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The Accademia dei Lincei (; literally the "
Academy An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the w ...

Academy
of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is one of the oldest and most prestigious European scientific institutions, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, Italy. Founded in the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
in 1603 by
Federico Cesi Federico Angelo Cesi (; 26 February 1585 – 1 August 1630) was an Italian scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classical ...

Federico Cesi
, the academy was named after the
lynx A lynx (; plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (the Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, or bobcat The bobcat (''Lynx rufus''), also known as the red lynx, is a medium-sized cat The cat (''Fel ...

lynx
, an animal whose sharp vision symbolizes the observational prowess that science requires.
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
was the intellectual centre of the academy and adopted "Galileo Galilei Linceo" as his signature. "The Lincei did not long survive the death in 1630 of Cesi, its founder and patron", and "disappeared in 1651". During the nineteenth century, it was revived, first in the Vatican and later in the nation of Italy. Thus the
Pontifical Academy of Science The Pontifical Academy of Sciences ( it, Pontificia accademia delle scienze, la, Pontificia Academia Scientiarum) is a Academy of sciences, scientific academy of the Vatican City, established in 1936 by Pope Pius XI. Its aim is to promote the p ...
, founded in 1847, claims this heritage as the ''Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei ("Pontifical Academy of the New Lynxes")'', descending from the first two incarnations of the Academy. Similarly, a lynx-eyed academy of the 1870s became the national academy of Italy, encompassing both literature and science among its concerns.


The ''Accademia''

The first Accademia dei Lincei was founded in 1603 by
Federico Cesi Federico Angelo Cesi (; 26 February 1585 – 1 August 1630) was an Italian scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classical ...

Federico Cesi
, an aristocrat from Umbria (the son of Duke of Acquasparta and a member of an important family from
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
) who was passionately interested in natural history – particularly
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
. Cesi's father disapproved of the research career that Federico was pursuing. His mother, Olimpia Orsini, supported him both financially and morally. The Academy struggled due to this disapproval, but after the death of Frederico's father he had enough money to allow the academy to flourish. The academy, hosted in
Palazzo Cesi-Armellini Palazzo Cesi-Armellini, sometimes known plainly as Palazzo Cesi, is a late Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages In the hist ...
near Saint Peter, replaced the first scientific community ever,
Giambattista della Porta Giambattista della Porta (; 1535 – 4 February 1615), also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta, was an Italians, Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Protestant Reformation, ...

Giambattista della Porta
's ''
Academia Secretorum NaturaeThe first scientific society, the Academia Secretorum Naturae was founded in Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ; grc, wikt:Νεάπολις, Νεάπολις, Neápolis), from grc, Νεάπολις, lit=new city. is the regional cap ...
'' in Naples that had been closed by the
Inquisition The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical terminology also referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat Christian heresy, heresy. Studies of the records have found that ...

Inquisition
. Cesi founded the Accademia dei Lincei with three friends: the Dutch physician Johannes van Heeck (italianized to Giovanni Ecchio) and two fellow Umbrians, mathematician
Francesco Stelluti
Francesco Stelluti
and polymath Anastasio de Filiis. At the time of the Accademia's founding Cesi was only 18, and the others only 8 years older. Cesi and his friends aimed to understand all of the
natural sciences Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...
. The literary and antiquarian emphasis set the "Lincei" apart from the host of sixteenth and seventeenth century Italian Academies. Cesi envisioned a program of free
experiment An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy or likelihood of something previously untried. Experiments provide insight into Causality, cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome oc ...

experiment
that was respectful of tradition, yet unfettered by blind obedience to
authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empiric ...

authority
, even that of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
and
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
, whose theories the new science called into question. While originally a private association, the Academy became a semi-public establishment during the Napoleonic domination of Rome. This shift allowed local scientific elite to carve out a place for themselves in larger scientific networks. However, as a semi-public establishment, the Academy's focus was directed by Napoleonic politics. This focus directed the member's efforts towards stimulating industry, turning public opinion in favor of the French regime and secularizing the country. The name "Lincei" 'the
lynx A lynx (; plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (the Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, or bobcat The bobcat (''Lynx rufus''), also known as the red lynx, is a medium-sized cat The cat (''Fel ...

lynx
-like (i. e., lynx-eyed, sharp-eyed) ones' came from
Giambattista della Porta Giambattista della Porta (; 1535 – 4 February 1615), also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta, was an Italians, Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Protestant Reformation, ...

