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Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier (August 6, 1840March 18, 1914) was a Swiss-born American
archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...

archaeologist
who particularly explored the indigenous cultures of the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣona ...
, Mexico, and South America. He immigrated to the United States with his family as a youth and made his life there, abandoning the family business to study in the new fields of archeology and ethnology.
Bandelier National Monument Bandelier National Monument is a United States U.S. National Monument, National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico, Los Alamos in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval and Los Alamos County, New Mexico, Los Alamos counties, New Mexico. The mon ...

Bandelier National Monument
in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
was named for him, as his studies established the significance of this area in the
Jemez Mountains The Jemez Mountains are a volcanic group A volcanic group (or, equivalently, a volcanic complex) is a collection of related volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcan ...

Jemez Mountains
for archeological and historic preservation of sites of
Ancestral Puebloans The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners boy on horseback in Monument Valley Monument Valley ( nv, Tsé Biiʼ Ndzisgaii, , meaning ''valley of the rocks'') is a region of ...
dating to two eras from 1150 to 1600 CE.


Life

Bandelier was born in
Bern, Switzerland ,german: Berner(in),french: Bernois(e), it, Bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern, Frauenkappelen, Ittigen, Kirchlindach, Köniz, Mühleberg, Muri bei Bern, Neuenegg, Ostermundigen, Wohlen bei Bern, Zollikofen , website ...

Bern, Switzerland
. As a youth, he emigrated to the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
with his family, which settled in
Highland, Illinois Highland is a city in Madison County, Illinois, Madison County, Illinois, United States. The population was 9,991 at the 2020 census. Highland began as a Swiss American, Swiss settlement and derived its name from later German American, German immig ...
, a community established by other Swiss immigrants. He labored unhappily in the family business as a young man. He became acquainted with the pioneering anthropologist
Lewis Henry Morgan Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was a pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist who worked as a railroad lawyer. He is best known for his work on kinship and social structure, his theories of social evolu ...
of New York, who served as his mentor as Bandelier turned to scholarship. In particular, he undertook
archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote ...
and
ethnological Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'nation') is an academic field that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationships between them (compare cultural anthropology, cultural, social anthropolog ...
work among the
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
of the southwestern United States,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
, and
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
. Beginning his studies in
Sonora Sonora (), officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora ( en, Free and Sovereign State of Sonora), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēx ...
(Mexico),
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
, and New Mexico, Bandelier developed as the leading authority on the history of this region. With
F. H. Cushing
F. H. Cushing
and his successors, he became one of the leading authorities on its
prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, ...

prehistoric
civilization, at a time when archeology and ethnology were new fields of study. In 1892 Bandelier left the Southwest to travel and conduct research in
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...

Ecuador
,
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of g ...

Bolivia
, and
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
, where he continued ethnological, archaeological, and historical investigations. In the first field he was in a part of his work connected with the Hemenway Archaeological Expedition. In the second he worked for
Henry Villard Henry Villard (April 10, 1835 – November 12, 1900) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America ...

Henry Villard
of
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
and for the American Museum of Natural History of the same city. Bandelier had shown the falsity of various historical
myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the ca ...

myth
s, notably in his conclusions respecting the
Inca The Inca Empire, also Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift, known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The admin ...

Inca
civilization of Peru. While working at the pueblo of
Isleta Pueblo of Isleta or Isleta Pueblo ( tix, Shiewhibak , kjq, Dîiw'a'ane ; nv, Naatoohó ) is an unincorporated community and Tanoan pueblo in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, United States, originally established in the . The Southern Tiwa langu ...
in New Mexico, Bandelier made some long-term friends. They included French-born missionary Father
Anton Docher Painting of a funeral procession in Isleta in the 1900s featuring Father Anton Docher, by Lucille Wilcox Joullin, Lucille Joullin Anton Docher (1852–1928), born Antonin Jean Baptiste Docher (pronounced Wikipedia:IPA for French, ɑ̃tɔnɛ̃ ...
, who had served the Tiwa people since 1891 and was known as the Padre of Isleta. Another was American journalist and writer
Charles Fletcher Lummis Charles Fletcher Lummis (March 1, 1859, in Lynn, Massachusetts Lynn is the 8th largest List of municipalities in Massachusetts, municipality in Massachusetts and the largest city in Essex County, Massachusetts, Essex County. Situated on the At ...

