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Alaska Natives or Alaskan Natives are
indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
of
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and include:
Iñupiat The Iñupiat (or Inupiat, Iñupiaq or Inupiaq;) are a group of Alaska Natives Alaska Natives or Alaskan Natives are indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native pe ...
,
YupikYupik may refer to: * Yupik peoples, a group of indigenous peoples of Alaska and the Russian Far East * Yupik languages, a group of Inuit-Aleut languages Yupꞌik (with the apostrophe) may refer to: * Yup'ik people, a Yupik people from western and s ...
,
Aleut The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the by the s Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
,
Eyak The Eyak (Eyak The Eyak (Eyak The Eyak ( Eyak: ʔi·ya·ɢdəlahɢəyu·, literally "inhabitants of Eyak Village at Mile 6"Krauss, Michael E. 1970. ''Eyak dictionary''. University of Alaska and Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1963-1970) ...
,
Tlingit The Tlingit ( or ; also spelled Tlinkit; russian: Тлинкиты) are indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. Their language is the Tlingit language (natively , pronounced ),Haida Haida may refer to: Places * Haida, an old name for Nový Bor * Haida Gwaii, meaning "Islands of the People", formerly called the Queen Charlotte Islands * Haida Islands, a different archipelago near Bella Bella, British Columbia Ships * , a 190 ...
,
Tsimshian The Tsimshian (; tsi, Ts’msyan or Tsm'syen) are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Their communities are mostly in coastal British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columb ...
, and a number of
Northern Athabaskan Northern Athabaskan is a geographic sub-grouping of the Athabaskan languages, Athabaskan language family spoken by indigenous peoples in the northern part of North America, particularly in Alaska (Alaskan Athabaskans), the Yukon and the Northwest T ...
cultures. They are often defined by their language groups. Many Alaska Natives are enrolled in federally recognized
Alaska Native tribal entities This is a list of Alaska Native tribal entities which are recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. For related lists, see the List of Indian reservations in the United States, List of Native American Tribal Entities (federally rec ...
, who in turn belong to 13
Alaska Native Regional Corporations The Alaska Native Regional Corporations were established in 1971 when the United States Congress passed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) which settled aboriginal land claims, land and financial claims made by the Alaska Natives and pr ...
, who administer land and financial claims. Ancestors of Alaska Natives migrated into the area thousands of years ago, in at least two different waves. Some are descendants of the third wave of migration in which people settled across the northern part of North America. They never migrated to southern areas. For this reason, genetic studies show they are not closely related to native peoples in South America. Throughout the Arctic and the circumpolar north, the ancestors of Alaska Natives established varying
indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
, complex cultures that have succeeded each other over time. They developed sophisticated ways to deal with the challenging climate and environment, and cultures rooted in the place. Historic groups have been defined by their languages, which belong to several major language families. Today, Alaska Natives constitute over 15% of the population of Alaska.


List of peoples

Below is a full list of the different Alaska Native peoples, which are largely defined by their historic languages (within each culture are different tribes): *
Ancient Beringian upright=1.2, Beringia land bridge during the Late Pleistocene :en:Last glacial period, last glacial period. The Ancient Beringians (AB) is a specific archaeogenetic lineage, based on the genome of an infant found at the Upward Sun River site (dubb ...
*
Alaskan Athabaskans The Alaskan Athabascans, ttp://www.aa.tufs.ac.jp/athabascan/about_e.html Athabascan Conference + Exhibition : Seven branches of Athabascan/ref> Alaskan Athabaskans, Alaskan AthapaskansWilliam Simeone, ''A History of Alaskan Athapaskans'', 1982, Ala ...
*
Ahtna The Ahtna (also Ahtena, Atna, Ahtna-kohtaene, or Copper River) are an Alaska Native Alaskan Athabaskans, Athabaskan people of the Athabaskan languages, Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group. The people's homeland called Atna Nenn', is locat ...
* Deg Hit'an * Dena'ina * Gwich'in * Hän * Holikachuk *
Koyukon The Koyukon (russian: Коюконы) are an Alaska Native Alaskan Athabaskans, Athabascan people of the Athabaskan languages, Athabascan-speaking ethnolinguistic group. Their traditional territory is along the Koyukuk River, Koyukuk and Yukon R ...
*
Lower Tanana Lower Tanana (also Tanana and/or Middle Tanana) is an endangered language, endangered language spoken in Interior Alaska in the lower Tanana River villages of Minto, Alaska, Minto and Nenana, Alaska, Nenana. Of about 380 Tanana people in the two vil ...
*
Tanacross Tanacross (also Transitional Tanana) is an endangered An endangered species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biod ...
*
Upper Tanana Upper Tanana (also known as Tabesna, Nabesna or Nee'aanèegn') is an endangered An endangered species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism ...
* Upper Kuskokwim (Kolchan) *
Eyak The Eyak (Eyak The Eyak (Eyak The Eyak ( Eyak: ʔi·ya·ɢdəlahɢəyu·, literally "inhabitants of Eyak Village at Mile 6"Krauss, Michael E. 1970. ''Eyak dictionary''. University of Alaska and Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1963-1970) ...
*
Tlingit The Tlingit ( or ; also spelled Tlinkit; russian: Тлинкиты) are indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. Their language is the Tlingit language (natively , pronounced ),Haida Haida may refer to: Places * Haida, an old name for Nový Bor * Haida Gwaii, meaning "Islands of the People", formerly called the Queen Charlotte Islands * Haida Islands, a different archipelago near Bella Bella, British Columbia Ships * , a 190 ...
*
Tsimshian The Tsimshian (; tsi, Ts’msyan or Tsm'syen) are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Their communities are mostly in coastal British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columb ...
*
Eskimo Eskimo ( ) or Eskimos is a term used to refer to two closely related Indigenous peoples: The Inuit (including the Alaskan Iñupiat, the Greenlandic Inuit, and the Canadian Inuit) and the Yupik peoples, Yupik (or Siberian Yupik, Yuit) of eastern S ...