Giambattista della Porta
's book ''
Magia Naturalis ' (in English, ''Natural Magic'') is a work of popular science Popular science (also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science intended for a general audience. While science journalism focuses on recent scientific development ...
'', which had an illustration of the fabled cat on the cover and the words " ..with lynx-like eyes, examining those things which manifest themselves, so that having observed them, he may zealously use them".''Della Porta's Life – From Giambattista Della Porta Dramatist'' by Louise George Clubb – Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey, 1965
/ref> Accademia dei Lincei's symbols were both a lynx and an
eagle Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey Birds of prey, also known as raptors, include species of bird Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of eggs, a high ...

eagle
; animals with, or reputed to have, keen sight (in classical and medieval
bestiaries " from the 13th-century bestiary known as the " Rochester Bestiary" and Bear Bears are carnivora Carnivora is an order of placental mammals that have specialized in primarily eating flesh. Its members are formally referred to as carni ...
the lynx was reputed to be able to see through rock and "new walls"). The academy's motto, chosen by Cesi, was: "Take care of small things if you want to obtain the greatest results" (''minima cura si maxima vis''). According to , their other motto was ''Sagacius ista''. When Cesi visited
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
, he met with many scientists in fields of interest to him including the botanist, Fabio Colonna, the natural history writer, Ferrante Imperato, and the
polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific pro ...

polymath
della Porta. Della Porta was impressed with Cesi, and dedicated three works to the Linceans including a treatise on distillation called ''De Distillatione'', a book on curvilinear geometry called ''Elementa Curvilinea'', and ''The Transformations of the Atmosphere''.David Freedberg, The Eye of the Lynx: Galileo, His Friends, and the Beginnings of Modern Natural History, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2002. Della Porta encouraged Cesi to continue with his endeavours. Giambattista della Porta joined Cesi's academy in 1610. While in Naples, Cesi also met with Nardo Antonio Recchi to negotiate the acquisition of a collection of material describing Aztec plants and animals written by
Francisco Hernández de Toledo Francisco Hernández de Toledo (1514 in La Puebla de Montalbán, Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places ...
. This collection of material would eventually become the ''Tesoro Messicano'' (''Mexican Treasury''). The goal was nothing less than the assembly of modern science reflected on the method of observation: the church of knowledge. The Academy was to possess in each quarter of the global
communes A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property, possessions, and resources in common. In some communes, the people also share common Employment, work, income, or assets. ...

communes
with adequate endowments to retain membership. These communes were complete with
libraries A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provi ...

libraries
,
laboratories A laboratory (, ; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-E ...
,
museums A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, culture, c ...
, , and
botanical gardens A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a ...

botanical gardens
. Members frequently wrote letters around their observations. The Lyncæis denounced
marriage Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other Significant other (SO) is colloquially used as a term ...

marriage
as a ''mollis'' and ''effeminata requies''. Membership was banned to
monks A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...

monks
. Members were ordered to "penetrate into the interior of things in order to know the causes and operations of nature, as it is said the lynx does, which sees not only what is outside, but what is hidden within."
Galileo Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field o ...

Galileo
was inducted to the exclusive Academy on April 25, 1611, and became its intellectual center. Galileo clearly felt honoured by his association with the Academy for he adopted ''Galileo Galilei Linceo'' as his signature. The Academy published his works and supported him during his disputes with the
Roman Inquisition The Roman Inquisition, formally the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, was a system of tribunals developed by the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or ...
. Among the Academy's early publications in the fields of astronomy, physics and botany were Galileo's "
Letters on Sunspots '' Letters on Sunspots '' (''Istoria e Dimostrazioni intorno alle Macchie Solari'') was a pamphlet written by Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer ...
" and "
The Assayer 275px, Franceso Villamena's Frontispiece for ''The Assayer'' ''The Assayer'' ( it, Il Saggiatore) was a book published in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_m ...
", and the ''Tesoro Messicano'' describing the flora, fauna and drugs of the New World, which took decades of labor, down to 1651. With this publication, the first, most famous phase of the Lincei was concluded. The new usage of microscopy, with "references to magnification tools can be found in the works of Galileo and several Lincei, Harvey, Gassendi, Marco Aurelio Severino—who was probably also in contact with the Lincie—and Nathanial Highmore." Domenico Bertoloni Meli, in Mechanism, Experiment, Disease: Marcello Malpighi and Seventeenth-Century Anatomy (Johns Hopkins University Press: 2011; p. 41). Microscopes were not just by the Lincei for astronomical and mathematical work, but were also used for new experimentations in anatomy, as this was the time of the rise of mechanistic anatomy, and the theories of atomism. Experimentation proliferated across the board. Cesi's own intense activity was cut short by his sudden death in 1630 at forty-five. The Linceans produced an important collection of micrographs, or drawings made with the help of the newly invented
microscope A microscope (from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' 'small' and ''skopeîn'' 'to look (at); examine, inspect') is a laboratory instrument used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye Naked eye, also called bare ...

