HOME

TheInfoList



Afar Region (; aa, Qafar; am, ዓፋር ክልል), formerly known as Region 2, is a
regional state A regional state or a regionalised unitary state, is a term used to denote a type of state that is formally unitary but where a high degree of political power has been highly decentralised to regional governments. This contrasts with a state organ ...
in Northeastern
Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. ...

Ethiopia
and the homeland of the
Afar people The Afar ( aa, Qafár), also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa. They primarily live in the Afar Region of Ethiopia and in northern Djibouti, as well as the entire southern coast of Eritrea. Th ...
. Its capital is the planned city of
Semera Semera ( aa, Samara; gez, ሰመራ) is a new City Administration on the Awash, Ethiopia, Awash–Asseb highway in north-east Ethiopia, having been planned and built to replace Asaita as the capital of the Afar Region. Located in the Administrat ...

Semera
, which lies on the paved Awash
Assab Assab or Aseb is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Eastern Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, a ...
highway. The
Afar Triangle upright=1.4, Topographic map showing the Afar Triangle, which correlates to the shaded area in the location map shown above The Afar Triangle (also called the Afar Depression) is a geological depression caused by the Afar Triple Junction, which ...
, the northern part of which is the
Danakil Depression The Danakil Depression is the northern part of the Afar Triangle or Afar Depression in Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), offi ...
, is part of the Great Rift Valley of Ethiopia, and is located in the north of the region. It has the lowest point in Ethiopia and one of the lowest in Africa. The southern part of the region consists of the valley of the
Awash River The Awash (sometimes spelled Hawash; Oromo language, Oromo: ''Awaash'', Amharic: አዋሽ, Afar language, Afar: ''We'ayot'', Somali language, Somali: ''Webiga Dir'') is a major river of Ethiopia. Its course is entirely contained within the boundar ...

Awash River
, which empties into a string of lakes along the Ethiopian-
Djibouti Djibouti ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti , officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika ...
border. Other notable landmarks include the Awash and
Yangudi Rassa National Park Yangudi Rassa National Park is a national park in Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of ...
s.


Demographics

Based on the 2017 projections by the
Central Statistical Agency The Central Statistical Agency (CSA; Amharic: ማዕከላዊ ስታቲስቲክስ ኤጀንሲ) is an agency of the government of Ethiopia designated to provide all surveys and censuses for that country used to monitor economic and social growth, ...
of Ethiopia (CSA), the Afar Regional State has a population of 1,812,002, consisting of 991,000 men and 821,002 women; urban inhabitants number 346,000 of the population, a further 1,466,000 were pastoralists. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the
Central Statistical Agency The Central Statistical Agency (CSA; Amharic: ማዕከላዊ ስታቲስቲክስ ኤጀንሲ) is an agency of the government of Ethiopia designated to provide all surveys and censuses for that country used to monitor economic and social growth, ...
of Ethiopia (CSA), the Afar Regional State has a population of 1,390,273, consisting of 775,117 men and 615,156 women; urban inhabitants number 185,135 or 13.32% of the population, a further 409,123 or 29.43% were
pastoralists Pastoralism is a form of animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, animal fiber, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and th ...
. With an estimated area of 96,707 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density of 14.38 people per square kilometer. For the entire region 247,255 households were counted, which results in an average for the Region of 5.6 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 4 and rural households 6 people. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 1,106,383 of whom 626,839 were men and 479,544 women; urban inhabitants were 85,879 or 7.76% of the population. Afar is predominantly (89.96%) spoken in the region and is the working language of the state. Other languages with a significant number of speakers in the state include
Amharic Amharic ( or ; (Amharic: ), ', ) is an Ethiopian Semitic languages, Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic languages, Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first language by the Amhara peo ...
(6.83%), Tigrinnya (1.06%), Argobba (0.79%), Wolaitigna (0.43%), and Oromifa (0.4%). According to the CSA, , 48.57% of the total population had access to safe drinking water, of whom 26.89% were rural inhabitants and 78.11% were urban. Values for other reported common indicators of the
standard of living Standard of living is the level of income, comforts and services available, generally applied to a society or location, rather than to an individual. Standard of living is relevant because it is considered to contribute to an individual's quality ...
for the Afar Regional State include the following: 67.3% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 27% and for women 15.6%; and the Regional
infant mortality rate Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. The under-five mortalit ...
is 61 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is less than the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants’ first month of life. On 20 April 2007, the Regional government announced that it had increased health coverage from 34% to 40%, the result of construction of 64 new health clinics, increasing the total for the Region to 111.