Eskimo
*
Iñupiat The Iñupiat (or Inupiat, Iñupiaq or Inupiaq;) are a group of Alaska Natives Alaska Natives or Alaskan Natives are indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native pe ...
, an
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, ...
group *
YupikYupik may refer to: * Yupik peoples, a group of indigenous peoples of Alaska and the Russian Far East * Yupik languages, a group of Inuit-Aleut languages Yupꞌik (with the apostrophe) may refer to: * Yup'ik people, a Yupik people from western and s ...
*
Siberian Yupik Siberian Yupiks, or Yuits (russian: Юиты), are a Yupik people man with raven maskette; the raven (Cup'ig language: ''tulukarug'') is ''Ellam Cua'' or the creator deity in the Cup’ig mythology Image:Siberian-eskimo-Nabogatova-.PNG, A ...
*
Yup'ik The Yup'ik or Yupiaq (sg & pl) and Yupiit or Yupiat (pl), also Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Central Yup'ik, Alaskan Yup'ik (Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, own name ''Yup'ik'' sg ''Yupiik'' dual ''Yupiit'' pl; russian: Юпики централ ...
* Cup'ik * Nunivak Cup'ig * Sugpiaq ~ Alutiiq *
Chugach Sugpiaq Chugach , Chugach Sugpiaq or Chugachigmiut is the name of an Alaska Native people in the region of the Kenai Peninsula and Prince William Sound on the southern coast of Alaska. The Chugach people are an Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo) people who speak th ...
*Koniag Alutiiq *
Aleut The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the by the s Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
(
Unangan The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; ...
)


Demographics

The Alaska Natives Commission estimated there were about 86,000 Alaska Natives living in Alaska in 1990, with another 17,000 who lived outside Alaska. A 2013 study by the
Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development The Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD) is a department within the government of Alaska which handles most of the state's employment, labor and workforce issues, primarily at the administrative law, administrative level. St ...
documented over 120,000 Alaska Native people in Alaska. While the majority of Alaska Natives live in small villages or remote regional hubs such as
Nome Nome may refer to: Country subdivision * Nome (Egypt) A nome (, from grc, νομός, ''nomós'', "district") was a territorial division in ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concen ...
,
Dillingham Dillingham ( esu, Curyung; russian: Диллингхем ), also known as Curyung, is a city in Dillingham Census Area, Alaska, Dillingham Census Area, Alaska, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population of t ...
, and
Bethel Bethel (Ugaritic Ugaritic () is an extinct , classified by some as a of the and so the only known Amorite dialect preserved in writing. It is known through the discovered by French in 1929 at , including several major literary texts, n ...
, the percentage who live in urban areas has been increasing. In 2010, 44% lived in urban areas, compared to 38% in the 2000 census. As of 2018, natives constitute 15.4% of the overall Alaskan population.


History

The modern history of Alaskan natives begins with the arrival of Europeans. Unusual for North America, it was the Russians coming from Siberia in the eighteenth century, who were the first to make contact. British and American traders generally did not reach the area until the nineteenth century and in some cases missionaries were not active until the twentieth century.


