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Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as
primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislatur ...
, are texts of law passed by the
legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
of a jurisdiction (often a
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...

parliament
or
council A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions. A council may function as a legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is t ...

council
). In most countries, acts of parliament begin as a
bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed author ...
, which the legislature votes on. Depending on the structure of government, this text may then by subject to assent or approval from the
executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government that enforces law, and has Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. In political systems based on the principle ...
.


Bills

A draft Act of Parliament is known as a
bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed author ...
. In other words, a bill is a proposed law that needs to be discussed in the parliament before it can become a law. In territories with a
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ...
, most bills that have any possibility of becoming law are introduced into parliament by the government. This will usually happen following the publication of a "
white paper A white paper is a report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Exis ...

white paper
", setting out the issues and the way in which the proposed new law is intended to deal with them. A bill may also be introduced into parliament without formal government backing; this is known as a
private member's bill A private member's bill in a parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατ ...
. In territories with a multicameral parliament, most bills may be first introduced in any chamber. However, certain types of legislation are required, either by constitutional convention or by law, to be introduced into a specific chamber. For example, bills imposing a
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
, or involving
public expenditure Public expenditure is spending made by the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government norma ...
, are introduced into the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...

House of Commons
in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
's
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
,
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human ...

Lok Sabha
of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
's Dáil as a matter of law. Conversely, bills proposed by the Law Commission and
consolidation bill A consolidation bill is a bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by ...
s traditionally start in the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
. Once introduced, a bill must go through a number of stages before it can become law. In theory, this allows the bill's provisions to be debated in detail, and for amendments to the original bill to also be introduced, debated, and agreed to. In bicameral parliaments, a bill that has been approved by the chamber into which it was introduced then sends the bill to the other chamber. Broadly speaking, each chamber must separately agree to the same version of the bill. Finally, the approved bill receives assent; in most territories this is merely a formality and is often a function exercised by the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
. In some countries, such as in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain and Portugal, the term for a bill differs depending on whether it is initiated by the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
(when it is known as a "draft"), or by the Parliament (a "proposition", i.e., a private member's bill).


Procedure


Australia

In Australia, the bill passes through the following stages: # First reading: This stage is a mere formality, it involves the reading of the title of the proposed bill and distribution of the bill to members of parliament # Second reading: As in the UK, the stage involves a debate on the general principles of the bill and is followed by a vote. Again, the second reading of a government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a government bill on this reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, it is then considered in detail # Consideration in detail: This usually takes place on the floor of the House. Generally, committees sit on the floor of the House and consider the bill in detail. # Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. Very rarely do debates occur during this stage. # Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Senate, if it originated in the House of Representatives; to the House of Representatives, if it is a Senate bill), which may amend it. If the other House amends the bill, the bill and amendments are posted back to the original House for a further stage. The State of
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
's Parliament is unicameral and skips this and the rest of the stages. # Consideration of Senate/Representatives amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu, or reject them. However, the Senate may not amend money bills, though it can "request" the House to make amendments. A bill may pass backward and forward several times at this stage, as each House amends or rejects changes proposed by the other. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost. # Disagreement between the Houses: Often, when a bill cannot be passed in the same form by both Houses, it is "laid aside", i.e. abandoned. There is also a special constitutional procedure allowing the passage of the bill without the separate agreement of both houses. If the House twice passes the same bill, and the Senate twice fails to pass that bill (either through rejection or through the passage of unacceptable amendments), then the Governor-General may dissolve both Houses of Parliament simultaneously and call an election for the entire Parliament. This is called a
double dissolution A double dissolution is a procedure permitted under the Australian Constitution to resolve deadlocks in the bicameral Parliament of Australia The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament, also called the Commonwealth P ...
. After the election, if the House again passes the bill, but the deadlock between the Houses persists, then the Governor-General may convene a joint sitting of both Houses, where a final decision will be taken on the bill. Although the House and the Senate sit as a single body, bills passed at a joint sitting are treated as if they had been passed by each chamber separately. The procedure only applies if the bill originated in the House of Representatives. Six double dissolutions have occurred, though a joint sitting was only held once, in
1974 Major events in 1974 include the aftermath of the 1973 oil crisis and the resignation of United States President The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public ...
. # The bill is sent to the viceroy (the Governor-General for the Commonwealth; the Governor for a State; the Administrator for a Territory) for the royal assent. Certain bills must be reserved by the viceroy for the Queen's personal assent. Acts in the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national ...
do not require this step.


