Act The Representation of the ...
fulminated against the proposal to hold the exhibition in
Hyde Park Hyde Park may refer to: Places In England * Hyde Park, London, a Royal Park in Central London * Hyde Park, Leeds, an inner-city area of north-west Leeds * Hyde Park, Sheffield, district of Sheffield * Hyde Park, in Hyde, Greater Manchester * Hyde ...

Hyde Park
. Opponents of the exhibition prophesied that foreign rogues and revolutionists would overrun England, subvert the morals of the people, and destroy their faith. Albert thought such talk absurd and quietly persevered, trusting always that British manufacturing would benefit from exposure to the best products of foreign countries. The Queen opened the exhibition in a specially designed and built glass building known as
the Crystal Palace The Crystal Palace was a cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content more than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fracture ...
on 1 May 1851. It proved a colossal success. A surplus of £180,000 was used to purchase land in
South Kensington South Kensington is a district just west of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United King ...

South Kensington
on which to establish educational and cultural institutions—including the
Natural History Museum A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with natural history scientific collection, collections that include current and historical records of animals, plants, Fungus, fungi, ecosystems, geology, paleo ...

Natural History Museum
,
Science Museum A science museum is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other ...
,
Imperial College London Imperial College London (legally Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a Public university, public research university in London. Imperial grew out of Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert's Albertopolis, vision for a cultural ce ...

Imperial College London
and what would later be named the
Royal Albert Hall The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage (theatre), stage that serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats. While early halls built in the 18th and 19th centu ...

Royal Albert Hall
and the
Victoria and Albert Museum The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in l ...

Victoria and Albert Museum
. The area was referred to as "
Albertopolis Albertopolis is the nickname given to the area centred on Exhibition Road Exhibition Road is a street in South Kensington South Kensington is a district just west of Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London ci ...
" by sceptics.


Family and public life (1852–1859)

In 1852, John Camden Neild, an eccentric miser, left Victoria an unexpected legacy, which Albert used to obtain the Freehold (Scots law), freehold of Balmoral. As usual, he embarked on an extensive programme of improvements. The same year, he was appointed to several of the offices left vacant by the death of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, the Duke of Wellington, including the mastership of Trinity House and Grenadier Guards#Colonels-in-Chief, the colonelcy of the Grenadier Guards. With Wellington's passing, Albert was able to propose and campaign for modernisation of the army, which was long overdue. Thinking that the military was unready for war, and that Christian rule was preferable to Islamic rule, Albert counselled a diplomatic solution to conflict between the Russian Empire, Russian and Ottoman empires. Palmerston was more bellicose, and favoured a policy that would prevent further Russian expansion. Palmerston was manoeuvred out of the cabinet in December 1853, but at about the same time a Russian fleet attacked the Ottoman fleet at anchor at Battle of Sinop, Sinop. The London press depicted the attack as a criminal massacre, and Palmerston's popularity surged as Albert's fell. Within two weeks, Palmerston was re-appointed as a minister. As public outrage at the Russian action continued, false rumours circulated that Albert had been arrested for treason and was being held prisoner in the Tower of London. By March 1854, Britain and Russia were embroiled in the Crimean War. Albert devised a master plan for winning the war by laying Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855), siege to Sevastopol while starving Russia economically, which became the Allied strategy after the Tsar decided to fight a purely defensive war. Early British optimism soon faded as the press reported that British troops were ill-equipped and mismanaged by aged generals using out-of-date tactics and strategy. The conflict dragged on as the Russians were as poorly prepared as their opponents. The Prime Minister, George Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, Lord Aberdeen, resigned and Palmerston succeeded him. A negotiated settlement eventually put an end to the war with the Treaty of Paris (1856), Treaty of Paris. During the war, Albert arranged the marriage of his fourteen-year-old daughter,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia) Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a in southeastern . It is the second-smallest state with a of and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bord ...

