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Albany ( ) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
of the
U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to this shared sovereignty, are both of t ...
of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
, and the
seat SEAT S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish car manufacturer, which sells its vehicles under the SEAT and Cupra brands. It was founded on 9 May 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria Instituto Nacional d ...
and largest city of
Albany CountyAlbany County is the name of two jurisdictions in the United States in different states: *Albany County, New York *Albany County, Wyoming {{Geodis, uscounty ...
. Albany is on the west bank of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
, about south of its confluence with the
Mohawk River The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...

Mohawk River
, and about north of
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. The city is known for its architecture, commerce, culture, institutions of higher education, and rich history. It is the economic and cultural core of the
Capital District A capital district, capital region or capital territory is normally a specially designated administrative division where a country's seat of government is located. As such, in a Federation, federal model of government, no State (administrative div ...
of
New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Colu ...
, which comprises the Albany–
Schenectady Schenectady () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...
Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek mythology, Greek myth of the ...
Metropolitan Statistical Area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throu ...
, including the nearby
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
and suburbs of Troy, Schenectady, and
Saratoga Springs Saratoga Springs is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...
. With an estimated population of 1.1 million in 2013, the Capital District is the third most populous metropolitan region in the state. On April 1, 2020, Albany's population was 99,224. The Hudson River area was originally inhabited by
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
-speaking
Mohican The Mohican ( or , alternate spelling: Mahican) are an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, wh ...
(Mahican), who called it ''Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw''. The area was settled by Dutch colonists who, in 1614, built
Fort Nassau The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. It was also the name of a British fort, which was formerly a Dutch fort. Forts of this name i ...
for fur trading and, in 1624, built
Fort Orange Fort Orange ( nl, Fort Oranje) was the first permanent New Netherland settlements, Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York, Albany, New York (state), New York developed at this site. It was built in 1624 as ...
. In 1664, the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city ''Albany'' in honor of the
Duke of Albany Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scotland, Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of House of Stuart, Stuart and House of Hanover, Hanover. Histo ...

Duke of Albany
, the future
James II of England and Ireland/James VII of Scotland
James II of England and Ireland/James VII of Scotland
. The city was officially
charteredChartered may refer to: * Charter, a legal document conferring rights or privileges ** University charter ** Chartered company * Chartered (professional), a professional credential * Charter (shipping) * Charter (airlines) * Charter (typeface) * Char ...
in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York in 1797 after the formation of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British
thirteen colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
; no other city in the United States has been continuously chartered as long. In the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation. The city lies toward the north end of the navigable
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
; was the original eastern terminus of the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
, connecting to the
Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land ...

Great Lakes
; and was home to some of the earliest
railroads Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transport, transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on Track (rail transport), tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehic ...
in the world. In the 1920s, a powerful
political machine In the politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of soci ...
controlled by the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
arose in Albany. In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany's population shrank because of
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
and suburbanization; in the 1990s, the New York State Legislature approved for the city a $234 million building and renovation plan, which spurred renovation and building downtown.McEneny (2006), p. 201 In the early 21st century, Albany's
high-technology industry High technology (high tech) or frontier technology (frontier tech) is technology that is at the state of the art, cutting edge: the most advanced technology available. It can be defined as either the most complex or the newest technology on the ...
grew, with great strides in
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

nanotechnology
.


History


Mohican, Mohawk, and Dutch before 1660

The Hudson River area was originally inhabited by
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
-speaking
Mohican The Mohican ( or , alternate spelling: Mahican) are an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, wh ...
(Mahican), who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation".McEneny (2006), p. 6 Based to the west along the
Mohawk River The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...

Mohawk River
, the Iroquoian-speaking
MohawkMohawk may refer to: Related to Native Americans *Mohawk people, an indigenous people of North America (Canada and New York) *Mohawk language, the language spoken by the Mohawk people *Mohawk hairstyle, from a hairstyle once thought to have been tr ...
called it '' Sche-negh-ta-da'', "through the pine woods", referring to the path they took there. The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or ''
Haudenosaunee The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous Confederation#Indigenous confederations in North America, confederacy in northeast North America. They were known during t ...
.'' According to Hendrick Aupaumut, the Mohicans came to the area from the north and the west. They settled along the Mahicannituck, which is now called the Hudson River, and called themselves the ''Muh-he-con-neok'', the "People of the Waters That Are Never Still". This name evolved to ''Mohicans''. The Mohawks were based in the Mohawk valley and noted for their fur trading and their access to trade between the Iroquois and other nations. The Mohawk became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English. It is likely that the Albany area was visited by European fur traders, perhaps as early as 1540; but the extent and duration of those visits are unclear. Permanent European claims began when Englishman
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the pro ...
, exploring for the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
on the '' Half Moon'' (), reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built
Fort Nassau The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. It was also the name of a British fort, which was formerly a Dutch fort. Forts of this name i ...
, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade. In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island, but it was rebuilt in 1624 as
Fort Orange Fort Orange ( nl, Fort Oranje) was the first permanent New Netherland settlements, Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York, Albany, New York (state), New York developed at this site. It was built in 1624 as ...
. Both forts were named in honor of the leading family of the Dutch Revolt, members of the
House of Orange-Nassau The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" ...
.Venema (2003), p. 13 Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of ''
Beverwijck Beverwijck ( ; ), often written using the pre-reform orthography Beverwyck, was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was renamed and developed as Albany, New York, after the England, English too ...
'' () in 1652,Rittner (2002), p. 7Venema (2003), p. 12 and the city of Albany in 1686. In these early decades of trade, the Dutch, Mohican, and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures.


British Occupation to 1800

Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original
thirteen colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. When
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
was captured by the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
in 1664, the name was changed from ''Beverwijck'' to ''Albany'' in honor of the
Duke of Albany Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scotland, Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of House of Stuart, Stuart and House of Hanover, Hanover. Histo ...

Duke of Albany
(later
James II of England and James VII of Scotland
James II of England and James VII of Scotland
). Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398, generally to a younger son of the
King of Scots The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots was Kenneth I MacAlpin (), who founded the sovereign state, state in 843. Historically, the Kingdom of Scotland is thoug ...
. The name is ultimately derived from ''
Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) ...

Alba
'', the
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...
name for
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
. The Dutch briefly regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city ''Willemstadt''; the English took permanent possession with the
Treaty of Westminster (1674) The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized communi ...
. On November 1, 1683, the
Province of New York The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all w ...
was split into counties, with
Albany CountyAlbany County is the name of two jurisdictions in the United States in different states: *Albany County, New York *Albany County, Wyoming {{Geodis, uscounty ...
being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...
Counties in addition to present-day
Bennington County, Vermont Bennington County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William a ...
, theoretically stretching west to the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
;Thorne, Kathryn Ford, Compiler & Long, John H., Editor: ''New York Atlas of Historical County Boundaries''; The Newbury Library; 1993. Albany became the
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with Fre ...
. Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by
provincial Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
Thomas Dongan Thomas Dongan, (pronounced "Dungan") 2nd Earl of Limerick (1634 – 14 December 1715), was a member of the Irish Parliament, Royalist military officer during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil war ...

Thomas Dongan
on July 22, 1686. The
Dongan Charter The ''Dongan Charter'' is the 1686 document incorporation (municipal government), incorporating Albany, New York, Albany, New York (state), New York as a City (New York), city. Albany's charter was issued by Governor of New York, Governor Thomas D ...
was virtually identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Dongan created Albany as a strip of land wide and long. Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the west and annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people. In 1754, representatives of seven
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or adminis ...
n colonies met in the ''
Stadt Huys Stad or Stadlandet is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually ...
'', Albany's
city hall#REDIRECT Town hall#REDIRECT Town hall In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre (in the United Kingdom, UK or Australia), guildhall, or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administration (government), admini ...

city hall
, for the
Albany Congress ) Albany, New York The Albany Congress (June 19 – July 11, 1754), also known as the Albany Convention of 1754, was a meeting of representatives sent by the legislatures of seven of the thirteen British colonies in British America Briti ...
;
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
of
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...
presented the
Albany Plan of Union The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, Britis ...
there, which was the first formal proposal to unite the colonies.Rittner (2002), p. 22 Although it was never adopted by
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, it was an important precursor to the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...