microscope
. After Cesi's death, the Accademia dei Lincei closed and the drawings were collected by
Cassiano dal Pozzo Cassiano—''Cassianus a Puteo''. Engraving. Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588 – 22 October 1657) was an Italian scholar and patron of arts. The secretary of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, he was an antiquary in the classicizing circle of Rome, and a l ...
, a Roman antiquarian, whose heirs sold them. The majority of the collection was procured by
George III of the United Kingdom George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III of the United Kingdom
, in 1763. The drawings were discovered in
Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a at in the English county of . It is strongly associated with the and succeeding , and embodies almost a millennium of . The original castle was built in the 11th century after the by . Since the time of (who re ...

Windsor Castle
in 1986, by art historian David Freedberg. They are being published as part of ''The Paper Museum of Cassiano dal Pozzo''.


Members

*
Luc Brisson Luc Brisson (born 10 March 1946 in Saint-Esprit, Quebec) is a Canadian (and from 1986 also French) historian of philosophy and anthropologist of antiquity. He is emeritus director of research at the CNRS in France, and is considered by some of his ...
— Canadian-French historian of philosophy and Platonic scholar *
Federico Cesi Federico Angelo Cesi (; 26 February 1585 – 1 August 1630) was an Italian scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classical ...

Federico Cesi
– founder * – archaeologist – first female member *
Giovanni Demisiani Giovanni Demisiani ( el, Ἰωάννης Δημησιάνος; died 1614), a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in S ...
– Greek theologian, chemist, mathematician, coined name "''telescope''" * Anastasio de Filiis – polymath * Johannes van Heeck – Dutch physician *
Giambattista della Porta Giambattista della Porta (; 1535 – 4 February 1615), also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta, was an Italians, Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Protestant Reformation, ...

Giambattista della Porta
– Italian scholar, polymath and playwright *
Adam Elsheimer__NOTOC__ Adam Elsheimer (18 March 1578 – 11 December 1610) was a German artist working in Rome, who died at only thirty-two, but was very influential in the early 17th century in the field of Baroque paintings. His relatively few paintings ...

Adam Elsheimer
– German artist *
Johann Faber Johann Faber (1478 – May 21, 1541) was a Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3  ...
– German physician and botanist, coined name "''microscope''" *
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
– Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher *
Johann Schreck Johann(es) Schreck, also Terrenz or Terrentius Constantiensis, Deng Yuhan Hanpo 鄧玉函, Deng Zhen Lohan, (1576, Bingen, Baden-Württemberg or Constance Konstanz (, , locally: ; also written as Constance in English) is a university city with ...
– German Jesuit, Missionary to China and polymath * – mathematician * Nicola Antonio Stigliola – Italian philosopher, printer, architect, and medical doctor *
Luca Valerio Luca Valerio (1553–1618) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language ** ...
– Italian mathematician * – poet, intellectual, Secretary of Briefs to Pope Gregory XV and chamberlain to Urban VIII *
Virginio Cesarini Virginio Cesarini (Rome, 20 October 1595 - Rome, 1 April 1624) was an Italian poet and intellectual. Youth and Education The son of Giuliano Cesarini, duke of Civitanova, and his wife Livia Orsini, he was sent together with his brother Alessandro ...
– poet, intellectual, and chamberlain to Popes Gregory XV and Urban VIII


The Accademia is re-founded

In 1801, Abbot Feliciano Scarpellini and Gioacchino Pessuti, with the patronage of Francesco Caetani, founded the ''Accademia Caetani'' which took the name of ''Accademia dei Lincei''. The period from 1801-1840 has been termed the "Second Renaissance" of the Accademia. Conflicting goals and general shifts in the "geo-political scale" left the Academy in a state of limbo, which ultimately led to its collapse in the 1840s. During the French domination of the Accademia, the institution saw a transition from a private association to a municipal institution. Despite efforts from the early 1800s onward, the Accademia underwent a true revival in 1847, when
Pope Pius IX Pope Pius IX ( it, Pio IX, ''Pio Nono''; born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878) was head of the Catholic Church from 1846 to 1878, the List of popes by length of reign, longest verified papal reign. He was notable ...

