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Afonso IOr also ''Affonso'' (Archaic
Portuguese-Galician Galician-Portuguese ( gl, galego-portugués or ', pt, galego-português or ), also known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a West Iberian languages, West Iberian Romance languag ...
) or ''Alphonso'' (
Portuguese-Galician Galician-Portuguese ( gl, galego-portugués or ', pt, galego-português or ), also known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a West Iberian languages, West Iberian Romance languag ...
) or ''Alphonsus'' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
version), sometimes rendered in English as ''Alphonzo'' or ''Alphonse'', depending on the Spanish or French influence.
(; born 1106, 1109 or 1111; died 1185), also called Afonso Henriques, nicknamed the Conqueror ( pt, O Conquistador), the Founder () or the Great () by the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
, and ''El-Bortukali'' (in Arabic "the Portuguese") and ''Ibn-Arrink'' or ''Ibn Arrinq'' (in Arabic or "son of Henry", "Henriques") by the
Moors '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors init ...

Moors
whom he fought, was the first
king of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portugal, Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution. Throu ...
. He achieved the independence of the
County of Portugal The County of Portugal ( pt, Condado de Portugal, Condado Portucalense, Condado de Portucale; in documents of the period the name used was Portugalia) refers to two successive medieval counties in the region around Braga Braga ( , ; cel-x-pr ...
, establishing a new kingdom and doubling its area with the ''Reconquista'', an objective that he pursued until his death. Afonso was the son of Theresa, Countess of Portugal, Teresa of León and Henry, Count of Portugal, Henry of Burgundy, rulers of the County of Portugal. Henry died in 1112, leaving Theresa to rule alone. Unhappy with Theresa's romantic relationship with Kingdom of Galicia, Galician Fernando Pérez de Traba and his political influence, the Portuguese nobility rallied around Afonso, who revolted and defeated his mother at the Battle of São Mamede in 1128 and became Count of Portugal soon afterwards. In 1139, Afonso renounced the suzerainty of the Kingdom of León and established the independent Kingdom of Portugal. Afonso actively campaigned against the Moors in the south. In 1139 he won a decisive victory at the Battle of Ourique, and in 1147 he conquered Conquest of Santarém, Santarém and Siege of Lisbon, Lisbon from the Moors. He secured the independence of Portugal following a victory over León at Battle of Valdevez, Valdevez and received papal approval through ''Manifestis Probatum''. Afonso died in 1185 and was succeeded by his son, Sancho I of Portugal, Sancho I.


Youth

Afonso was the son of Teresa of León, Countess of Portugal, Teresa, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of León and Castile, and her husband, Henry, Count of Portugal, Henry of Burgundy. According to Fernão Lopes' ''Crónica de Portugal de 1419,'' the future Portuguese king was born in Guimarães, which was at the time the most important political center of his parents. This was accepted by most Portuguese scholarship until in 1990 Torquato de Sousa Soares proposed Coimbra, the center of the county of Coimbra and another political center of Afonso's progenitors, as his birthplace, which caused outrage in Guimarães and a polemic between this historian and José Hermano Saraiva. Almeida Fernandes later proposed Viseu as the birthplace of Afonso basing himself on the ''Chronica Gothorum'', which states Afonso was born in 1109, a position followed by José Mattoso in his biography of the king. Abel Estefânio has suggested a different date and thesis, proposing 1106 as the birth date and the region of Tierra de Campos or even Sahagún as likely birth places based on the known itineraries of counts Henry and Teresa. Henry and Teresa reigned jointly as count and countess of Portugal until his death on 22 May 1112 during the siege of Astorga, Spain, Astorga, after which Teresa ruled Portugal alone.Gerli, E. Michael. ''Medieval Iberia'', Routledge, 2013
She would proclaim herself queen (a claim recognised by Pope Paschal II in 1116) but was captured and forced to reaffirm her vassalage to her half-sister, Urraca of León. It is not known who was the tutor of Afonso. Later traditions, probably started with João Soares Coelho (a bastard descendant of Egas Moniz through a female line) in the mid-13th century and ampliated by later chronicles such as the ''Crónica de Portugal de 1419'', asserted he had been Egas Moniz o Aio, Egas Moniz de Ribadouro, possibly with the help of oral memories that associated the tutor to the house of Ribadouro. Yet, contemporary documents, namely from the chancery of Afonso in his early years as count of Portucale, indicate according to the historian José Mattoso that the most likely tutor of Afonso Henriques was Egas Moniz's oldest brother, Ermígio Moniz, who, besides being the senior brother within the family of Ribadouro, became the "dapifer" and "Mayor of the Palace, majordomus" of Afonso I from 1128 until his death in 1135, which indicates his closer proximity to the prince. In an effort to pursue a larger share in the Leonese inheritance, his mother Teresa joined forces with Fernando Pérez de Trava, the most powerful count in kingdom of Galicia, Galicia. The Portuguese nobility disliked the alliance between Galicia and Portugal and rallied around Afonso. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Braga, Archbishop of Braga was also concerned with the dominance of Galicia, apprehensive of the ecclesiastical pretensions of his new rival the Galician Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, Diego Gelmírez, who had claimed an alleged discovery of relics of James, son of Zebedee, Saint James in his town, as a way to gain power and riches over the other cathedrals in the Iberian Peninsula. In order to stop her son Alfonso from overthrowing her, Teresa exiled him when he was twelve in the year 1120. In 1122, Afonso turned fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. In symmetry with his Alfonso VII of León and Castile, cousin Alfonso made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora in 1125. After the military campaign of Alfonso VII against his mother in 1127, Afonso revolted against her and proceeded to take control of the county from its queen.


