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An aerobic organism or aerobe is an
organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological me ...

organism
that can survive and grow in an
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
ated environment. In contrast, an
anaerobic organism An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a syn ...
(anaerobe) is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. The ability to exhibit aerobic respiration may yield benefits to the aerobic organism, as aerobic respiration yields more energy than anaerobic respiration. In July 2020, marine biologists reported that aerobic
microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
s (mainly), in " quasi-suspended animation", were found in
organically-poor sediments
organically-poor sediments
, up to 101.5 million years old, 250 feet below the
seafloor The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean, no matter how deep. All floors of the ocean are known as 'seabeds'. Structure Most of the oceans have a common structure, created by common ph ...

seafloor
in the
South Pacific Gyre __NOTOC__ The Southern Pacific Gyre is part of the Earth’s system of rotating ocean currents, bounded by the Equator The Earth's equator is an imaginary planetary line that is about long in circumference. The equator divides the planet in ...

South Pacific Gyre
(SPG) ("the deadest spot in the ocean"), and could be the longest-living life forms ever found.


Types

*
Obligate aerobe 300px, Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxyg ...
s need oxygen to grow. In a process known as
cellular respiration upright=2.5, Typical eukaryotic cell Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities ...

cellular respiration
, these organisms use oxygen to
oxidize (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate (strong oxidizing agent), a violent redox reaction accompanied by self-ignition starts. Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction in w ...

oxidize
substrates (for example
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
s and
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
s) and generate
energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regula ...

energy
. * Facultative anaerobes use oxygen if it is available, but also have
anaerobic Anaerobic means "living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen", as opposed to aerobic which means "living, active, or occurring only in the presence of oxygen." Anaerobic may also refer to: *Adhesive#Anaerobic, Anaerobic ad ...
methods of energy production. *
Microaerophile 300px, Anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentrat ...
s require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (21% O2). * Aerotolerant anaerobes do not use oxygen but are not harmed by it. When an organism is able to survive in both oxygen and anaerobic environments, the use of the
Pasteur effect The Pasteur effect is an inhibiting effect of oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), group in the periodic table, a highly Ch ...
can distinguish between facultative anaerobes and aerotolerant organisms. If the organism is using fermentation in an anaerobic environment, the addition of oxygen will cause facultative anaerobes to suspend fermentation and begin using oxygen for respiration. Aerotolerant organisms must continue fermentation in the presence of oxygen. Falcultative organisms grow in both oxygen rich media and oxygen free media.


Glucose

A good example is the oxidation of
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
(a
monosaccharide Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
) in
aerobic respiration Aerobic means "requiring Earth's atmosphere, air," in which "air" usually means oxygen. Aerobic may also refer to * Aerobic exercise, prolonged exercise of moderate intensity * Aerobics, a form of aerobic exercise * Cellular respiration#Aerobic r ...
:Chauhan, B. S. (2008).''Principles of Biochemistry and Biophysics". Laxmi Publications, p. 530. :C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 38 + 38 phosphate → 6 CO2 + 44 H2O + 38
ATP ATP may refer to: Companies and organizations * Association of Tennis Professionals * American Technical Publishers * ', a Danish pension * Armenia Tree Project * Association for Transpersonal Psychology * ATP architects engineers office * ATP ...

ATP
where glucose releases the chemical energy stored in the relative weak double bond of oxygen.Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2020). "Oxygen Is the High-Energy Molecule Powering Complex Multicellular Life: Fundamental Corrections to Traditional Bioenergetics" ''ACS Omega'' 5: 2221–2233. This equation is a summary of what happens in three series of biochemical reactions:
glycolysis Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic transformations, chemical transformation of on ...

glycolysis
, the
Krebs cycle The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set o ...
, and
oxidative phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation (UK , US ) or electron transport-linked phosphorylation or terminal oxidation is the metabolic pathway In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell (biology), c ...

oxidative phosphorylation
.


See also

*
Aerobic digestion Aerobic digestion is a process in sewage treatment Sewage treatment (or domestic wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater treatment) is a type of wastewater treatment Wastewater treatment is a process used to remove contaminants from w ...
*
Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion is a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to Waste management, manage waste or to produce fuels. Muc ...

Anaerobic digestion
*
Fermentation (biochemistry) Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signalin ...
* *
Oxygenation (environmental) Environmental oxygenation can be important to the sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphe ...


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Aerobic Organism Cellular respiration Microbiology