United States Constitution
.McEneny (2006), p. 12 The same year, the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began; it ended in 1763 with French defeat, resolving a situation that had been a constant threat to Albany and held back its growth.McEneny (2006), p. 56 In 1775, with the colonies in the midst of the
Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War(s) may refer to: * American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the armed conflict between Great Britain and 13 of its North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America * French Revolution ...
, the ''Stadt Huys'' became home to the Albany
Committee of Correspondence The committees of correspondence were, prior to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegate ...
(the political arm of the local revolutionary movement), which took over operation of Albany's government and eventually expanded its power to control all of
Albany CountyAlbany County is the name of two jurisdictions in the United States in different states: *Albany County, New York *Albany County, Wyoming {{Geodis, uscounty ...
.
Tories A Tory () is a person who holds a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between ...
and prisoners of war were often jailed in the ''Stadt Huys'' alongside common criminals. In 1776, Albany native
Philip Livingston Philip Livingston (January 15, 1716 – June 12, 1778) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Americ ...
signed the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
at
Independence Hall Independence Hall is a historic civic building in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous ...

Independence Hall
in
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
. During and after the Revolutionary War, Albany County saw a great increase in real estate transactions. After
Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (July 26, 1727April 10, 1806) was a British-born soldier who served as a leading American general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines ...

Horatio Gates
defeated
John Burgoyne General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral ...

John Burgoyne
at Saratoga in 1777, the upper
Hudson Valley The Hudson Valley (also known as the Hudson River Valley) comprises the valley of the Hudson River The Hudson River is a that flows from north to south primarily through eastern in the United States. It originates in the of and flows ...

Hudson Valley
was generally at peace as the war raged on elsewhere. Prosperity was soon seen all over
Upstate New York Upstate New York is a geographic region consisting of the portion of New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...
. Migrants from Vermont and Connecticut began flowing in, noting the advantages of living on the Hudson and trading at Albany, while being only a few days' sail from New York City. Albany reported a population of 3,498 in the first national census in 1790, an increase of almost 700% since its chartering. On November 17, 1793, a large fire broke out, destroying 26 homes on Broadway, Maiden Lane, James Street, and State Street. The fire originated at a stable belonging to
Leonard Gansevoort Leendert "Leonard" Gansevoort (July 14, 1751 – August 26, 1810) was an American political leader from New York (state), New York who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1788. Early life He was born in 1751 in Albany County, New Yo ...

Leonard Gansevoort
and was suspected to be
arson {, The remains of Kyoto Animation , often abbreviated , is a Japanese animation studio and light novel publisher located in Uji, Kyoto Prefecture. Founded in 1981 by Yoko and Hideaki Hatta, it has produced anime works including ''The Melancholy o ...
set by enslaved people. Three were arrested and charged with arson: Pompey, a man enslaved by Matthew Visscher; Dinah, a 14-year old girl enslaved by Volkert P. Douw; and Bet, a 12-year old girl enslaved by Philip S. Van Rensselaer. On January 6, 1794, the three were tried and sentenced to death. For reasons unknown,
Governor George Clinton George Clinton (July 26, 1739April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A prominent Democratic-Republican Party, Democratic-Republican, Clinton served as the fourth vice pre ...
issued a temporary stay of execution, but Dinah and Bet were executed by hanging on March 14, and Pompey on April 11, 1794. In 1797, the
state capital Below is an index of pages containing lists of capital cities A capital or capital city is the municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-gov ...
of New York was moved permanently to Albany. From
statehood A state is a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mobilize resources. A polity ...
to this date, the
Legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
had frequently moved the state capital between Albany,
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
, Hurley,
Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie ( , officially the City of Poughkeepsie, separate from the Town of Poughkeepsie around it) is a city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al ju ...

Poughkeepsie
, and
the city of New York New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about , New York City is also the L ...

the city of New York
. Albany is the tenth-oldest state capital in the United States, but is the second-oldest city that is a state capital, after
Santa Fe, New Mexico Santa Fe ( ; , Spanish language, Spanish for 'Holy Faith'; tew, Oghá P'o'oge; tiw, Hulp'ó'ona, label=Tiwa language, Northern Tiwa; nv, Yootó) is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. With a population of 84,683 as of 2019, it is the L ...

Santa Fe, New Mexico
.


1800 to 1942

Albany has been a center of transportation for much of its history. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Albany saw development of the
turnpike Turnpike often refers to: * A type of gate, another word for a turnstile * In the United States, a toll road Turnpike may also refer to: Roads United Kingdom * Turnpike trust, a body set up by an Act of Parliament, with powers to collect road tol ...

turnpike
and by 1815, Albany was the turnpike center of the state.
Simeon De Witt Simeon De Witt (December 25, 1756 – December 3, 1834) was Geographer and Surveyor General of the Continental Army The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ...

Simeon De Witt
developed a grid block system in 1794, and renamed streets that had honored British royalty, using names of birds and mammals instead. This grid was intersected by the major arterials coming out of Albany, which cut through the city at unexpected angles.McEneny (2006), p. 75Waite (1993), p. 201 The construction of the turnpike across the state, in conjunction with canal and railroad systems, made Albany the hub of transportation for pioneers going to Buffalo, New York, Buffalo and the Michigan Territory in the early- and mid-19th century. In 1807, Robert Fulton initiated a steamboat line from New York to Albany, the first successful enterprise of its kind anywhere in the world. By 1810 United States Census, 1810, with 10,763 people, Albany was the 10th-largest urban place in the nation. The town and village north of Albany known as "the Colonie" was annexed in 1815. In 1825 the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
was completed, forming a continuous water route from the
Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land ...