Victoria
, to Frederick III, German Emperor, Prince Frederick William of Prussia, though Albert delayed the marriage until Victoria was seventeen. Albert hoped that his daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging but very conservative Prussian state. Albert promoted many public educational institutions. Chiefly at meetings in connection with these he spoke of the need for better schooling. A collection of his speeches was published in 1857. Recognised as a supporter of education and technological progress, he was invited to speak at scientific meetings, such as the memorable address he delivered as president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science when it met at Aberdeen, Scotland, Aberdeen in 1859. His espousal of science met with clerical opposition; he and Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Palmerston unsuccessfully recommended a knighthood for Charles Darwin, after the publication of ''On the Origin of Species'', which was opposed by the Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford. Albert continued to devote himself to the education of his family and the management of the royal household. His children's governess, Sarah Lyttelton, Baroness Lyttelton, Lady Lyttelton, thought him unusually kind and patient, and described him joining in family games with enthusiasm. He felt keenly the departure of his eldest daughter for Prussia when she married her fiancé at the beginning of 1858, and was disappointed that his eldest son, Edward VII of the United Kingdom, the Prince of Wales, did not respond well to the intense educational programme that Albert had designed for him. At the age of seven, the Prince of Wales was expected to take six hours of instruction, including an hour of German and an hour of French every day. When the Prince of Wales failed at his lessons, Albert caned him. Corporal punishment was common at the time, and was not thought unduly harsh. Albert's biographer Roger Fulford wrote that the relationships between the family members were "friendly, affectionate and normal ... there is no evidence either in the Royal Archives or in the printed authorities to justify the belief that the relations between the Prince and his eldest son were other than deeply affectionate." Sir Philip Magnus-Allcroft, 2nd Baronet, Philip Magnus wrote in his biography of Albert's eldest son that Albert "tried to treat his children as equals; and they were able to penetrate his stiffness and reserve because they realised instinctively not only that he loved them but that he enjoyed and needed their company."


Illness and death

In August 1859, Albert fell seriously ill with stomach cramps. His steadily worsening medical condition led to a sense of despair. He lost the will to live, says biographer Robert Rhodes James. He had an accidental brush with death during a trip to Coburg in October 1860, when he was driving alone in a carriage drawn by four horses that suddenly bolted. As the horses continued to gallop toward a wagon waiting at a railway crossing, Albert jumped for his life from the carriage. One of the horses was killed in the collision, and Albert was badly shaken, though his only physical injuries were cuts and bruises. He confided in his brother and eldest daughter that he had sensed his time had come. Victoria's mother and Albert's aunt, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, the Duchess of Kent, died in March 1861, and Victoria was grief-stricken. Albert took on most of the Queen's duties despite continuing to suffer with chronic stomach trouble. The last public event over which he presided was the opening of the Royal Horticultural Gardens on 5 June 1861. In August, Victoria and Albert visited the Curragh Camp, Ireland, where the Prince of Wales was attending army manoeuvres. At the Curragh, the Prince of Wales was introduced, by his fellow officers, to Nellie Clifden, an Irish actress. By November, Victoria and Albert had returned to Windsor, and the Prince of Wales had returned to Cambridge, where he was a student. Two of Albert's young cousins, brothers King Pedro V of Portugal and Prince Ferdinand of Portugal, Prince Ferdinand, died of typhoid fever within five days of each other in early November. On top of this news, Albert was informed that gossip was spreading in gentlemen's clubs and the foreign press that the Prince of Wales was still involved with Nellie Clifden. Albert and Victoria were horrified by their son's indiscretion, and feared blackmail, scandal or pregnancy. Although Albert was ill and at a low ebb, he travelled to Cambridge to see the Prince of Wales on 25 November to discuss his son's indiscreet affair. In his final weeks Albert suffered from pains in his back and legs. Also in November 1861, the Trent Affair, ''Trent'' affair—the forcible removal of Confederate States of America, Confederate envoys from a British ship by Union (American Civil War), Union forces during the American Civil War—threatened war between the United States and Britain. The British government prepared an ultimatum and readied a military response. Albert was gravely ill but intervened to defuse the crisis. In a few hours, he revised the British demands in a manner that allowed the Lincoln administration to surrender the Confederate commissioners who had been seized from the ''Trent'' and to issue a public apology to London without losing face. The key idea, based on a suggestion from ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'', was to give Washington the opportunity to deny it had officially authorised the seizure and thereby apologise for the captain's mistake. On 9 December, one of Albert's doctors, Sir William Jenner, 1st Baronet, William Jenner, diagnosed him with typhoid fever. Albert died at 10:50 p.m. on 14 December 1861 in the Blue Room at Windsor Castle, in the presence of the Queen and five of their nine children. The contemporary diagnosis was typhoid fever, but modern writers have pointed out that Albert's ongoing stomach pain, leaving him ill for at least two years before his death, may indicate that a chronic disease, such as Crohn's disease, kidney failure, or abdominal cancer, was the cause of death.


Legacy

The Queen's grief was overwhelming, and the tepid feelings the public had felt previously for Albert were replaced by sympathy. The widowed Victoria never recovered from Albert's death; she entered into a deep state of mourning and wore black for the rest of her life. Albert's rooms in all his houses were kept as they had been, even with hot water brought in the morning and linen and towels changed daily. Such practices were not uncommon in the houses of the very rich. Victoria withdrew from public life and her seclusion eroded some of Albert's work in attempting to re-model the monarchy as a national institution setting a moral, if not political, example. Albert is credited with introducing the principle that the British royal family should remain above politics. Before his marriage to Victoria, she supported the British Whig Party, Whigs; for example, early in her reign Victoria managed to Bedchamber Crisis, thwart the formation of a Tory government by
Sir Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (soci ...