Sole count

In 1128, near Guimarães at the Battle of São Mamede, Afonso and his supporters overcame troops under both his mother and her lover, Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia. Afonso exiled his mother to Galicia, and took over rule of the County of Portucale. Thus the possibility of re-incorporating Portucale into a Kingdom of Portugal and Galicia as before was eliminated and Afonso became sole ruler following demands for greater independence from the county's church and nobles. The battle was mostly ignored by the Leonese suzerain who was occupied at the time with a revolt in Castille. He was also, most likely, waiting for the reaction of the Galician families. After Teresa's death in 1131, Alfonso VII of León and Castile, Afonso VII of León and Castille proceeded to demand vassalage from his cousin. On 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal or Prince of the Portuguese, an act informally allowed by Afonso VII, as it was thought to be Afonso Henriques's right by blood, as one of two grandsons of the Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Emperor of Hispania. Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on 25 July 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was (possibly unanimously) proclaimed King of the Portuguese by his soldiers, establishing his equality in rank to the other realms of the Peninsula, although the first reference to his royal title dates from 1140. The first assembly of the Portuguese Cortes convened at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm his independence) is a 17th-century embellishment of Portuguese history.


Kingship

Complete independence from Alfonso VII of León's suzerainty, however, could not be achieved by military means alone. The County of Portugal still had to be acknowledged diplomatically by the neighboring lands as a kingdom and, most importantly, by the Catholic Church and the pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, Queen of Portugal, Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeus III of Savoy, and sent ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the pope. He succeeded in renouncing the suzerainty of his cousin, Alfonso VII of León, becoming instead a vassal of the papacy, as the kings of Sicily and Aragon had done before him. In Portugal he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. He is notably the builder of Alcobaça Monastery, to which he called the Cistercians, Cistercian Order of his uncle Bernard of Clairvaux of Burgundy (region), Burgundy. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian Peninsula. Bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct wikt:liege, liege man of the papacy. Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém, Portugal, Santarém (see Conquest of Santarém) and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years. Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho I of Portugal, Sancho was engaged to Dulce of Aragon. Finally after winning the Battle of Valdevez, the Treaty of Zamora (1143) established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was a fully independent kingdom. In 1169 the now old King Afonso was possibly disabled in an engagement near Badajoz, by a fall from his horse and slamming against the castle gate, and made prisoner by the soldiers of King Ferdinand II of León, his son-in-law. He spent months at the São Pedro do Sul, Portugal, hot springs of São Pedro do Sul, but never recovered and from this time onward the Portuguese king never rode a horse again. However, it is not certain if this was because of the disability: according to the later Portuguese chronistic tradition, this happened because Afonso would have to surrender himself again to Ferdinand or risk war between the two kingdoms if he ever rode a horse again. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia (north of the Minho River) in the previous years. This event became known in Portuguese history as the Disaster of Badajoz (''o Desastre de Badajoz''). In 1179 the privileges and favors given to the Catholic Church were compensated. With consistent effort by several parties, such as the Primate (bishop), primate archbishop of Braga, Paio Mendes, in the papal court, the papal bull ''Manifestis Probatum'' was promulgated accepting the new king as vassal to the pope exclusively. In it Pope Alexander III also acknowledged Afonso as king and Portugal as an independent kingdom with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. In 1184, the Almohad caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf rallied a great Almohad Caliphate, Almohad force to retaliate against the Portuguese raids done since the end of a five-year truce in 1178 and besieged Santarém, Portugal, Santarém, which was defended by Afonso's son Sancho I of Portugal, Sancho. The Almohad siege failed when news arrived the archbishop of Compostella had come to the defense of the city and Fernando II of León himself with his army. The Almohads ended the siege and their retreat turned into a rout due to panic in their camp, with the Almohad caliph being injured in the process (according to one version, because of a crossbow bolt) and dying on the way back to Seville. Afonso died shortly after, probably out of a sudden cause of death, on 6 December 1185. The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are mythical stories that it took 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso wanted to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge. It is also told, despite his honourable character, that he had a temper. Several chronicles give the example of a papal legate that brought a message from the Pope Paschal II refusing to acknowledge Afonso's claim as king: either after committing or saying a small offense against him or after being simply read the letter, Afonso almost killed, in his rage, the papal representative, taking several portucalense nobles and soldiers to physically restrain the young would-be king.