Great Lakes
to New York City. Unlike the current New York State Canal System, Barge Canal, which ends at nearby Waterford, New York, Waterford, the original Erie Canal ended at Albany; Lock 1 was north of Colonie Street. The Canal emptied into a man-made lagoon called the Albany Basin, which was Albany's main port from 1825 until the Port of Albany-Rensselaer opened in 1932. In 1829, while working as a professor at the Albany Academy, Joseph Henry, widely regarded as "the foremost American scientist of the 19th century", built the first electric motor. Three years later, he discovered Inductance, electromagnetic self-induction (the International System of Units, SI unit for which is now the Henry (unit), henry). He went on to be the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. In the 1830 United States Census, 1830 and 1840 United States Census, 1840 censuses, Albany was ranked as the 9th-largest urban place in the nation; it dropped back to 10th in 1850 United States Census, 1850. This was the last time the city was one of the top ten largest urban places in the nation. Albany also has significant history with History of rail transport in the United States, rail transport, as the location of two major regional railroad headquarters. The Delaware and Hudson Railway was headquartered in Albany at what is now the SUNY System Administration Building.Waite (1993), p. 245 In 1853, Erastus Corning, a noted industrialist and Albany's mayor from 1834 to 1837, consolidated ten railroads stretching from Albany to Buffalo into the New York Central Railroad (NYCRR), headquartered in Albany until Cornelius Vanderbilt moved it to
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
in 1867. One of the ten companies that formed the NYCRR was the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, which was the first railroad in the state and the first successful steam railroad running regularly scheduled service in the country. While the key to Albany's economic prosperity in the 19th century was transportation, industry and business also played a role. Largely thanks to the city's Dutch and German roots, beer was one of its biggest commodities. Beverwyck Brewery, originally known as Quinn and Nolan (Michael N. Nolan, Nolan being mayor of Albany 1878–1883), was the last remaining brewer from that time when it closed in 1972. The city's location at the east end of the Erie Canal gave it unparalleled access to both raw products and a captive customer base in the west.McEneny (2006), pp. 87–88 Albany was known for its publishing houses, and to some extent, still is. Albany was second only to Boston in the number of books produced for most of the 19th century.McEneny (2006), p. 88 Iron foundries in both the north and south ends of the city attracted thousands of immigrants to the city for industrial jobs. To this day, one can see many intricate wrought-iron details that were constructed in those years on what are now historic buildings. The iron industry waned by the 1890s due to increased costs associated with a newly Trade union, unionized workforce and the opening of mines in the Mesabi Range in Minnesota.McEneny (2006), pp. 88 & 92 Albany's other major exports during the 18th and 19th centuries were furs, wheat, meat, and lumber.McEneny (2006), p. 65 By 1865, there were almost 4,000 saw mills in the Albany area and the Albany Lumber District was the largest lumber market in the nation. The city was also home to a number of banks. The Bank of Albany (1792–1861) was the second chartered bank in New York. The city was the original home of the Albank (founded in 1820 as the Albany Savings Bank), KeyBank (founded in 1825 as the Commercial Bank of Albany), and Norstar Bank (founded as the State Bank of Albany in 1803). American Express was founded in Albany in 1850 as an express mail business. In 1871, the northwestern portion of Albany—west from Magazine Street—was annexed to the neighboring town of Guilderland after the town of Watervliet (town), New York, Watervliet refused annexation of said territory. In return for this loss, portions of Bethlehem and Watervliet were added to Albany. Part of the land annexed to Guilderland was ceded back to Albany in 1910, setting up the current western border. The train carrying the body of slain President Abraham Lincoln came through Albany on the way to Illinois and some claim the ghostly image of that train remains. Albany opened one of the first commercial airports in the world, and the first municipal airport in the United States, in 1908. Originally on a polo field on Loudon Road, it moved to Westerlo Island in 1909 and remained there until 1928. The Albany Municipal Airport—jointly owned by the city and county—was moved to its current location in Colonie, New York, Colonie in 1928. By 1916 Albany's northern and southern borders reached their modern courses; Westerlo Island, to the south, became the second-to-last annexation, which occurred in 1926.


1942 to present day

Erastus Corning 2nd, arguably Albany's most notable mayor (and great-grandson of the former mayor of the same name), was elected in 1941.McEneny (2006), p. 157 Although he was one of the longest-serving mayors of any city in United States history (1942 until his death in 1983), one historian describes Corning's tenure as "long on years, short on accomplishments."Grondahl (2007), p. 490 Grondahl cited Corning's preference for maintaining the status quo as a factor that held back potential progress during his tenure.Grondahl (2007), p. 500 While Corning brought stability to the office of mayor, it is said even those who admire him greatly cannot come up with a sizable list of "major concrete Corning achievements."Grondahl (2007), p. 494 Corning is given credit for saving—albeit somewhat unintentionally—much of Albany's historic architecture. During the 1950s and 1960s, a time when federal aid for urban renewal was plentiful, Albany did not have growth in its economy or infrastructure. It lost more than 20 percent of its population during the Corning years, as people moved to newer housing in the suburbs, followed by most of the downtown businesses Urban sprawl, moving there as well.Grondahl (2007), p. 492 While cities across the country grappled with similar issues, the problems were magnified in Albany: interference from the Democratic political machine hindered progress considerably. In 1960, the mayor sold the city's stake in the airport to the county, citing budget issues. It was known from then on as Albany County Airport until a massive upgrade and modernization project between 1996 and 1998, when it was rechristened Albany International Airport. Governor Nelson Rockefeller (1959–1973) (United States Republican Party, R) tried to stimulate the city with new monumental architecture and large, government-sponsored building projects; he drove construction of the Empire State Plaza, SUNY Albany's uptown campus, and much of the W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus.Grondahl (2007), p. 501 Albany County Republican Party (United States), Republican Chairman Joseph C. Frangella once quipped, "Governor Rockefeller was the best mayor Albany ever had."Grondahl (2007), p. 502 Corning, although opposed to the project, was responsible for negotiating the payment plan for the Empire State Plaza. Rockefeller did not want to be limited by the Legislature's power of the purse, so Corning devised a plan to have the county pay for the construction and have the state sign a lease-ownership agreement. The state paid off the bonds until 2004. It was Rockefeller's only viable option, and he agreed. Due to the clout Corning gained from the situation, he gained inclusion of the State Museum, a convention center, and a restaurant, back in the plans—ideas which Rockefeller had originally vetoed. The county gained $35 million in fees and the city received $13 million for lost tax revenue. Having the state offices in the city enabled it to keep good jobs and retain middle-class residents.Grondahl (2007), pp. 467–469 Another major project of the 1960s and 1970s was Interstate 787 and the South Mall Arterial. Construction began in the early 1960s. One of the project's main results, since regretted, was separating the city from the Hudson River, its source of development. Corning has been described as shortsighted with respect to use of the waterfront, as he could have used his influence to change the location of I-787, which now cuts the city off from "its whole ''wikt:raison d'être, raison d'être''".Grondahl (2007), p. 498 Much of the original plan never came to fruition, however: Rockefeller had wanted the South Mall Arterial to pass through the Empire State Plaza. The project would have required an underground trumpet interchange below Washington Park (Albany, New York), Washington Park, connecting to the (eventually cancelled) Mid-Crosstown Arterial. To this day, evidence of the original plan is still visible. In 1967 the hamlet of Karlsfeld was the last annexation by the city, taken from the Town of Bethlehem. When Corning died in 1983, Thomas Michael Whalen III, Thomas Whalen assumed the mayorship and was reelected twice. He encouraged redevelopment of historic structures and helped attract federal dollars earmarked for that purpose. What Corning had saved from destruction, Whalen refurbished for continued and new uses.McEneny (2006), p. 191 The Mayor's Office of Special Events was created in an effort to increase the number of festivals and artistic events in the city, including a year-long ''Dongan Charter'' tricentennial celebration in 1986.McEneny (2006), p. 192 Whalen is credited for an "unparalleled cycle of commercial investment and development" in Albany due to his "aggressive business development programs". Prior to the Early 1990s recession, recession of the 1990s, downtown Albany was home to four Fortune 500 companies.McEneny (2006), p. 193 After the death of Corning and the retirement of Congressman Sam Stratton, the political environment changed. Long-term office holders became rare in the 1980s. Local media began following the drama surrounding county politics (specifically that of the newly created county executive position); the loss of Corning (and eventually the machine) led to a lack of interest in city politics.McEneny (2006), pp. 193–194 The election of Gerald Jennings was a surprise, and he served as Mayor from 1994 until his retirement at the end of 2013. His tenure essentially ended the political machine that had been in place since the 1920s.McEneny (2006), p. 198 During the 1990s, the State Legislature approved the $234 million "Albany Plan", "a building and renovation project [that] was the most ambitious building project to affect the area since the Rockefeller era." Under the Albany Plan, renovation and new building projects were initiated around the downtown area. Many state workers were relocated from the Harriman State Office Campus to downtown, helping its retail businesses and vitality. Fortune 500 companies with offices in Albany include American Express, JP Morgan Chase, J.P. Morgan and Chase, Merrill Lynch, General Electric, Verizon, Goldman Sachs, International Paper, and Key Bank. Albany won the All-America City Award in both 1991 and 2009.