Canada

In Canada, the bill passes through the following stages: #
First reading A reading of a bill is a debate Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic. In a debate, opposing arguments are put forward to argue for opposing viewpoints. Debate occurs in public meetings, academic institution ...
: This stage is a mere
formality A formality is an established procedure or set of specific behaviors and utterances, conceptually similar to a ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and accor ...
. #
Second reading A reading of a Bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank o ...
: As in the UK, the stage involves a
debate Debate is a process that involves formal discourse on a particular topic, often including a moderator and audience. In a debate, argument In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the ca ...
on the general principles of the bill and is followed by a
vote Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracy, Democracie ...

vote
. Again, the second reading of a government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, then it progresses to the committee stage. # Committee stage: This usually takes place in a standing committee of the
Commons The commons is the culture, cultural and nature, natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons c ...
or
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

Senate
. #*
Standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than wo ...
: The standing committee is a permanent one; each committee deals with bills in specific subject areas. Canada's standing committees are similar to the UK's select committees. #* Special committee: A committee established for a particular purpose, be it the examination of a bill or a particular issue. #* Legislative committee: Similar to a special committee in that it is established for the consideration of a particular bill. The chairmanship is determined by the
Speaker Speaker may refer to: Roles * Speaker (politics), the presiding officer in a legislative assembly * Public speaker, one who gives a speech or lecture * A person producing speech, sometimes also called a speaker-hearer Electronics * Loudspeaker, a ...
, rather than elected by the members of the committee. Not used in the Senate. #*
Committee of the Whole A committee of the whole is a meeting of a legislative or deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a meeting of Collective, members who use parliamentary procedure. Etymology In a speech to the electorate at Bristol in 1774, Edmund Bur ...
: The whole house sits as a committee in the House of Commons or Senate. Most often used to consider
appropriation bills An appropriation bill, also known as supply bill or spending bill, is a Bill (law), proposed law that authorizes the expenditure of government funds. It is a bill that sets money aside for specific spending. In most democracies, approval of the le ...
, but can be used to consider any bill. #*::The committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments to it. Significant amendments may be made at the committee stage. In some cases, whole groups of clauses are inserted or removed. However, if the Government holds a majority, almost all the amendments which are agreed to in committee will have been tabled by the Government to correct deficiencies in the bill or to enact changes to policy made since the bill was introduced (or, in some cases, to import material which was not ready when the bill was presented). #
Report stage In the United Kingdom an Act of Parliament is primary legislation passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. An Act of Parliament can be enforced in all four of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom, UK constituent countries (En ...
: this takes place on the floor of the appropriate chamber, and allows the House or Senate to approve amendments made in committee, or to propose new ones. #
Third reading A reading of a Bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or ...
: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. # Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Senate, if it originated in the House of Commons; to the Commons, if it is a Senate bill), where it will face a virtually identical process. If the other House amends the bill, the bill and amendments are sent back to the original House for a further stage. # Consideration of Senate/Commons amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu or reject them. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost. # Disagreement between the Houses: There is no specific procedure under which the Senate's disagreement can be overruled by the Commons. The Senate's rejection is absolute. The debate on each stage is actually debate on a specific motion. For the first reading, there is no debate. For the second reading, the motion is "That this bill be now read a second time and be referred to ame of committee and for third reading "That this bill be now read a third time and pass." In the Committee stage, each clause is called and motions for amendments to these clauses, or that the clause stand part of the bill are made. In the Report stage, the debate is on the motions for specific amendments. Once a bill has passed both Houses in an identical form, it receives final, formal examination by the Governor General, who gives it the royal assent. Although the Governor General can refuse to assent a bill or reserve the bill for the queen at this stage, this power has never been exercised. Bills being reviewed by Parliament are assigned numbers: 2 to 200 for government bills, 201 to 1000 for
private member's bill A private member's bill in a parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατ ...
s, and 1001 up for
private bill Proposed bills are often categorized into public bills and private bills. A public bill is a proposed law which would apply to everyone within its jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' ...
s. They are preceded by C- if they originate in the House of Commons, or S- if they originate in the Senate. For example, Bill C-250 was a private member's bill introduced in the House. Bills C-1 and S-1 are
pro forma The term ''pro forma'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
bills, and are introduced at the beginning of each session in order to assert the right of each Chamber to manage its own affairs. They are introduced and read a first time, and then are dropped from the
Order Paper The Order Paper is a daily publication in the Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of Parliamentary procedure, procedures for operating a legi ...
.