Land features

Afar Depression upright=1.4, Topographic map showing the Afar Triangle, which correlates to the shaded area in the location map shown above The Afar Triangle (also called the Afar Depression) is a geological depression caused by the Afar Triple Junction, which ...
, active volcano,
Awash National Park Awash National Park is a National parks in Ethiopia, national park in Ethiopia. Spanning across the southern tip of the Afar Region and the northeastern corner of the East Shewa Zone of Oromia, this park is 225 kilometers east of Addis Ababa (and a ...
,
Yangudi Rassa National Park Yangudi Rassa National Park is a national park in Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of ...
, Hadar and
Aramis René d'Herblay, alias Aramis, is a fictional character In fiction, a character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, Play (theatre), play, television series, film, or video game). ...
areas, are the major tourist attraction area of the region. The hot springs, Afar culture and cultural games are other attraction areas. In 2005, a giant
rift 200px, Gulf of Suez Rift showing main extensional faults">extensional_fault.html" ;"title="Gulf of Suez Rift showing main extensional fault">Gulf of Suez Rift showing main extensional faults In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithos ...

rift
was formed in just a few days. The rift opened when the , situated in the north of the region, erupted. The crack forming is thought to be part of the process in which the
Arabian Plate The Arabian Plate is a minor tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres. It is one of three continental plates (along with the African and Indian plates) that have been moving northward in recent geological history and collidin ...
and the two
African plate The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the Equator The Earth's equator is an imaginary planetary line that is about long in circumference. The equator divides the planet into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisph ...
s, the Nubian Plate and the Somali Plate, are moving apart. This new crack, long, and deep, opened when the
lava of pāhoehoe lava, Hawaii, United States , Iceland in 1984 Lava is molten Rock (geology), rock (magma) that has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon. Magma is generated by the inte ...

lava
from the erupting
volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet ar ...

volcano
flowed underground and cooled forming a long, wide
dike Dyke or dike may refer to: General uses * Dyke (slang), a slang word meaning "lesbian" * Dike (geology), a subvertical sheet-like intrusion of magma or sediment * Dike (mythology), the Greek goddess of moral justice * Dikes, diagonal pliers, diag ...
within days.


Environment

The
Afar Depression upright=1.4, Topographic map showing the Afar Triangle, which correlates to the shaded area in the location map shown above The Afar Triangle (also called the Afar Depression) is a geological depression caused by the Afar Triple Junction, which ...
, a plate tectonic triple junction is found in the Afar Regional State. This geologic feature is one of earth's great active volcanic areas. Due to this volcanic activity the floor of the depression is composed of lava, mostly basalt. The continuous process of volcanism results in the occurrence of major
minerals In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (20 ...

minerals
including
potash Potash () includes various mined and manufactured salts In chemistry, a salt is a chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of cations and anions. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively electric charge, charged ...
,
sulfur Sulfur (in nontechnical British English: sulphur) is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consis ...

sulfur
,
salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its natural form as a crystallinity, crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Sa ...

salt
,
bentonite Bentonite () is an Absorption (chemistry), absorbent swelling clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. It usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash in seawater, which converts the volcanic glass present in the ash to clay minerals. Benton ...
, and
gypsum Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula . It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard/ sidewalk chalk, and drywal ...