Geography

Albany is about north of
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
on the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
. It has a total area of , of which is land and (1.8%) is water. The city is bordered on the north by the town of Colonie, New York, Colonie (along with the Village (New York), village of Menands, New York, Menands), on the west by the town of Guilderland, New York, Guilderland, and on the south by the town of Bethlehem, New York, Bethlehem. The Hudson River represents the city's eastern border. Patroon Creek, along the northern border, and the Normans Kill, along the southern border, are the two major streams in the city. The former Foxes Creek, Beaver Kill, and Rutten Kill still exist, but were diverted underground in the 19th century. There are four lakes within city limits: Buckingham Lake; Rensselaer Lake at the mouth of the Patroon Creek; Tivoli Lake, which was formed as a reservoir and once connected to the Patroon Creek; and Washington Park Lake, which was formed by damming the Beaver Kill. The highest natural point in Albany is a USGS benchmark (surveying), benchmark near the Loudonville Reservoir off Birch Hill Road, at Above mean sea level, above sea level. The lowest point is sea level at the Hudson River (the average water elevation is ), which is still technically an estuary at Albany and is affected by the Atlantic tide. The interior of Albany consists of rolling hills which were once part of the Albany Pine Bush, an area of pitch pine and Quercus ilicifolia, scrub oak, and has arid, sandy soil that is a remnant of the ancient Lake Albany. Due to development, the Pine Bush has shrunk from an original today. A preserve was set up by the State Legislature in 1988 and is on the city's western edge, spilling into Guilderland and Colonie;Burger (2006), pp. 27–36 it is the only sizable inland pine barrens Dune, sand dune ecosystem in the United States, and is home to many endangered species, including the Karner Blue, Karner Blue butterfly.Burger (2006), p. 58


Climate

Albany is in the humid continental climate zone (Köppen climate classification: Dfa), and features cold, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; the city experiences four distinct seasons. Albany is in plant hardiness zone 6a near downtown and along the shore of the Hudson and 5b at its western end. Albany receives of precipitation per year, with 138 days of at least of precipitation (meteorology), precipitation each year. Snowfall is significant, totaling per season, but with less accumulation than the Lake-effect snow, lake effect areas to the north and west, as it is farther from Lake Ontario. However, Albany is close enough to the East Coast of the United States, Atlantic coast to receive heavy snow from Nor'easters and the city occasionally receives Alberta clippers. Winters can be very cold with fluctuating conditions; temperatures drop to or below on nine nights per annum. Summers in Albany can contain stretches of excessive heat and humidity, with temperatures of or hotter on nine days per year. Record temperature extremes range from , on January 19, 1971, to on July 4, 1911.


Crime

New York has an effective statewide crime rate of 385/100,000 people . Albany's violent crime rate is nearly on a par with Rochester (1028 violent crimes/100,000 population vs 968/100,000 in Rochester) and much lower than Buffalo at 1514/100,000. By comparison, New York City's violent crime rate was 639/100,000 in 2013.


Cityscape


Neighborhoods

The neighborhoods of Albany include Arbor Hill, Albany, New York, Arbor Hill; Center Square, "[an] eclectic mix of residential and commercial [buildings], including bars, night clubs, restaurants, and stores"; Pine Hills, Albany, New York, Pine Hills; and the South End.


Parks and recreation

Albany has more than 60 public parks and recreation areas. Washington Park Historic District (Albany, New York), Washington Park was organized as the Middle Public Square in 1806. Its current location has been public property since the ''Dongan Charter'' of 1686 gave the city title to all property not privately owned. Washington Park was designed by John Bogart and John Cuyler in 1870,Waite (1993), p. 155 and opened for public use the following year. The original lake house, designed by Frederick W. Brown, was added in 1876. The park had previously been used as a cemetery; its graves were moved to Albany Rural Cemetery. Washington Park is a popular place to exercise and play sports; skate during the winter; people-watch during Tulip Festival (Albany, New York), Tulip Fest; and attend plays at the amphitheater during the summer. Other parks in Albany include Lincoln Park (Albany, New York), Lincoln Park, Buckingham Park, the Corning Preserve, and the Pine Bush. Lincoln Park, southwest of the Empire State Plaza, was organized in 1886 and was originally known as Beaver Park. Today, the park has a pool that is open during the summer months. Buckingham Lake, Buckingham Lake Park is between Manning Boulevard and New York State Route 85, Route 85 in the Buckingham Pond neighborhood; it contains a pond with fountains, a footpath, a playground, and picnic tables. The Albany Riverfront Park at the Corning Preserve has an 800-seat amphitheatre that hosts events in non-winter months, most notably the ''Alive at 5'' summer concert series. The Preserve's visitors center details the ecology of the Hudson River and the local environment. The park has a bike trail and boat launch and was effectively separated from downtown by Interstate 787 until the opening of the Hudson River Way in 2002. Other public parks include Westland Hill Park, Hoffman Park, Beverwyck Park, and Liberty Park, today a small circular grassy patch in downtown on Hudson Avenue, which is Albany's oldest park. Ridgefield Park is home to the clay courts of the Albany Tennis Club, one of the oldest tennis clubs in the United States. The municipal golf course, New Course at Albany, was constructed in 1929 as the Albany Municipal Golf Course, later renamed the Capital Hills at Albany, and remodeled in 1991.


Architecture

The Empire State Plaza, a collection of state agency office buildings, dominates almost any view of Albany. Built between 1965 and 1978 at the hand of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller and architect Wallace Harrison, the complex is a powerful example of late American modern architectureWaite (1993), pp. 81–82 and remains a controversial building project both for displacing city residents and for its architectural style. The most recognizable aspect of the complex is the Erastus Corning Tower, the List of tallest buildings in Upstate New York, tallest building in New York outside of New York City. Juxtaposed at the north end of the Plaza is the 19th-century New York State Capitol, the seat of the New York State Legislature and the home of the Governor of New York, Governor's office.Waite (1993), pp. 68–70 Albany's initial architecture incorporated many Dutch influences, followed soon after by those of the English. Quackenbush House, a Dutch Colonial architecture, Dutch Colonial brick mansion, was built c. 1736; Schuyler Mansion, a Georgian architecture, Georgian-style mansion, was built in 1765;Waite (1993), pp. 48–49 and the oldest building in Albany is the 1728 Van Ostrande-Radliff House at 48 Hudson Avenue. Albany's housing varies greatly, with mostly row houses in the older sections of town, closer to the river. Housing type quickly changes as one travels westward, beginning with two-family homes of the late 19th century, and one-family homes built after World War II in the western end of the city. Albany City Hall, designed by Henry Hobson Richardson, was opened in 1883. The New York State Capitol was opened in 1899 (after 32 years of construction) at a cost of $25 million, making it the most expensive government building at the time. Albany's Union Station (Albany, New York), Union Station, a major Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts design,Waite (1993), p. 106 was under construction at the same time; it opened in 1900. In 1912, the Beaux-Arts styled New York State Department of Education Building opened on Washington Avenue near the Capitol. It has a classical exterior, which features a block-long white marble colonnade.Waite (1993), pp. 79–80 The 1920s brought the Art Deco movement, which is illustrated by the Home Savings Bank Building (1927) on North Pearl StreetWaite (1993), p. 98 and the Alfred E. Smith Building (1930) on South Swan Street,Waite (1993), p. 82 two of List of tallest buildings in Albany, New York, Albany's tallest high-rises. Architecture from the 1960s and 1970s is well represented in the city, especially at the W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus (1950s and 1960s) and on the uptown campus of the University at Albany (1962–1971). The state office campus was planned in the 1950s by governor W. Averell Harriman to offer more parking and easier access for state employees. The uptown SUNY campus was built in the 1960s under Governor Rockefeller on the site of the city-owned Albany Country Club. Straying from the popular Campus, open campus layout, SUNY Albany has a centralized building layout with administrative and classroom buildings at center surrounded by four student housing towers. The design called for much use of concrete and glass, and the style has slender, round-topped columns and pillars reminiscent of those at Lincoln Center in New York City.Waite (1993), pp. 241–242 Downtown has seen a revival in recent decades, often considered to have begun with FleetBoston Financial, Norstar Bank's renovation of the former Union Station as its corporate headquarters in 1986. The Times Union Center, ''Times Union'' Center (TU Center) was originally slated for suburban Colonie,McEneny (2006), p. 194 but was instead built downtown and opened in 1990. Other development in downtown includes the construction of the Dormitory Authority of the State of New York, State Dormitory Authority headquarters at 515 Broadway (1998); the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, State Department of Environmental Conservation building, with its iconic green dome, at 625 Broadway (2001); the New York State Comptroller, State Comptroller headquarters on State Street (2001); the Hudson River Way (2002), a pedestrian bridge connecting Broadway (Albany, New York), Broadway to the Corning Preserve; and 677 Broadway (2005), "the first privately owned downtown office building in a generation".