Scientific research

In July 2006, the tomb of the king (which is located in the Monastery of Santa Cruz (Coimbra), Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) was to be opened for scientific purposes by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal) and the University of Granada (Spain). The opening of the tomb provoked considerable concern among some sectors of Portuguese society and Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony (''Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico'' – IPPAR) halted the opening, requesting more protocols from the scientific team because of the importance of the king in the nation's heart and public thought.n:Portuguese Culture Ministry suspends opening of Afonso I's tomb


Descendants

In 1146, Afonso married Matilda of Savoy, Queen of Portugal, Mafalda, daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and Mahaut of Albon, both appearing together for the first time in May of that year confirming royal charters. They had the following issue: * Henry (5 March 1147 – 1155 named after his paternal grandfather, Henry, Count of Portugal, he died when he was only eight years old. Despite being just a child he represented his father at a council in Toledo, Spain, Toledo at the age of three; * Urraca of Portugal, Urraca (1148–1211), married King Ferdinand II of León and was the mother of King Alfonso IX of León, Alfonso IX. The marriage was subsequently annulled in 1171 or 1172 and she retired in Zamora, Spain, Zamora, one of the villas that she had received as part of her Las arras#Origins and representation, ''arras'', and later at the Monastery of Santa María in Wamba, Valladolid where she was buried.; * Theresa of Portugal, Countess of Flanders, Teresa (1151–1218), Countess of Flanders, Countess consort of Flanders due to her marriage to Philip I, Count of Flanders, Philip I and List of Burgundian consorts, Duchess consort of Burgundy through her second marriage to Odo III, Duke of Burgundy, Odo III; * Mafalda of Portugal (daughter of Afonso Henriques), Mafalda (1153after 1162). In January 1160, her father and Ramón Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, negotiated the marriage of Mafalda to Alfonso, future King Alfonso II of Aragon who at that time was three or four years old. After the death of Ramón Berenguer IV in the summer of 1162, King Ferdinand II of León convinced his widow, Queen Petronilla of Aragón, Petronilla, to cancel the infante's wedding plans with Mafalda and for Alfonso to marry instead Sancha of Castile, Queen of Aragon, Sancha, daughter of Alfonso VII of León and his second wife Queen Richeza of Poland, Queen of Castile, Richeza of Poland. Mafalda died in her childhood at an unrecorded date. * Sancho, the future King Sancho I of Portugal (11 November 115426 March 1211). He was baptised with the name of Martin for having been born on the Martin of Tours, saint's feast day.; * John (1156–25 August 1164); and * Sancha (1157–14 February 1166/67), born ten days before the death of her mother, Sancha died before reaching the age of ten on 14 February according to the death registry at the Monastery of Santa Cruz (Coimbra) where she was buried. Before his marriage to Mafalda, King Afonso fathered his first son with Chamoa Gómez, daughter of Count Gómez Núñez and Elvira Pérez, sister of Fernando Pérez de Traba, Fernando and Bermudo Pérez de Traba: * Fernando Afonso of Portugal, Afonso (1140–1207). Born around 1140, according to recent investigations, he is the same person as the one often called Fernando Afonso who was the Alférez, ''alferes-mor'' of the king and later Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller. His presence in the court is first recorded in 1159. In 1169 he succeeded as alferes-mor his half-brother, Pedro Pais da Maia, the legitimate son of his mother and Paio Soares da Maia. The extramarital offspring by Elvira Gálter were: * Urraca Afonso, Lady of Aveiro, Urraca Afonso. In 1185, her father gave her Avô, stipulating that this villa was to be inherited only by the children that she had with her husband Pedro Afonso de Ribadouro (also known as Pedro Afonso Viegas), grandson of Egas Moniz, Aio, Egas Moniz, which could indicate another previous or subsequent marriage. In 1187, she exchanged with her half-brother, King Sancho, this villa for Aveiro, Portugal, Aveiro. She died after 1216, the year she made a donation to the Monastery of Tarouca. * Teresa Afonso. In some genealogies she appears as the daughter of Elvira Gálter, and in others as the daughter of Chamoa Gómez. Her first marriage was with Sancho Nunes de Barbosa with whom she had a daughter, Urraca Sanches, who married Gonçalo Mendes de Sousa, the father of Mendo Gonçalves de Sousa known as "Sousão". Her second husband was Fernando Martins Bravo, Lord of Bragança, Portugal, Bragança and Chaves, Portugal, Chaves, with no issue from this marriage. King Afonso was also the father of: * Pedro Afonso, Master of Aviz, Pedro Afonso (died after 1183), Lord of Arega and Pedrógão, mayor of Abrantes in 1179, ''alferes'' of King Afonso I between 1181 and 1183, and Master of the Order of Aviz.


See also

*Gallaecia *Galicia (Spain), Galicia *History of Portugal *Timeline of Portuguese history *List of Knights Templar


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Afonso 01 Of Portugal Portuguese Roman Catholics Portuguese people of French descent House of Burgundy-Portugal People of the Reconquista 12th-century births 1185 deaths 12th-century Roman Catholics Christians of the Second Crusade Counts of Portugal (Asturias-León) 12th-century Portuguese monarchs Portuguese revolutionaries Founding monarchs People from Guimarães