Russian colonial period

Arriving from Siberia by ship in the mid-eighteenth century, Russians began to trade with Alaska Natives. New settlements around trading posts were started by Russians, including Russian Orthodox missionaries. These were the first to translate Christian scripture into Native languages. In the 21st century, the numerous congregations of Russian Orthodox Christians in Alaska are generally composed mostly of Alaska Natives. Rather than hunting the marine life, the Russians forced the
Aleuts The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the by the s Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
to do the work for them.Taylor, Alan (2001) ''American Colonies: The Settling of North America'' Penguin Books, New York p.452 As word spread of the riches in furs to be had, competition among Russian companies increased and they forced the
Aleuts The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the by the s Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
into
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
.
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst Christi ...

Catherine the Great
, who became
Empress An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning ...

Empress
in 1763, proclaimed good will toward the Aleut and urged her subjects to treat them fairly. The growing competition between the trading companies, merging into fewer, larger and more powerful corporations, created conflicts that aggravated the relations with the
indigenous populations Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ''indigenous'' was first, in its modern contex ...
. Over the years, the situation became catastrophic for the natives. As the animal populations declined, the Aleuts, already too dependent on the new barter economy created by the Russian fur trade, were increasingly coerced into taking greater risks in the dangerous waters of the North Pacific to hunt for more otter. As the
Shelikhov-Golikov Company The Shelikhov-Golikov Company (SGC) was a Russian fur trade, fur trading venture, founded by Irkutsk entrepreneurs Grigory Shelikhov and Ivan Larionovich Golikov in 1783. Formed in Eastern Siberia during the 1780s along with several competing compa ...
and later
Russian-American Company The Russian-American Company Under the High Patronage of His Imperial Majesty (russian: Под высочайшим Его Императорского Величества покровительством Российская-Американс ...
developed as a monopoly, it used skirmishes and systematic violence as a tool of colonial exploitation of the indigenous people. When the Aleut revolted and won some victories, the Russians retaliated, killing many and destroying their boats and hunting gear, leaving them no means of survival. The most devastating effects were from disease: during the first two generations (1741/1759-1781/1799 AD) of Russian contact, 80 percent of the Aleut population died from Eurasian
infectious diseases An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxin A toxin is a harmful substance produced within living cells ...
. These were then
endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gro ...
among the Europeans, but the Aleut had no
immunity Immunity may refer to: Medicine * Immunity (medical), resistance of an organism to infection or disease * Immunity (journal), ''Immunity'' (journal), a scientific journal published by Cell Press Biology * Immune system Engineering * Radiofrequ ...
against the new diseases.


Impact of Russian colonization

Geopolitical reasons drove the Tsarist government to expand into Indigenous territory in present-day Alaska, spreading
Russian Orthodoxy Russian Orthodoxy (russian: Русское православие) is the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Church Slavonic language. Russian ...
and consuming the natural resources of the territory along their way. Their movement into these populated areas of Indigenous communities altered the demographic and natural landscape. Historians have suggested that the
Russian-American Company The Russian-American Company Under the High Patronage of His Imperial Majesty (russian: Под высочайшим Его Императорского Величества покровительством Российская-Американс ...
exploited Indigenous peoples as a source of inexpensive labor. The
fur trade The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organi ...
led the Russian American Company to not only use Indigenous populations for labor, but to also use them as hostages to acquire iasak. Iasak, a form of taxation used by the Russians, was a tribute in the form of otter pelts. It was a taxation method the Russians had previously found useful in their early encounter with Indigenous communities of
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
during the Siberian fur trade. Beaver pelts were also customary to be given to fur traders upon first contact with various communities. The Russian American Company used military force on Indigenous families as they were taken hostage and held until the male community members brought forth furs. Otter furs on
Kodiak Island Kodiak Island (Alutiiq The Alutiiq people (pronounced in English; from Promyshlenniki Russian language, Russian Алеутъ, "Aleut people, Aleut"; plural often "Alutiit"), also called by their ancestral name Sugpiaq ( or ; plural often "S ...