gypsum
. In addition to these minerals, there are also promising
geothermal energy Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's Crust (geology), crust originates from the original formation ...
sources and
hot springs A hot spring, hydrothermal spring, or geothermal spring is a Spring (hydrology), spring produced by the emergence of Geothermal (geology), geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust. While some of these springs contain wate ...

hot springs
in different areas of the region. Most of the region's mineral potential are found in Dallol,
Berhale Berhale (also transliterated Berahle and Berahile) is a town in north-eastern Ethiopia. Located in the Administrative Zone 2 (Afar), Administrative Zone 2 of the Afar Region, this town has a latitude and longitude of with an altitude of 639 meters ...
and Afxera
woreda Districts in Ethiopia are commonly known as woreda ( am, ወረዳ "wäräda"; om, Aanaalee (plural), Aanaa (singular)) and are the third-level of the administrative division of Ethiopia - after '' zones'' and the regional '' states''. Woreda ...
s of Zone Two. Elidar, Dubti and Millee in Zone one and Gewane in Zone Three also have some mineral possibilities. Afar is home to peculiar wild life, which notably include the
African wild ass The African wild ass or African wild donkey (''Equus africanus'') is a wild member of the horse family, Equidae. This species is believed to be the ancestor of the domestic donkey The donkey or ass (''Equus africanus asinus'') is a domest ...
, Grevy's zebra, wild fox, wild cat, cheetah, and ostrich. These wild animals are found in the region's national parks. Because the region's tourism development is still in a poor state there are only two lodges in
Awash National Park Awash National Park is a National parks in Ethiopia, national park in Ethiopia. Spanning across the southern tip of the Afar Region and the northeastern corner of the East Shewa Zone of Oromia, this park is 225 kilometers east of Addis Ababa (and a ...
.


Agriculture

The CSA estimated in 2005 that farmers in the Afar Regional State had a total of 327,370 cattle (representing 0.84% of Ethiopia's total cattle), 196,390 sheep (1.13%), 483,780 goats (3.73%), 200 mules (0.14%), 12,270 asses (0.49%), 99,830 camels (21.85%), 38,320 poultry of all species (0.12%), and 810 beehives (less than 0.1%). The CSA estimated on the basis of a survey performed in December 2003 that nomadic inhabitants had 1,990,850 cattle (an 83.8% share of those animals in the Region that year), 2,303,250 sheep (90.6%), 3,960,510 goats (90%), 759,750 camels (85.9%), 175,180 asses (92.5%), 2960 mules (88.6%), and 900 horses (100%).


Regional instability

, the area has been increasingly unstable, as tensions between Ethiopia and Eritrea remain high after the Eritrean-Ethiopian War of 1998-2000. On January 18, 2012 five foreign tourists were murdered while on holiday in the region. The Ethiopian government has accused Eritrean gunmen of being responsible for the attack. Many governments around the world advise against traveling to the Afar Region, citing increasing security concerns.


Fossil finds

Hadar, a community in Afar, was the site of the discovery in 1973-74 of "
Lucy Lucy is an English and French feminine given name derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around ...
", the ''
Australopithecus afarensis ''Australopithecus afarensis'' is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embod ...
'' skeletal remains, by
Donald Johanson Donald Carl Johanson (born June 28, 1943) is an American paleoanthropologist. He is known for discovering – with Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb – the fossil of a female hominin The Hominini form a Tribe (biology), taxonomic tribe of the s ...
of the
Cleveland Museum of Natural History The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum located approximately five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland, Ohio Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, ...
. On March 5, 2005, another skeleton, estimated to be 3.8 million years old and said to be the world's oldest
bipedal Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biologica ...
hominid The Hominidae (), whose members are known as great apes or hominids (), are a taxonomic family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marri ...
skeleton The skeleton refers to the frames of support of animal bodies. There are several different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body, th ...

skeleton
, was found in the region.
Yohannes Haile-Selassie Yohannes Haile-Selassie Ambaye (born on in Adigrat, Tigray Region) is an Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Fede ...