Croatia

Constitutional Act in Croatian legal system is legislation passed and amended under the same conditions under which the
Constitution of Croatia The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia ( hr, Ustav Republike Hrvatske) is promulgated by the Croatian Parliament. History While it was part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, socialist Yugoslavia, the Socialist Republic of C ...
is passed or amended. Constitutional Act is hierarchically under the Constitution and must comply with it, but is above other laws and decisions which must be in accordance with Constitutional Act. There are altogether three Constitutional Acts in Croatia. The first Constitutional Act was the Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities in the Republic of Croatia which on the recommendation of the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia was
international community The international community is a vague phrase used in geopolitics Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic ...
's precondition for the recognition of Croatian independence from
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a Socialist state, socialist country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the afte ...
. Its new version was an initial precondition for the beginning of the European Union accession process of Croatia. The other two are the ''Constitutional Act on Implementation of the Constitution of Croatia'' and ''Constitutional Act on the
Constitutional Court of Croatia The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia ( hr, Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske) is an institution that acts as the interpreter and guardian of the Croatian Constitution and which monitors the conformity of laws with the Constitution as ...
''.


India

In the
Parliament of India The Parliament of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scien ...
, every bill passes through following stages before it becomes ''an Act of Parliament of India'': #
First reading A reading of a bill is a debate Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic. In a debate, opposing arguments are put forward to argue for opposing viewpoints. Debate occurs in public meetings, academic institution ...
- introduction stage: Any member, or member-in-charge of the bill seeks the leave of the house to introduce a bill. If the bill is an important one, the minister may make a brief speech, stating its main features. #
Second reading A reading of a Bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank o ...
- discussion stage: This stage consists of detailed consideration of the bill and proposed amendments. #
Third reading A reading of a Bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or ...
- voting stage: This stage is confined only to arguments either in support of the bill or for its rejection as a whole, without referring to its details. After the bill is passed, it is sent to the other house. # Bill in the other house (
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Huma ...

Rajya Sabha
): After a bill, other than a money bill, is transmitted to the other house, it goes through all the stages in that house as that in the first house. But if the bill passed by one house is amended by the other house, it goes back to the originating house. # President's approval: When a bill is passed by both the houses, it is sent to the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
for his approval. The President can assent or withhold his assent to a bill or he can return a bill, other than a
money bill In the Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of Parliamentary procedure, procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in Eng ...
. If the President gives his assent, the bill is published in
The Gazette of India ''The Gazette of India'' is a public journal A government gazette (also known as official gazette, official journal, official newspaper, official monitor or official bulletin) is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodica ...
and becomes an Act from the date of his assent. If he withholds his assent, the bill is dropped, which is known as
pocket veto#REDIRECT Pocket veto A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver that allows a president or another official with veto power to exercise that power over a bill by taking no action (keeping it in their pocket) instead of affirmatively vetoing it. This ...
. The pocket veto is not written in the constitution and has only been exercised once by President
Zail Singh Giani Zail Singh (; born Jarnail Singh, 5 May 1916 – 25 December 1994) was the List of Presidents of India, seventh President of India serving from 1982 to 1987. Prior to his presidency, he was a politician with the Indian National Congress p ...
: in 1986, over the postal act where the government wanted to open postal letters without warrant. If the president returns it for reconsideration, the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
must do so, but if it is passed again and returned to him, he must give his assent to it.


Ireland

In the Irish Parliament, the
Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, count ...
, bills pass through the following stages: Bills may be initiated in either the Dáil or the Seanad, and must pass both houses. # First stage - Private members must seek the permission of the house to introduce a bill. Government bills do not require approval and are therefore introduced at the second stage. # Second stage – this involves a discussion of the general principle of the bill. It is introduced by the sponsoring minister (or in the case of a private member's bill, by the member) and is followed by contributions from the floor of the house. Finally, the debate is brought to a conclusion by voting on the proposal “that the bill now be read a second time”. # Third stage, commonly referred to as the Committee Stage. This involves section by section scrutiny of the bill and any amendments which have been tabled. In the Dáil this usually takes place in a committee room and will involve examination by one of the select committees. In the Seanad, this stage takes place in the chamber. The Seanad may only make recommendations rather than amendments, in the case of a money bill. # Fourth stage, commonly referred to as the Report Stage. At this point, a version of the bill incorporating any changes made at the Committee Stage is printed for consideration. In both houses, this stage is taken on the floor of the chamber. Amendments may be considered at this stage but must arise from matters discussed or changes made at the Committee Stage. # Fifth stage: in practice this is a formality, taken with the fourth stage and referred to as the ‘Report and Final Stage’. # Passage in the other house: the same stages are repeated in the other house and the bill is then deemed to have been passed, except that any bill initiated in the Dáil and amended by the Seanad must return to the Dáil for final consideration. # Signature: once the bill has passed both houses it is sent to the President for signature. The signed copy is then enrolled in the Office of the Supreme Court.