Charles Fletcher Lummis
, who also wrote on ethnology. Lummis traveled with Bandelier for a time in South America, before returning to his base in Los Angeles. The three men continued as friends.


Legacy and honors

*
Bandelier National Monument Bandelier National Monument is a United States U.S. National Monument, National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico, Los Alamos in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval and Los Alamos County, New Mexico, Los Alamos counties, New Mexico. The mon ...

Bandelier National Monument
in New Mexico was named for him, as his studies established the significance of this area for understanding ancient indigenous cultures of the Tuyongi canyon. *Bandelier Elementary School in
Albuquerque, New Mexico Albuquerque ( , ), ; kee, Arawageeki; tow, Vakêêke; zun, Alo:ke:k'ya; apj, Gołgéeki'yé. abbreviated as ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejica ...
was named after him. *Bandelier was elected a member of the
American Antiquarian Society The American Antiquarian Society (AAS), located in Worcester, Massachusetts Worcester ( ) is a city in, and county seat of, Worcester County, Massachusetts, Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. Named after Worcester, England, Worcest ...

American Antiquarian Society
in 1881.American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
/ref>


Publications

*
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
, Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Annual Reports, 1877, 1878, 1879: **''On the Art of War and Mode of Warfare of the Ancient Mexicans'' **''On the Distribution and Tenure of Lands and the Customs with respect to Inheritance among the Ancient Mexicans'' **''On the Social Organization and Mode of Government of the Ancient Mexicans'' *From the ''Papers'' of the
Archaeological Institute of America The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is a North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...
, American Series, constituting vols. i.-v.: **''Historical Introduction to Studies among the Sedentary Indians of New Mexico, and Report on the Ruins of the Pueblo of Pecos'' (1881) **''Report of an Archaeological Tour in Mexico in 1881'' (1884) **''Final Report of Investigations among the Indians of the South-Western United States'' (1890–1892, 2 vols.) **''Contributions to the History of the South-western Portion of the United States carried on mainly in the years from 1880 to 1885'' (1890) *"The Romantic School of American Archaeologists" (New York Historical Society, 1885) * ''The Gilded Man (El Dorado) and other Pictures of the Spanish Occupancy of America'' (1893) * ''On the Relative Antiquity of Ancient Peruvian Burials'' (American Museum of Natural History, Bulletin, v. 30, 1904) *''Aboriginal Myths and Traditions concerning the Island of Titicaca, Bolivia.'' (1904) * ''The Journey of
Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca , Sweden. Most plants are confined to the numerous cracks in the limestone. An alvar is a biological environment based on a limestone plain with thin or no soil and, as a result, sparse grassland vegetation. Often flooded in the spring, and affec ...
... from Florida to the Pacific, 1528-1536'' (editor, translated into English by his wife; 1905). * ''The Islands of Titicaca and Koati''(1910) * Bandelier contributed more than 60 articles to the ''
Catholic Encyclopedia The ''Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church'' (also referred to as the ''Old Catholic Encyclopedia'' and the ''Original Catholic Encyclopedia'') i ...
''
''The Delight Makers'' (1890)
a novel of Pueblo Indian life - scanned text in full at Internet Archive


Notes


References

* * *, first published 1940. * Samuel Gance, ''Anton ou la trajectoire d'un père'', L'Harmattan, Paris, 2013, 208 p. . Novel about Father
Anton Docher Painting of a funeral procession in Isleta in the 1900s featuring Father Anton Docher, by Lucille Wilcox Joullin, Lucille Joullin Anton Docher (1852–1928), born Antonin Jean Baptiste Docher (pronounced Wikipedia:IPA for French, ɑ̃tɔnɛ̃ ...
, friend of Bandelier.


External links

* * *
Biography at BookRags
{{DEFAULTSORT:Bandelier, Adolph Francis Alphonse American archaeologists Andean scholars Mesoamerican archaeologists American Mesoamericanists 19th-century Mesoamericanists American people of Swiss-French descent Swiss emigrants to the United States People from Bern 1840 births 1914 deaths People associated with the American Museum of Natural History Members of the American Antiquarian Society