Sir Robert Peel
by refusing to accept substitutions which Peel wanted to make among her ladies-in-waiting. Albert's body was temporarily entombed in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. A year after his death his remains were deposited at Frogmore Mausoleum, which remained incomplete until 1871. The sarcophagus, in which both he and the Queen were eventually laid, was carved from the largest block of granite that had ever been quarried in Britain. Despite Albert's request that no effigies of him should be raised, many public monuments were erected all over the country and across the British Empire. The most notable are the
Royal Albert Hall The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage (theatre), stage that serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats. While early halls built in the 18th and 19th centu ...

Royal Albert Hall
and the Albert Memorial in London. The plethora of memorials erected to Albert became so great that Charles Dickens told a friend that he sought an "inaccessible cave" to escape from them. Places and objects named after Albert range from Lake Albert (Africa), Lake Albert in Africa to the city of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, to the Albert Medal (RSA), Albert Medal presented by the Royal Society of Arts. Four regiments of the British Army were named after him: 11th (Prince Albert's Own) Hussars; Prince Albert's Light Infantry; Prince Albert's Own Leicestershire Regiment of Yeomanry Cavalry; and The Prince Consort's Own Rifle Brigade. He and Queen Victoria showed a keen interest in the establishment and development of Aldershot in Hampshire as a garrison, garrison town in the 1850s. They had a wooden Royal Pavilion, Aldershot, Royal Pavilion built there in which they would often stay when attending military reviews. Albert established and endowed the Prince Consort's Library at Aldershot, which still exists today. Biographies published after his death were typically heavy on eulogy. Theodore Martin's five-volume ''Masterpiece, magnum opus'' was authorised and supervised by Queen Victoria, and her influence shows in its pages. Nevertheless, it is an accurate and exhaustive account. Lytton Strachey's ''Queen Victoria'' (1921) was more critical, but it was discredited in part by mid-twentieth-century biographers such as Hector Bolitho and Roger Fulford, who (unlike Strachey) had access to Victoria's journal and letters. Popular myths about Prince Albert—such as the claim that he introduced Christmas trees to Britain—are dismissed by scholars. Recent biographers such as Stanley Weintraub portray Albert as a figure in a tragic romance who died too soon and was mourned by his lover for a lifetime. In the 2009 movie ''The Young Victoria'', Albert, played by Rupert Friend, is made into an heroic character; in the fictionalised depiction of the 1840 shooting, he is struck by a bullet—something that did not happen in real life.


Titles, styles, honours and arms


Titles and styles

In the United Kingdom, Albert was styled "His Serene Highness Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" in the months before his marriage. He was granted the style of ''Royal Highness'' on 6 February 1840, and given the title of Prince Consort on 25 June 1857.


British honours

* KG: Order of the Garter, Royal Knight of the Garter, ''16 December 1839'' * GCB: Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Bath (military), ''6 March 1840''; Great Master, ''25 May 1847'' * GCMG: Order of St Michael and St George, Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George, ''15 January 1842'' * KT: Order of the Thistle, Knight of the Thistle, ''17 January 1842'' * KP: Order of St Patrick, Extra and Principal Knight of St. Patrick, ''20 January 1842'' * KSI: Order of the Star of India, Extra Knight of the Star of India, ''25 June 1861''


Military appointments

* Field Marshal of the British Army, ''8 February 1840'' * Colonel-in-chief of the 11th Hussars, 11th (Prince Albert's Own) Hussars, ''30 April 1840 – 1842'' * Colonel of the Scots Fusilier Guards, ''25 April 1842 – 1852'' * Captain-general and Colonel of the Honourable Artillery Company, ''1843'' * Constables and Governors of Windsor Castle, Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle, ''1843'' * Colonel-in-chief of the King's Royal Rifle Corps, 60th (The King's Royal Rifle Corps) Regiment of Foot, ''15 August 1850 – 1852'' * Colonel of the Grenadier Guards, 1st Grenadier Guards, ''23 August 1852'' * Colonel-in-chief of the Rifle Brigade, ''23 September 1852''