New Zealand

In New Zealand, the bill passes through the following stages: # First reading: MPs debate and vote on the bill. If a bill is approved, it passes on to the committee stage. # Select committee stage: The bill is considered by a Select Committee, which scrutinises the bill in detail and hears public submissions on the matter. The Committee may recommend amendments to the bill. # Second reading: The general principles of the bill are debated, and a vote is held. If the bill is approved, it is put before a Committee of the House. # Committee of the House: The bill is debated and voted on, clause by clause, by the whole House sitting as a committee. # Third reading: Summarising arguments are made, and a final vote is taken. If the bill is approved, it is passed to the Governor-General for royal assent. New Zealand has no upper house, and so no approval is necessary.


Pakistan


United Kingdom


United Kingdom Parliament

A draft piece of legislation is called a ''bill'', when this is passed by Parliament it becomes an ''Act'' and part of statute law. There are two types of bill and Act, ''public'' and ''private''. Public Acts apply to the whole of the UK or a number of its constituent countries — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Private Acts are local and personal in their effect, giving special powers to bodies such as local authorities or making exceptions to the law in particular geographic areas.p. 190, ''How Parliament Works'', 6th edition, Robert Rogers and Rhodri Walters, Pearson Longman, 2006 In the United Kingdom Parliament, each bill passes through the following stages: # Pre-legislative scrutiny: Not undertaken for all bills; usually a joint committee of both houses will review a bill and vote on amendments that the government can either accept or reject. The report from this stage can be influential in later stages as rejected recommendations from the committee are revived to be voted on. #
First reading A reading of a bill is a debate Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic. In a debate, opposing arguments are put forward to argue for opposing viewpoints. Debate occurs in public meetings, academic institution ...
: This is a formality; no vote occurs. The Bill is presented and ordered to be printed and, in the case of private members' bills, a date is set for second reading. #
Second reading A reading of a Bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank o ...
: A debate on the general principles of the bill is followed by a vote. # Committee stage: This usually takes place in a public bill committee in the Commons and on the Floor of the House in the Lords. The committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments to it. # Consideration (or report) stage: this takes place on the floor of the House, and is a further opportunity to amend the bill. Unlike committee stage, the House need not consider every clause of the bill, only those to which amendments have been tabled. #
Third reading A reading of a Bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or ...
: a debate on the final text of the bill, as amended in the House of Lords. Further amendments may be tabled at this stage. # Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Lords, if it originated in the Commons; to the Commons, if it is a Lords bill), which may amend it. # Consideration of Lords/Commons amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. # Royal assent: the bill is passed with any amendments and becomes an act of parliament.


Senedd Cymru – Welsh Parliament


Northern Ireland Assembly


Scottish Parliament

In the Scottish Parliament,Mitchell, James. ''The Narcissism of Small Differences: Scotland and Westminster'', Parliamentary Affairs, Jan 1, 2010, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Jan 2010), p. 98. bills pass through the following stages: # Introduction: The bill is introduced to the parliament together with its accompanying documents — explanatory notes, a policy memorandum setting out the policy underlying the bill and a financial memorandum setting out the costs and savings associated with it. Statements from the presiding officer and the member in charge of the bill are also lodged, indicating whether the bill is within the legislative competence of the parliament. # Stage one: The bill is considered by one or more of the subject committees of the parliament, which normally take evidence from the bill's promoter and other interested parties before reporting to the parliament on the principles of the bill. Other committees, notably the Finance and Subordinate Legislation Committees, may also feed in at this stage. The report from the committee is followed by a debate in the full parliament. # Stage two: The bill returns to the subject committee where it is subject to line-by-line scrutiny and amendment. This is similar to the
committee stage In the United Kingdom an Act of Parliament is primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate leg ...
in the UK Parliament. # Stage three: The bill as amended by the committee returns to the full parliament. There is a further opportunity for amendment, followed by a debate on the whole bill, at the end of which the parliament decides whether to pass the bill. # Royal assent: After the bill has been passed, the presiding officer submits it to the monarch for royal assent. However, he cannot do so until a 4-week period has elapsed during which the law officers of the Scottish government or the UK government can refer the bill to the
Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court (initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical ...
for a ruling on whether it is within the powers of the parliament. There are special procedures for emergency bills, member's bills (similar to private member's bills in the UK Parliament), committee bills, and private bills.