Demographics


City of immigrants

Historically, Albany's population has been mixed. First dominated by Mohican and Mohawk, then Dutch and Germans, it was overtaken by the English in the early 19th century. Irish immigrants soon outnumbered most other ethnicities by the mid-19th century, and were followed by Italians and Poles. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the African-American population increased with thousands of people from the rural South, as part of the Great Migration (African American), Great Migration. As historian (and Albany Assemblyman) John McEneny puts it, Until after the Revolution, Albany's population consisted mostly of ethnic Dutch descendants. Settlers migrating from New England tipped the balance toward British ethnicity in the early 19th century.McEneny (2006), p. 103 Jobs on the turnpikes, canals, and railroads attracted floods of Irish American, Irish immigrants in the early 19th century, especially in the 1840s during the Great Famine (Ireland), Great Famine, solidifying the city's Irish base. Albany elected its first Irish Catholic mayor (Michael N. Nolan, Michael Nolan) two years before Boston did.McEneny (2006), p. 104 Polish American, Polish and Italian American, Italian immigrants began arriving in Albany in the wave of immigration in the latter part of the 19th century. Their numbers were smaller than in many other eastern cities mainly because most had found manufacturing jobs at General Electric in Schenectady.McEneny (2006), p. 107 The Jewish community had been established early, with Sephardic Jewish members as part of the Beverwijck community. Its population rose during the late 19th century, when many Ashkenazi Jews immigrated from eastern Europe. In that period, there was also an influx of Chinese American, Chinese and east Asian immigrants, who settled in the downtown section of the city. Many of their descendants have since moved to suburban areas.McEneny (2006), p. 108 Immigration plummeted after the Immigration Act of 1924. Albany was also a destination of internal migration, as many African Americans moved north in their Great Migration (African American), Great Migration from the rural South before and after World War I to fill industrial positions and find new opportunities. In the early years, they lived together with Italians, Jews and other immigrants in the South End, where housing was older and less expensive. The black community has grown as a proportion of the population since then: African Americans made up 3 percent of the city's population in 1950, 6 percent in 1960, 12 percent in 1970, and 30 percent in 2010. The change in proportion is related mostly to middle-class white families moving to the suburbs, and black families remaining within city limits during the same time period.McEneny (2006), p. 111 Since 2007 the number of Myanmar, Burmese refugees has increased, who are mostly of the Karen people, Karen ethnicity; an estimated 5,000 reside in Albany .


Modern overview

With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million, the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state. As of April 1, 2020, Albany's population is 99,224. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, Albany's population density was 4,572.7 per square mile (1,779.2/km). There were 46,362 housing units at an average density of 2,166.4 per square mile (842.9/km); 5,205 of these units (11.2%) were vacant. The Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, racial makeup of the city residents was 52.3% Definitions of whiteness in the United States, white; 27% Black race, black or African American; 0.06% Native Americans in the United States, Native American or Alaska Natives, Native Alaskan; 7.4% Asian Americans, Asian; 0.1% Native Hawaiians, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; .06% from other races; and 3.6% from two or more races. A total of 9.2% of the population were Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 52.0% of the population in 2010, compared to 87.0% in 1970. As of 2010, 20.0% of Albany's population was under the age of 18, 19.3% was aged 18 to 24, 29.2% was aged 25 to 44, 18.1% was aged 45 to 64, and 13.4% was aged 65 years or older. The median age was 31.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. Some 81.3% of the population had completed high school or earned an equivalency diploma. As of the 2000 United States census, 2000 census, the top five Race and ethnicity in the United States, ancestry groups in the city were African (27%), Irish (18.1%), Italian (12.4%), German (10.4%), and English (5.2%); (33.1%) of the population reported "other ancestries". Albany is home to a Triqui language-speaking community of Mexican-Americans. There were 40,709 households in Albany in 2000, out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.3% were Marriage, married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.8% were non-families. 41.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.95. The median income for a household in the city in 2000 was $, and the median income for a family was $ (male, year-round worker) and $ (female, year-round worker). The per capita income for the city was $. About 16.0% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the Poverty threshold, poverty line, including 28.8% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. The Crime rate, rate of reported violent crimes for 2008 (1,095 incidents per 100,000 residents) were more than double the rate for similarly sized US cities. Reported property crimes (4,669 incidents per 100,000 residents) were somewhat lower. Demographically speaking, the population of Albany and the Capital District mirrors the characteristics of the United States consumer population as a whole better than any other major municipality in the country. According to a 2004 study conducted by the LiveRamp, Acxiom Corporation, Albany and its environs are the top-ranked standard test market for new business and retail products. Albany, Rochester, and Syracuse all scored within the top five.


Culture


Nightlife and entertainment

Albany's geographic situation—roughly equidistant from New York City to the south and Montreal to the north; about 4.5 hours' drive east of Buffalo; and 2.5 hours' drive west of Boston—makes it a convenient stop for nationally touring artists and acts. The Palace Theatre (Albany, New York), Palace Theatre and The Egg (building), The Egg are mid-sized forums for music, theater, and spoken-word performances; the Capital Repertory Theatre is smaller. The TU Center is the city's largest musical venue for nationally and internationally prominent bands. It also hosts trade shows, sporting events, and other large gatherings. Some people praise the cultural contributions of Albany and the greater Capital District; others suggest that the city has a "cultural identity crisis" due to its widespread geography, which requires a car to reach most of what the area has to offer, a necessity not seen in larger and more densely populated metropolitan areas such as New York and Boston. In recent years, the city's government has invested resources to cultivate venues and neighborhoods that attract after-hours business. Streets of Albany, New York#Madison Avenue, Madison Avenue, Pearl Street (Albany), Pearl Street, Delaware Avenue, Albany, New York, Delaware Avenue and Lark Street are the most active entertainment areas in the city. Many restaurants, clubs, and bars have opened since the mid-1990s, revitalizing areas that had once been abandoned and reclaiming old row houses, businesses, and a Albany Pump Station, pump station. Bars are concentrated in three areas: about two blocks on Park Street, downtown; along Lark Street, home to smaller bars, which fit the neighborhood's artistic and eclectic style; and Western and Madison Avenues, in midtown, centered on the College of Saint Rose and SUNY Albany's downtown campus and drawing younger people. Much of the bar restaurant scene features classic Irish Pubs, though the official city food is Buffalo Chicken Nachos. Last call (bar term), Last call in Albany is 4:00 a.m. nightly; New York law sets that time as last call throughout the state by default; although counties may set an earlier time, municipalities may not. More than half of the state's counties have an earlier closing time; Albany County, like all counties in the Capital District, does not.


Festivals

''Alive at 5'' is a free, weekly concert series held downtown during the summer on Thursdays; with 10 concerts in 2010, total attendance was roughly 100,000. The Tulip Festival (Albany, New York), Tulip Festival is set in Washington Park and celebrates the city's Dutch heritage. This traditional Albany event marks the beginning of spring as thousands of tulips bloom in the park in early May; attendance to the Tulip Festival in 2010 was approximately 80,000. Another large festival in Albany is the Capital Pride Parade and Festival, a major gay pride event held each June, attended by an estimated 30,000 spectators annually from across Upstate New York. The Price Chopper (New York), Price Chopper Fabulous Fourth and Fireworks Festival at the Empire State Plaza celebrates Independence Day (United States), Independence Day with musical performances and the region's largest fireworks display. Freihofer's Run for Women is a Road running, 5-kilometer run through the city that draws more than 4,000 participants from across the country; it is an annual event that began in 197
The Albany Chefs' Food & Wine Festival: Wine & Dine for the Arts
is an annual Festival that hosts more than 3500 people over 3 days. The Festival showcases more than 70 Regional Chefs & Restaurants, 250 Global Wines & Spirits, a NYS Craft Beer Pavilion, 4 competitions (The Signature Chef Invitational, Rising Star Chef, Barista Albany and Battle of the Bartenders) and one Grand Gala Reception, Dinner & Auction featuring 10 f Albany's Iconic Chefs. The Albany Chefs' Food & Wine Festival donates all net proceeds to deserving Albany Arts Organizations and is held the Thursday-Saturday preceding Martin Luther King Weekend. Smaller events include the African American Family Day Arts Festival each August at the Empire State Plaza; the Latin Fest, held each August at the Corning Preserve; the Albany Jazz Festival, an annual end-of-summer event held at the Corning Preserve; and Lark Fest, a music and art festival held each fall.