Yohannes Haile-Selassie
led digs there each year from 2004 to 2007. On March 24, 2006 it was reported that a "significantly complete"
cranium The skull is a bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red blood cell, red and white blood cells, store mi ...
had been found at Gawis in the Gona area. The cranium appears as an intermediate form between ''
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning " upright man") is an extinct species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is ofte ...

Homo erectus
'' and ''
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal ...

Homo sapiens
''. On October 1, 2009, scientists reported that they had found a skeleton, which dates around 4.4 million years ago. Named
Ardi Ardi (ARA-VP-6/500) is the designation of the fossilized skeletal remains of an ''Ardipithecus ramidus'', thought to be an early human-like female anthropoid 4.4 million years old. It is the most complete early hominid specimen, with most of th ...

Ardi
, it is a form of the species ''Ardipithecus ramidus''. The specimen is a distant cousin of the ''Australopithecus afarensis'', Lucy's species. In June 2010, the oldest direct evidence of stone tool manufacture was found in the Afar region and attributed to ''Australopithecus afarensis''. In 2013, a graduate student from the
Arizona State University Arizona State University (ASU or Arizona State) is a public university, public research university in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Phoenix metropolitan area. Founded in 1885 by the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature, ASU is one of the List ...
discovered a hominid jawbone in the
Ledi-Geraru Ledi-Geraru is a paleoanthropological research area in Mille (woreda), Mille district, Afar Region, northeastern Ethiopia, along the Ledi and Geraru rivers (two left tributaries of the Awash River, Awash, south of the Mille River, Mille river). ...
region of Afar. Scientists estimated that the fossil dates back around 2.8 million years ago, which is 400,000 years before the next oldest hominid fossil remains. In 2015, a hominin jawbone and teeth was discovered in the Afar region. Scientists believe that the bones belonged to a previously undiscovered ancestor. The new species was named "Australopithecus deyiremeda", meaning "close relative" in the native Afar language. The species lived around 3.5 - 3.3 million years ago, about the same time period as other hominins such as Australopithecus afarensis.


Presidents of the Executive Committee

* Habib Alimirah ( ALF) 1992? - 1995 * Hanfare Alimirah (ALF) September 1995 - Mar 1996 * Ismaqil Qali Siro ( APDO/ANDP) March 1996–September 2015 * Awol Arba Unde (acting) September 2015 - November 2015 * Seyoum Awol (ANDP) 16 November 2015 - 16 December 2018 * Awol Arba Unde (ANDP) 17 December 2018 – present (This list is based on information fro
Worldstatesmen.org
)


Administrative zones

Like other regions in Ethiopia, Afar is subdivided into administrative zones (and one special
woreda Districts in Ethiopia are commonly known as woreda ( am, ወረዳ "wäräda"; om, Aanaalee (plural), Aanaa (singular)) and are the third-level of the administrative division of Ethiopia - after '' zones'' and the regional '' states''. Woreda ...
, an administrative subdivision which is an
autonomous area File:Новая Кукковка.jpg, The Republic of Karelia is an autonomous Federal subjects of Russia, federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of Karelia. In developmenta ...
and is not part of a zone). * Administrative Zone 1: Awsi Rasu * Administrative Zone 2: Kilbet Rasu * Administrative Zone 3: Gabi Rasu * Administrative Zone 4: Fanti Rasu * Administrative Zone 5: Hari Rasu * Argobba special woreda


See also

*
List of districts in the Afar Region This is a list of the 34 woredas, or districts, and five city administration in the Afar Region of Ethiopia, compiled from material on the Central Statistical Agency (Ethiopia), Central Statistical Agency website. List of districts by zone Inde ...
*
Regions of Ethiopia Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn ...
* Afar-Somali clashes


Notes and references


External links


Danakil depressionMap of Afar Region at DPPA of Ethiopia
(PDF file)
Afar TriangleLarge collection of photos from an expedition to the DanakilAfar Rift Consortium homepageInterview with Afar president, Ismael Ali Sirro
IRIN 24 May 2002 {{Authority control Regions of Ethiopia