Singapore

In Singapore, the bill passes through these certain stages before becoming into an Act of Parliament. # First reading: The bill is introduced to the government, usually by the members of parliament. The unicameral parliament will then discuss the bill, followed by a vote. Voting must be at least 1/2 aye for non-controversial bills and 2/3 aye for controversial ones. If the bill passes the vote it will proceed to the second reading. # Second reading: In this stage, the bill is further discussed and put to a second vote. If more than half of the votes are aye the bill proceeds to the select committee. # Select committee: The select committee consists of people not only from the parliaments, but also the people who could be affected by the bill is passed into law. This is to ensure equality and that the bill is fair for all. If the bill is in favour, it will proceed to the third reading. # Third reading: After the select committee has discussed and are in favour of the bill, they will put it to a vote. At this juncture, if the votes are more than 1/2 aye, it will be sent to the President of Singapore, currently
Halimah Yacob Halimah binti Yacob (born 23 August 1954) is a Singaporeans, Singaporean politician. She is the incumbent president of Singapore since the 2017 Singapore presidential election. Halimah won in an uncontested election, as no other presidential ...
. This is known as President Assent. # President Assent: The president must give permission in order for the bill to be passed. If (s)he approves it, it will become a statute passed down by the members of parliament which is called an Act of Parliament.


Titles and citation of acts

Acts passed by the
Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who u ...
did not originally have titles, and could only be formally cited by reference to the parliamentary session in which they were passed, with each individual act being identified by year and chapter number. Descriptive titles began to be added to the enrolled acts by the official clerks, as a reference aid; over time, titles came to be included within the text of each bill. Since the mid-nineteenth century, it has also become common practice for acts to have a
short title In certain jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom and other Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning s ...
, as a convenient alternative to the sometimes lengthy main titles. The
Short Titles Act 1892 The Short Titles Act 1892 (55 & 56 Vict c 10) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United ...
, and its replacement the
Short Titles Act 1896 The Short Titles Act 1896 (59 & 60 Vict c 14) is an Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It replaces the Short Titles Act 1892. This Act was retained for the Republic of Ireland by section 2(2)(a) ...
, gave short titles to many acts which previously lacked them. The numerical citation of acts has also changed over time. The original method was based on the regnal year (or years) in which the relevant parliamentary session met. This has been replaced in most territories by simple reference to the calendar year, with the first act passed being chapter 1, and so on. In the United Kingdom, legislation is referenced by year and chapter number. Each act is numbered consecutively based on the date they received royal assent. for example the 43rd act passed in 1980 would be 1980 Chapter 43. The full reference includes the (short) title and would be The Magistrate's Court Act 1980 C. 43. Until the 1980s, acts of the
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
n state of
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
were numbered in a continuous sequence from 1857; thus the Age of Majority Act 1977 was No. 9075 of 1977.


See also

*
Act of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by United States Congress, Congress. Acts can affect only individual entities (called private laws), or the general public (public laws). For a Bill (law), bill to become an act, the text must pass through ...
*
Legislative act Legislation is law which has been promulgation, promulgated (or "enactment of a bill, enacted") by a legislature or other Government, governing body or the process of making it. Before an item of legislation becomes law it may be known as a bill (p ...
*
Halsbury's Statutes ''Halsbury's Statutes of England and Wales'' (commonly referred to as ''Halsbury's Statutes'') provides updated texts of every Public General Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliament ...
* List of Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom *
Table of contents Table may refer to: * Table (information), a data arrangement with rows and columns * Table (furniture), a piece of furniture with a flat top and one or more legs * Table (database) * Calligra Tables, a spreadsheet application * Mathematical tab ...


References


Citations


Sources

; General
www.publications.parliament.uk


External links

* Acts of Parliament and statutory instruments are available free on-line under Crown copyright terms from the
National Archives
National Archives

legislation.gov.uk
.
Parliamentary Stages of a Government Bill (pdf)
from the House of Commons Information Office.
Acts of the Commonwealth Parliament of Australia: ComLaw.gov.au
{{Authority control Westminster system Statutory law