Kodiak Island
and
Aleutian Islands The Aleutian Islands (; ; ale, Unangam Tanaa, literally "Land of the Aleut The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
enticed the Russians to start these taxations. Robbery and maltreatment in the form of corporal punishment and the withholding of food was also present upon the arrival of fur traders.
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst Christi ...
dissolved the giving of tribute in 1799, and instead instituted mandatory conscription of Indigenous men between the ages of 18 to 50 to become seal hunters strictly for the Russian American Company. Mandatory service of Indigenous men gave the Russian American Company grounds for competition with American and British fur traders. The conscription separated men from their families and villages, thus altering and breaking down communities. With able-bodied men away on the hunt, villages were left with little protection as only women, children, and the elderly remained behind. In addition to changes that came with conscription, the spread of disease also altered the populations of Indigenous communities. Although records kept in the period were scarce, it has been said that 80% of the pre-contact population of the
Aleut The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the by the s Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
Aleut
people were gone by 1800. Relationships between Indigenous women and fur traders increased as Indigenous men were away from villages. This resulted in marriages and children that would come to be known as
Creole peoples Creole people are ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, moralit ...
, children who were Indigenous and Russian. To reduce hostilities with Aleutian communities, it became policy for fur traders to enter into marriage with Indigenous women which also helped grow a strong Creole population in the territory controlled by the Russian American Company. The growth of the Russian Orthodox Church was another important tactic in the colonization and conversion of Indigenous populations. Ioann Veniaminov, who later became , was an important missionary who carried out the Orthodox Church's agenda to Christianize Indigenous populations. The church brought up Creole children following Russian Orthodox Christianity, while the Russian American Company provided an education to them. Creole people were considered to have high levels of loyalty towards the Russian crown and Russian American Company. After completing their education, children were often sent to Russia, where they would study skills such as mapmaking, theology, and military intelligence.


American colonialism

In 1867, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
purchased Alaska from Russia and did not consider the wishes of Alaska Natives or even see them as citizens. The land that belonged to Alaska Natives was now seen as "open land" which could be claimed by white settlers without redress to the Alaska Natives living there. There were no schools for Alaska Natives except where
missionaries A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or provide services, such as education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), ...

missionaries
created educational institutions. Most white settlers considered Alaska Natives to be inferior to them. Alaska Natives began to live under
racial segregation Racial segregation is the systematic separation of people into race (human classification), racial or other Ethnicity, ethnic groups in daily life. Racial segregation can amount to the international crime of apartheid and a crimes against hum ...
and
Jim Crow Jim or JIM may refer to: * Jim, a diminutive form of the given name James James is a common English language surname and given name: * James (name), the typically masculine first name James * James (surname), various people with the last name Jame ...
laws. In 1912, the
Alaska Native Brotherhood The Alaska Native Brotherhood (ANB) and its counterpart, the Alaska Native Sisterhood (ANS), are two nonprofit organizations founded to address racism against Alaska Native peoples in Alaska. ANB was formed in 1912 and ANS founded three years later ...
(ANB) was formed to help fight for citizenship rights. The Alaska Native Sisterhood (ANS) was created in 1915. Also in 1915, the Alaska Territorial legislature passed a law allowing Alaskan Natives the right to vote if they gave up their cultural customs and traditions. The
Indian Citizenship Act The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, (, enacted June 2, 1924) was an Act of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make la ...
, passed in 1924, gave all
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
United States citizenship. ANB began to hold a great deal of political power in the 1920s. They protested the segregation of Alaska Natives in public areas and also staged boycotts. Alberta Schenck (Inupiaq) staged a well-publicized protest against segregation in a movie theater in 1944. With the help of
Elizabeth Peratrovich Elizabeth Peratrovich (née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname, the given name or to the entire name. Where births are required to be officially registered, the entir ...
(Tlingit), the
Alaska Equal Rights Act of 1945The Alaska Equal Rights Act of 1945 (also known as the Anti-Discrimination Law of 1945 Alaska Statutes 44.12.065) was the first state or territorial anti-discrimination law enacted in the United States in the 20th century. The law, signed on February ...
was passed, ending segregation in Alaska. A tragic event that took place in 1942 was the forced evacuation of around nine hundred
Aleut The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the by the s Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
Aleut
s from the
Aleutian Islands The Aleutian Islands (; ; ale, Unangam Tanaa, literally "Land of the Aleut The Aleuts (; russian: Алеуты, Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect),
. The idea was to remove the Aleuts from a potential combat zone during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
for their own protection, though white people living in the same area were not forced to leave. The removal was handled so poorly that many died after they were evacuated with elderly and children being at the greatest risk. Those who lived returned to the islands to find their homes and possessions destroyed or looted.


ANCSA and since (1971 to present)

In 1971, with the support of Alaska Native leaders such as
Emil Notti Emil Reynold Notti (born March 11, 1933) is an American engineer, indigenous activist, businessman, government employee, and political candidate of Koyukon Athabaskan heritage. Early life and education Born in Koyukuk, Alaska, Notti earned ...
, Willie Hensley, and Byron Mallot, the
U.S. Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Wa ...