Museums and historic sites

Because of Albany's historical and political significance, the city has numerous museums, historical buildings, and historic districts. Albany is home to the New York State Museum, the New York State Library and the New York State Archives; all three facilities are in the Cultural Education Center at the south end of Empire State Plaza and are free to the public. The USS Slater, USS ''Slater'' (DE-766), a decommissioned World War II destroyer escort that was restored in 1998, is a museum ship docked in the Hudson River at Quay Street. It is the only ship of its kind still afloat. The Albany Heritage Area Visitors Center, at the corner of Clinton Avenue and Broadway at Quackenbush Square, hosts a museum, gift shop, and the Henry Hudson Planetarium. In early 2012, the Irish American Heritage Museum opened in downtown Albany. The museum is home to exhibits highlighting the contributions of the Irish people in America. The Albany Institute of History and Art, on Washington Avenue near the Center Square Neighborhood and State Capitol, is "dedicated to collecting, preserving, interpreting and promoting interest in the history, art, culture of Albany and the Upper
Hudson Valley The Hudson Valley (also known as the Hudson River Valley) comprises the valley of the Hudson River The Hudson River is a that flows from north to south primarily through eastern in the United States. It originates in the of and flows ...

Hudson Valley
region." The museum's most notable permanent exhibits include an extensive collection of paintings by the Hudson River School and an exhibit on Ancient Egypt featuring the institute's "Albany Mummies." Albany is home to 57 listings on the National Register of Historic Places in New York, National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and five List of National Historic Landmarks in New York, National Historic Landmarks. The Ten Broeck Mansion, a 1797 Federal architecture, Federal-style mansion (later renovated in the Greek Revival architecture, Greek-Revival style) built for Abraham Ten Broeck (mayor of Albany 1779–1783 and 1796–1798) is a historic house museum and the headquarters of the Albany County Historical Association; it was added to the NRHP in 1971. Later known as "Arbor Hill", it gave the Arbor Hill, Albany, New York, current neighborhood its name.


Literature and film

Albany has been the subject, inspiration, or location for many written and cinematic works. Many #Bibliography, non-fiction works have been written on the city. One of the city's more notable claims to fame is ''Ironweed (novel), Ironweed'' (1983), the 1984 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Albany native William Kennedy (author), William Kennedy. ''Ironweed'' was the third in a series of books by Kennedy known as the "Albany Cycle". The elusive author Trevanian also grew up in Albany and wrote ''The Crazyladies of Pearl Street'' (2005), about a North Albany neighborhood along Pearl Street. The book is considered a semi-autobiographical memoir. In 1987, the film version of ''Ironweed (film), Ironweed'' premiered at the Palace Theatre (Albany, New York), Palace Theatre. The movie starred Jack Nicholson and Meryl Streep, each of whom were nominated for Academy Awards for their performances; much of the filming was done on location in Albany. Most recently the downtown area was the site of filming for the action-thriller ''Salt (2010 film), Salt'', starring Angelina Jolie, and the action-comedy ''The Other Guys'', starring Will Ferrell and Mark Wahlberg. Authors Herman Melville and Henry James lived with their families in Albany when young, before their careers. James identified his character Isabel Archer, the heroine of his novel ''The Portrait of a Lady'', as being from Albany. Gregory Maguire, author of ''Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West'' (adapted for the Broadway theatre, Broadway hit ''Wicked (musical), Wicked''), grew up in North Albany and graduated from SUNY Albany.


Education

The City School District of Albany (CSDA) operates the city's State school, public school system, which consists of 17 schools and learning centers; in addition, there are 7 charter schools, including Green Tech Charter High School, and Albany Leadership High School. In the 2015–2016 school year, over 9,000 students were enrolled in the public school system. The district had an average class size of 18, an 81-percent graduation rate, and a 5-percent dropout rate. The district's 2010–11 budget is $202.8 million. Although considered by the state to be one of the lowest-achieving high schools in New York, Albany High School (Albany, New York), Albany High was listed as the nation's 976th best high school in a 2010 ''Newsweek/Washington Post'' report. Albany also has a number of private schools, including the coed Bishop Maginn High School and Albany Free School; the Single-sex education, all-boys The Albany Academy, Albany Academy; and the all-girls Academy of the Holy Names (Albany, New York), Academy of the Holy Names and Albany Academy for Girls. Albany has a prominent history in higher education and was ranked third in a ''Forbes'' survey called "The Best Places with the Best Education" in 2005; it ranked top on ''Forbes "IQ Campuses" list as part of its 150 Cheap Places to Live series in 2006. The Albany Medical College (private university, private), today part of Albany Medical Center, was founded in 1838. Albany Law School (private) is the oldest Law school in the United States, law school in New York and the fourth-oldest in the country; it was opened in 1851. President William McKinley was an alumnus. The Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (private) is the second-oldest pharmacy school in New York and the fifteenth-oldest in the United States. The New York State Normal School, one of the oldest teachers colleges in the United States, opened in 1844; it was later known as the State Teachers College. It eventually evolved into the University at Albany, also known as SUNY Albany (Public university, public), which inherited the Normal School's original downtown campus on Western Avenue. The center of the campus moved to its current University at Albany, SUNY#Uptown Campus, Uptown Campus in the west end of the city in 1970. SUNY Albany is a unit of the State University of New York and one of only four university centers in the system.McEneny (2006), pp. 122–124 Other colleges and universities in Albany include Empire State College, The College of Saint Rose, Excelsior College, Maria College, Mildred Elley, and Sage College of Albany. Nearby Hudson Valley Community College (HVCC) fills the community college niche in the Albany-Troy area. The effect of the campuses on the city's population is substantial: Combining the student bodies of all the aforementioned campuses (except HVCC) results in 63,149 students, or almost 70 percent of the 2008 estimate of Albany's permanent population.


Economy

Albany's economy, along with that of the Capital District in general, is heavily dependent on government, Health care in the United States, health care, Education in the United States, education, and more recently, technology. Because of these typically steady economic bases, the local economy has been relatively immune to national economic recessions in the past. More than 25 percent of the city's population works in government-related positions.Rittner (2009), p. 13 Albany's estimated daytime population is more than 162,000. Companies based in Albany include Trans World Entertainment, AMRI Global and Clough Harbour. Albany has the fourth highest amount of lawyers in its employment pool (7.5 lawyers per 1,000 jobs) compared to the rest of the nation, behind Washington, D.C., Trenton, New Jersey, and New York City, respectively.


Tech Valley

Since the 2000s, the economy of Albany and the surrounding Capital District has been redirected toward a high-tech, high technology focus. Tech Valley is a marketing name for the eastern part of New York State, encompassing Albany, the Capital District, and the
Hudson Valley The Hudson Valley (also known as the Hudson River Valley) comprises the valley of the Hudson River The Hudson River is a that flows from north to south primarily through eastern in the United States. It originates in the of and flows ...