Foreign honours


Arms

Upon his marriage to Queen Victoria in 1840, Prince Albert received a personal grant of arms, being the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom Cadency, differenced by a white three-point Label (heraldry), label with a red cross in the centre, Quartering (heraldry), quartered with his ancestral Coat of arms of Saxony, arms of Saxony. They are blazoned: "Quarterly, 1st and 4th, the Royal Arms, with overall a label of three points Argent charged on the centre with cross Gules; 2nd and 3rd, Barry (heraldry), Barry of ten Or (heraldry), Or and Sable (heraldry), Sable, a crancelin, crown of rue in Bend (heraldry), bend Vert (heraldry), Vert". The arms are unusual, being described by S. T. Aveling as a "singular example of quartering differenced arms, [which] is not in accordance with the rules of Heraldry, and is in itself an heraldic contradiction." Prior to his marriage Albert used the arms of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, his father undifferenced, in accordance with German custom. Albert's Garter stall plate displays his arms surmounted by a royal crown with six crests for the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; these are from left to right: 1. "A bull's head caboshed Gules armed and ringed Argent, crowned Or, the rim chequy Gules and Argent" for County of Mark, Mark. 2. "Out of a coronet Or, two buffalo horns Argent, attached to the outer edge of five branches fesswise each with three linden leaves Vert" for Thuringia. 3. "Out of a coronet Or, a pyramidal chapeau charged with the arms of Saxony ensigned by a plume of peacock feathers Proper out of a coronet also Or" for Duchy of Saxony, Saxony. 4. "A bearded man in profile couped below the shoulders clothed Variation of the field#Barry, Paly, Bendy, paly Argent and Gules, the pointed coronet similarly paly terminating in a plume of three peacock feathers" for Meissen. 5. "A demi griffin displayed Or, winged Sable, collared and langued Gules" for Jülich. 6. "Out of a coronet Or, a panache of peacock feathers Proper" for Berg (state), Berg. The Supporter (heraldry), supporters were the crowned The Lion and the Unicorn, lion of England and the unicorn of Scotland (as in the Royal Arms) charged on the shoulder with a label as in the arms. Albert's personal motto is the German ''Treu und Fest'' (Loyal and Sure). This motto was also used by 11th Hussars, Prince Albert's Own or the 11th Hussars.


Issue

Prince Albert's 42 grandchildren included four reigning monarchs: George V, King George V of the United Kingdom; Wilhelm II, German Emperor; Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse; and Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and five consorts of monarchs: Queens Maud of Norway, Sophia of Prussia, Sophia of Greece, Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, Victoria Eugenie of Spain, Marie of Romania, and Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse), Empress Alexandra of Russia. Albert's many descendants include royalty and nobility throughout Europe.


Ancestry


See also

* John Brown (servant), John Brown * List of coupled cousins * Royal Albert Memorial Museum


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Eyck, Frank. ''The Prince Consort: a political biography'' (Chatto, 1959), a scholarly stud
online
* Haspel, Paul. "England's Unsung Hero of the American Civil War" ''North & South: The Official Magazine of the Civil War Society'' (July 2007), 10#2 pp 48-52; how Prince Albert aided the peaceful resolution of the 'Trent' affair in 1861. * Hough, Richard. ''Victoria & Albert: Their Love & Their Tragedies'' (1996) * Lalumia, Christine. "Scrooge and Albert" ''History Today'' (2001) 51#12 pp. 23–29. * LeMay, G. H. L. "Prince Albert and the British Constitution" ''History Today'' (1953) 3#6 pp. 411–416. * Rappaport, Helen. ''Magnificent obsession: Victoria, Albert and the death that changed the monarchy'' (Random House, 2011). * Walton, Oliver. "Distant patron: Prince Albert and the Development of the Coburg-Gotha Economy." ''Acta Oeconomica Pragensia'' 2008.1 (2008): 117-130
online


External links

* * *
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
at the Royal Collection *
Prince Consort Albert, England and Europe
Virtual exhibition of bavarikon
Prince Albert (1819–1861)
BBC History
UK Parliamentary Archives, Oaths of Prince Albert, Duke of Saxe, Prince of Saxe Coburg and Gotha
, - {{DEFAULTSORT:Albert, Prince Consort Albert, Prince Consort, 1819 births 1861 deaths People from Coburg House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (United Kingdom) Princes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Princes of the United Kingdom 19th-century British people 11th Hussars officers British field marshals British royal consorts German Protestants British Protestants Chancellors of the University of Cambridge German emigrants to the United Kingdom Grenadier Guards officers Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Presidents of the Zoological Society of London Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom Presidents of the British Science Association Queen Victoria Scots Guards officers University of Bonn alumni Knights of the Garter Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Great Masters of the Order of the Bath Knights of the Thistle Knights of St Patrick Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George Knights Companion of the Order of the Star of India Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary Knights of the Order of Saint Hubert Knights of the Golden Fleece of Spain Grand Croix of the Légion d'honneur Bailiffs Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Grand Crosses of the Order of Aviz, 3 Grand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal), 3 Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, 3 Recipients of the Order of St. Andrew Recipients of the Order of the White Eagle (Russia) Recipients of the Order of St. Anna, 1st class Recipients of the Order of the Medjidie, 1st class Recipients of the Order of the Netherlands Lion