U.S. Congress
passed the
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) was signed into law by President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or oth ...
(ANCSA), which settled land and financial claims for lands and resources which the Alaska Natives had lost to . It provided for the establishment of thirteen Alaska Native Regional Corporations to administer those claims. Similar to the separately defined status of the
Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the At ...
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, ...
and
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
in Canada, which are recognized as distinct peoples, in the United States, Alaska Natives are in some respects treated separately by the government from other
Native Americans in the United States Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peopl ...
. This is in part related to their interactions with the U.S. government which occurred in a different historic period than its interactions during the period of
westward expansion The United States of America was created on July 4, 1776, with the Declaration of Independence of thirteen British colonies in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within t ...
during the 19th-century. Europeans and Americans did not have sustained encounters with the Alaska Natives until the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when many were attracted to the region in gold rushes. The Alaska Natives were not allotted individual title in severalty to land under the
Dawes Act The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887) regulated land rights on tribal territories within the United States. Named after Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), ...
of 1887 but were instead treated under the Alaska Native Allotment Act of 1906. It was repealed in 1971, following ANSCA, at which time reservations were ended. Another characteristic difference is that Alaska Native tribal governments do not have the power to collect taxes for business transacted on tribal land, per the
United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the Federal judiciary of the United States, federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate and largely Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United ...

United States Supreme Court
decision in '' Alaska v. Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government'' (1998). Except for the Tsimshian, Alaska Natives no longer hold but do control some lands. Under the
Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was the first act of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House ...
, Alaska Natives are reserved the right to harvest
whales Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully Aquatic ecosystem, aquatic placental mammal, placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea, which usually excludes dolphins and porpoises. W ...

whales
and other
marine mammals Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence. They include animals such as seals, whales, manatees, sea otters and polar bears. They are an informal group, unified only by their ...
.


Subsistence

Gathering of subsistence food continues to be an important economic and cultural activity for many Alaska Natives.Elizabeth Barrett Ristroph, "Alaska Tribes' Melting Subsistence Rights," 1 ''Arizona Journal of Environmental Law & Policy'' 1, 2010, Available at In
Utqiaġvik, Alaska The City of Utqiaġvik ( ik, Utqiaġvik; , ), known as Barrow () from 1901 to 2016, is the largest city (and the borough seat) of the North Slope Borough, Alaska, North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. Located north of the Arctic Circl ...
in 2005, more than 91 percent of the Iñupiat households which were interviewed still participated in the local subsistence economy, compared with the approximately 33 percent of non-Iñupiat households who used wild resources obtained from hunting, fishing, or gathering. But, unlike many tribes in the contiguous United States, Alaska Natives do not have treaties with the United States that protect their subsistence rights, except for the right to harvest whales and other marine mammals. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act explicitly extinguished aboriginal hunting and fishing rights in the state of Alaska.43 U.S.C. § 1603(b) (2006)


See also

*
Ancient Beringian upright=1.2, Beringia land bridge during the Late Pleistocene :en:Last glacial period, last glacial period. The Ancient Beringians (AB) is a specific archaeogenetic lineage, based on the genome of an infant found at the Upward Sun River site (dubb ...
*
List of Alaska Native Tribal Entities This is a list of Alaska Native tribal entities which are recognized by the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, ...
, the list of Native Villages and other "tribal entities" recognized by the US
Bureau of Indian Affairs The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), also known as Indian Affairs (IA), is a United States federal agency within the Department of the Interior The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the Fed ...

Bureau of Indian Affairs
. * Prehistory of Alaska * First Alaskans Institute * Indigenous Amerindian genetics *
Circumpolar peoples Circumpolar peoples and Arctic peoples are umbrella terms for the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups ...
*
Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast The Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ''indigenous'' was firs ...
*
Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic are the aboriginal peoples who live in the Subarctic regions of the Americas, Asia and Europe, located south of the true Arctic. This region includes the interior of Alaska, the Western Subarctic or western Ca ...
*
Indigenous peoples of Siberia Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has bee ...
* Alaska Native Storytelling *
Alaska Equal Rights Act of 1945The Alaska Equal Rights Act of 1945 (also known as the Anti-Discrimination Law of 1945 Alaska Statutes 44.12.065) was the first state or territorial anti-discrimination law enacted in the United States in the 20th century. The law, signed on February ...
* Women's suffrage in Alaska


References


Sources

* *


Further reading

* Chythlook-Sifsof, Callan J.
Native Alaska, Under Threat
" (Op-Ed) ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''. June 27, 2013.


External links


Alaska Federation of NativesAlaska Native Health BoardAlaska Native Heritage Center
*
Alaska Native Language Center The Alaska Native Language Center, established in 1972 in Fairbanks, Alaska, is a research center focusing on the research and documentation of the Native languages of Alaska. It publishes grammars, dictionaries, folklore collections and research m ...

First Alaskans InstituteArctic Studies Center
{{Authority control * American culture