Hudson Valley
. Originated in 1998 to promote the greater Albany area as a high-tech competitor to regions such as Silicon Valley and Boston, it has since grown to represent the counties in the Capital District and extending to 19 counties from IBM's Westchester County, New York, Westchester County plants in the south to the Canada–United States border, Canada–US border in the north. The area's entrepreneurial ecosystem, high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academia, academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the State University of New York Polytechnic Institute. Tech Valley encompasses 19 counties straddling both sides of the Adirondack Northway and the New York Thruway, and with heavy subsidy, state taxpayer subsidy, has experienced significant growth in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry, with great strides in the
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

nanotechnology
sector, digital electronics design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated circuit, integrated microchip circuit manufacturing. In 2012, the Albany-Schenectady area was listed fourth on ''Forbes'' Magazine's annual "Best Cities for Jobs" list, noting that job losses in state and local government were overcome by expansion of the high-tech field.


Government

Albany has a Strong Mayor, Strong mayor-council form of government, which functions under the
Dongan Charter The ''Dongan Charter'' is the 1686 document incorporation (municipal government), incorporating Albany, New York, Albany, New York (state), New York as a City (New York), city. Albany's charter was issued by Governor of New York, Governor Thomas D ...
, which was granted by colonial governor Thomas Dongan in 1686 when Albany was incorporated as a city. A revised charter was adopted by referendum in 1998, but was legally reckoned as an amendment to the Dongan Charter. This gives Albany the distinction of having the oldest active city charter in the United States and "arguably the longest-running instrument of municipal government in the Western Hemisphere." The List of mayors of Albany, New York, mayor, who is elected every four years, heads the Executive (government), executive branch of city government. The current mayor, Kathy Sheehan, was first elected in 2013. She replaced former mayor Gerald Jennings who was mayor for 20 years from 1994 to 2013. The Common Council represents the Legislature, legislative branch of city government and is made up of fifteen council members (each elected from one Wards of the United States, ward) and an at-large Common Council President. The current president is Corey Ellis; he began his term in January 2018. While Albany has its own city government, it has also been the seat of Albany County since the county's formation in 1683 and the capital of New York since 1797. As such, the city is home to all branches of the county and state governments, as well as its own. Albany City Hall sits on Eagle Street, opposite the State Capitol, and the Albany County Office Building is on State Street. The state government has offices scattered throughout the city. Albany is in the New York's 20th congressional district, 20th Congressional district, represented by Paul Tonko (D) in the United States House of Representatives. The city is represented by Chuck Schumer (D) and Kirsten Gillibrand (D) in the United States Senate. On the state level, the city is in the 44th district in the New York Senate, represented by Neil Breslin (D). In the New York Assembly, western Albany is in the 109th district, represented by Patricia Fahy (D) while downtown and eastern Albany are in the 108th district, represented by John T. McDonald III (D). As the seat of
Albany CountyAlbany County is the name of two jurisdictions in the United States in different states: *Albany County, New York *Albany County, Wyoming {{Geodis, uscounty ...
, the city is the location of the county's courts including Family Court, County Court, Surrogate Court, New York Supreme Court, Supreme Court, and New York Court of Appeals. Albany is the site of a United States district court for the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York, Northern District of New York courthouse.


Politics

Albany's politics have been dominated by the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
since the 1920s; Daniel P. O'Connell, Daniel (Uncle Dan) O'Connell established a
political machine In the politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of soci ...
in the city with the election of William Stormont Hackett as mayor in 1922.Grondahl (2007), p. 48 Prior to that, William Barnes Jr. had set up a Republican Party (United States), Republican machine in the 1890s. Barnes' success is attributed to the fact that he owned two newspapers in Albany and that he was the grandson of Thurlow Weed, the influential newspaper publisher and political boss.Grondahl (2007), p. 165 O'Connell's organization overcame Barnes' in 1922 and survived well into the 1980s (even after his death), as the machine put forth candidates for whom the electorate dutifully voted. In many instances, votes were outright bought;Grondahl (2007), p. 458 it was not uncommon for the machine to "buy poor folks' loyalty and trust with a United States five-dollar bill, fiver". Gerald Jennings' upset in the 1993 Democratic mayoral Primary election, primary over Harold Joyce, who had the Democratic Party's formal endorsement and had only recently been its county chairman, is often cited as the end of the O'Connell era in Albany. In the early 21st century, Albany continued to be dominated by the Democratic Party. Democratic Party enrollment in the city was 38,862 in 2009, while Republican enrollment was 3,487. Every elected city position has been held by a Democrat since 1931.McEneny (2006), pp. 201–202 In November 2013, Kathy Sheehan became the first woman to be elected Mayor of Albany.


Religious life

Like most cities of comparable age and size, Albany has well-established Eastern Orthodox, Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestantism, Protestant, and Jewish communities. Albany is home to the oldest Christian congregation in Upstate New York and the Mother Churches of two Christian dioceses. , eight churches or religious buildings in the city were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Albany County, New York, National Register of Historic Places, one of which—St. Peter's Episcopal Church (Albany, New York), St. Peter's Episcopal Church on State Street—is a National Historic Landmark. Established in 1642, the congregation of the First Church in Albany (Reformed), also known as the North Dutch Church (lon North Pearl Street), is the second-oldest Reformed Church in America. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Albany, New York), Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Eagle Street and Madison Avenue, built 1852) is the cathedral of the Roman Catholicism in the United States, Roman Catholic diocese, led by Bishop (Catholic Church), Bishop Edward Scharfenberger,Waite (1993), pp. 120–121 and the Cathedral of All Saints (Albany, New York), Cathedral of All Saints (South Swan Street and Elk Street, built 1888) is the cathedral of the Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal diocese, led by List of Episcopal bishops, Bishop William Love (bishop), William Love.Waite (1993), pp. 83–84 The city is home to eleven Catholic churches and six Episcopal churches. Despite its history of Christendom, Christendom, the Albany Metro area was found to be among the highest ranking postchristian cities in the US. A significant Jewish presence has existed in Albany as early as 1658, and today includes many synagogues; there are two Conservative Judaism, Conservative, a Chabad, Chabad-Lubavitch, an Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox, and two Reform Judaism, Reform synagogues. Albany is also home to one of the few Karaite Judaism, Karaite synagogues outside Israel. The city has a membership of between 12,000 and 13,000. Since the early 2000s there has been an increase in Orthodox Jews moving to Albany from the New York Metro area, largely due to cheaper housing prices and closer walking proximity to synagogues. Exact numbers on religious denominations in Albany are not readily available. Demographic statistics in the United States depend heavily on the United States Census Bureau, which cannot ask about religious affiliation as part of its United States Census, decennial census. It does compile some national and statewide religious statistics, but these are not representative of a city the size of Albany. One report from 2000 offers religious affiliations for Albany County. According to the data, 59.2% of Albany County residents identified as Christianity, Christian: 47% are Roman Catholicism in the United States, Roman Catholic, 8.4% are mainline Protestants, 2.7% are Evangelicalism, Evangelical Protestants, and 1.1% are Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern or Oriental Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodox Christians. Residents who practice Judaism make up 4.2% of the population and Muslims represent 0.2%. Note that these values are county-wide; city values could be significantly different.


Media

The ''Times Union (Albany), Times Union'' is Albany's primary daily newspaper and the only one based close to the city; its headquarters moved from within city limits to suburban Colonie, New York, Colonie in the 1960s after a dispute with Mayor Corning over land needed for expansion. Its circulation totals about 73,000 on weekdays and 143,000 on Sundays. Serving Albany to a lesser degree are ''The Daily Gazette'', based in Schenectady, and ''The Record (Troy), The Record'', of Troy. ''Metroland (newspaper), Metroland'' is the alternative newsweekly in the area, publishing each Thursday, while ''American City Business Journals, The Business Review'' is a business weekly published each Friday. The ''Legislative Gazette'', another weekly newspaper, focuses exclusively on issues related to the Legislature and the state government. The Albany-Schenectady-Troy media market is the 63rd-largest in the country in terms of Radio in the United States, radio and the 57th-largest in terms of Television in the United States, television audiences. It is a broadcast market with historical significance. The pioneering influence of General Electric in Schenectady directly contributed to the area emerging as the birthplace of station-based television with WRGB; the station was also the first affiliate of NBC. In 1947, the region was home to the first independently owned and operated commercial FM radio station in the United States: W47A. WGY (AM), WGY was the second commercial radio station in New York and the twelfth in the nation. The Capital District is home to American Broadcasting Company, ABC affiliate WTEN 10, CBS affiliate WRGB 6 (also operating The CW, CW affiliate WCWN 45), Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox affiliate WXXA 23, NBC affiliate WNYT (TV), WNYT 13 (also operating MyNetworkTV affiliate WNYA 51), and PBS member station WMHT (TV), WMHT 17. Charter Communications hosts Spectrum News Capital Region, the area's only local 24-hour news channel. The area has numerous List of radio stations in New York, radio stations.


Transportation


Highways

The Adirondack Northway, Northway (Interstate 87 (New York), Interstate 87 north of the New York State Thruway) connects Albany by car to Canada at Champlain (town), New York, Champlain; Quebec Autoroute 15, Autoroute 15 continues into Quebec, linking Albany to Montreal. Interstate 90 connects Albany to both Buffalo, New York, Buffalo and Boston, via the New York State Thruway and the Massachusetts Turnpike respectively, both of which use I-90 (the NYS Thruway partially, the Massachusetts Turnpike fully). South of Albany, I-87 becomes part of the Thruway and ends at Interstate 278 in the Bronx. Albany is literally at the crossroad of I-87 and I-90, creating a junction between Buffalo and Boston, and Montreal and New York. Interstate 787 links Albany to Watervliet, Colonie, and Menands; by way of New York State Route 7, Route 7, I-787 connects to the Northway, offering Saratoga County residents a rather direct, albeit traffic congestion, congested route to and from Albany during rush hour.


Trains

With the closure of Union Station (Albany, New York), Union Station on Broadway, area passenger-rail service is provided by Amtrak at the Albany-Rensselaer (Amtrak station), Albany-Rensselaer station across the river in Rensselaer. In 2009, the station saw more than 720,000 passengers, making it Amtrak's second-busiest in New York, behind Pennsylvania Station (New York City), New York's Penn Station. Amtrak provides service south to New York City; north to Montreal, and Rutland (Vermont); west to Niagara Falls, Toronto and Chicago; and east to Boston.


Airport

Albany's major airport is Albany International Airport in Colonie. List of airlines of the United States, Major airline service to Albany includes service by: American Airlines, Cape Air, Delta Air Lines, Southwest Airlines, JetBlue Airlines, and United Airlines; Million Air is the local fixed-base operator. In 2010, Albany had the highest average airfare in New York, though the per-mile cost on its busiest routes was second-lowest in the state.


Bus

The Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA) provides bus service throughout Albany and the surrounding area, including Schenectady, Troy, and Saratoga Springs. The city was once served by an tram, urban streetcar service maintained by the United Traction Company. As in many American cities, after the advent of the automobile, light rail services declined in Albany and were replaced by bus and taxi services. Greyhound Lines, Trailways of New York, Trailways, Peter Pan Bus Lines, Peter Pan, Short Line (bus company), Short Line, Vermont Translines, and Yankee Trails buses all serve a downtown terminal. Brown Coach provides commuter service. Low-cost curbside bus service from the SUNY Albany campus and the Rensselaer station is also provided by Megabus (North America), Megabus, with direct service to New York City.


Boat

Albany, long an important Hudson River port, today serves domestic and international ships and barges through the Port of Albany-Rensselaer, on both sides of the river. The port has the largest mobile harbor crane in the state of New York. The New York State Barge Canal, the ultimate successor of the Erie Canal, is in use today, largely by tourist and private boats.


Sports

Albany has no Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada, major league professional sports teams, and Minor league, minor league teams typically have low support. The Albany Devils were a minor league ice hockey team that moved to the city for the 2010–11 AHL season, 2010–11 season. They played in the American Hockey League and were affiliated with the New Jersey Devils of the National Hockey League. The Devils replaced the Albany River Rats, who played in the Capital Region from 1990 to 2010, when they relocated to Charlotte, North Carolina. The Albany Devils moved to Binghamton, New York in 2017. The Times Union Center has previously hosted arena football teams including the Albany Firebirds in the Arena Football League (AFL) from 1990 to 2000 and then a team originally known as the Albany Conquest and later the Firebirds in the af2, the AFL's developmental league, from 2002 to 2009. The Albany Empire (AFL), Albany Empire played in the AFL from 2018 through the 2019 season when the league folded. A new Albany Empire (NAL), Albany Empire was relaunched in the National Arena League for the 2021 season. The Tri-City ValleyCats short season minor league baseball team have played at the Joseph L. Bruno Stadium on the Hudson Valley Community College campus in North Greenbush, New York, North Greenbush since 2002. Prior to the ValleyCats' arrival, the Albany-Colonie Diamond Dogs (1995–2002) played at Heritage Park (Colonie, New York), Heritage Park in Colonie, New York, Colonie; due to financial pressures, and facing impending competition from the ValleyCats, the franchise folded in 2002. The Albany Legends (International Basketball League), played in the Washington Avenue Armory from 2010 to 2014 before moving to Schenectady. The Albany Patroons have played at the Armory on and off since 1982 and currently play in The Basketball League. With the large number of local colleges and universities around Albany, college sports are popular. The University at Albany's Albany Great Danes, Great Danes play at the Division I (NCAA), Division I level in all sports. The football team is a member of the Colonial Athletic Association while all other sports teams play as members of the America East Conference. In 2006, UAlbany became the first State University of New York, SUNY-affiliated school to send a team to the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. The Siena Saints saw a rise in popularity after their Siena Saints men's basketball, men's basketball team made it to the NCAA Tournament in 2008 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, 2008, 2009 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, 2009, and 2010 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, 2010. All 18 Saints teams are Division I and play in the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference. Although Siena's campus is in nearby Colonie, the men's basketball team plays at the Times Union Center. UAlbany has hosted the New York Giants training camp since 1996. On February 23, 2021, it was announced that the National Lacrosse League (NLL) would return to the city with the relocation of the New England Black Wolves. The team was named the Albany FireWolves on April 15, 2021. This is the second NLL team to be based in the area after the Albany Attack who played in the city from 2000 to 2003.


Sister cities

Albany has five official sister city agreements and two other Twin towns and sister cities, twin-city relationships. The city of Nijmegen, Netherlands connected with Albany following World War II. With the help of the Catholic university in Albany, the Catholic University of Nijmegen (Radboud University Nijmegen) rebuilt its partly destroyed library, with over 50,000 books being donated to the Dutch university. To show its gratitude for post-war assistance, the city sent Albany 50,000 tulip bulbs in 1948; this act led to the establishment of the annual Tulip Festival. Most of the other connections were made in the 1980s during Mayor Whalen's term in office as part of his cultural expansion program. The official sister cities are: ''Note: Permalinking to search results is not possible. Search under New York to access the list.'' * Nassau, Bahamas, Nassau, Bahamas; * Nijmegen, Netherlands; * Quebec City, Canada; * Tula, Russia; and * Verona, Italy. The additional twin-city relationships are with: * Ghent, Belgium * Extremadura (Autonomous communities of Spain, region), Spain.


See also

* List of capitals in the United States * List of cities in New York * List of incorporated places in New York's Capital District * List of people associated with Albany County, New York * National Register of Historic Places listings in Albany, New York * Neighborhoods of Albany, New York


Notes


References


Bibliography

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Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

* * {{good article Albany, New York, 1614 establishments in North America 1614 establishments in the Dutch Empire Cities in New York (state) Cities in Albany County, New York County seats in New York (state) New York (state) populated places on the Hudson River Populated places established in 1614