Pope Pius IX
re-founded it as the Pontificia Accademia dei Nuovi Lincei, the Pontifical Academy of New Lincei.


The ''Reale Accademia dei Lincei''

In 1874,
Quintino Sella Quintino Sella (; 7 July 1827 – 14 March 1884) was an Italian politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms ...

Quintino Sella
turned it into the Accademia Nazionale Reale dei Lincei, the Royal National Lincean Academy. This incarnation broadened its scope to include moral and humanistic sciences, and regained the high prestige associated with the original Lincean Academy. After the unification of Italy, the Piedmontese
Quintino Sella Quintino Sella (; 7 July 1827 – 14 March 1884) was an Italian politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms ...

Quintino Sella
infused new life into the '' Nuovi Lincei,'' reaffirming its ideals of secular science, but broadening its scope to include humanistic studies: history, philology, archeology, philosophy, economics and law, in two classes of ''Soci'' (Fellows).


Members

*
Mario Ageno Mario Ageno (March 2, 1915 – December 23, 1992) is considered one of Italy's most important biophysics, biophysicists. Early life and education Born in Livorno from a Genoese family, he studied Physics for two years in Genoa, when one of his pro ...

Mario Ageno
*
Giusto Bellavitis Giusto Bellavitis (22 November 1803 – 6 November 1880) was an Italian mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topic ...

Giusto Bellavitis
*
Domenico Comparetti Domenico Comparetti (27 June 183520 January 1927) was an Italian scholar. He was born at Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Ro ...

Domenico Comparetti
*
Benedetto Croce Benedetto Croce (; 25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography Historiography is the study of the methods o ...
*
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theo ...

Albert Einstein
*
Enrico Fermi Enrico Fermi (; 29 September 1901 - 28 November 1954) was an Italian (later naturalized American) physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and ...

Enrico Fermi
*
Edward Augustus Freeman Edward Augustus Freeman (2 August 182316 March 1892) was an English historian, architectural artist, and Liberal Party (UK), Liberal politician during the late-19th-century heyday of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom William Gladstone, as wel ...

Edward Augustus Freeman
*
Giovanni Gentile Giovanni Gentile (; 30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian lan ...

Giovanni Gentile
*
William Ewart Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an ...

William Ewart Gladstone
*
Otto Hahn Otto Hahn (; 8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language ...

Otto Hahn
*
Werner Heisenberg Werner Karl Heisenberg (; ; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstr ...
*
Theodor Mommsen Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (; 30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world traditionally refers to the study of Anci ...

Theodor Mommsen
*
Antonio Pacinotti Antonio Pacinotti (17 June 1841 – 24 March 1912) was an Italian physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area ...
*
Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur (, ; 27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, fermentation, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization. His research in chemi ...

Louis Pasteur
*
Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, (; ; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a Germans, German theoretical physicist whose discovery of quantum mechanics, energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many substantial co ...

Max Planck
*
Olinto De Pretto Olinto De Pretto (26 April 1857 – 16 March 1921) was an Italy, Italian industrialist and Geology, geologist from Schio, Vicenza. There is evidence that De Pretto may have been the first person to derive the energy–mass-equivalence E=mc^2, genera ...
*
George Rawlinson George Rawlinson (23 November 1812 – 6 October 1902) was a British scholar, historian, and Christian theology, Christian theologian. Life Rawlinson was born at Chadlington, Oxfordshire, the son of Abram Tysack Rawlinson and the younger broth ...
*
Augusto Righi Augusto Righi (27 August 1850 – 8 June 1920) was an Italian physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interes ...

Augusto Righi
* * Manlio Simonetti *
Herbert Spencer Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist A biologist is a professional who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, understanding the underlying mechanisms that govern the functio ...

Herbert Spencer
*
Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff Enno Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (22 December 1848 – 25 September 1931) was a German classical philologist. Wilamowitz, as he is known in scholarly circles, was a renowned authority on Ancient Greece Ancient Gree ...

Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff


The ''Accademia d'Italia''

:''see main article
Royal Academy of ItalyThe Royal Academy of Italy ( it, Reale Accademia d'Italia, italic=no) was a short-lived Italian academy An academy ( Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as ...
During the
fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum than the standard political right, particular ...

fascist
period the Lincean Academy was effectively replaced by the new Accademia d'Italia, the Italian Academy, but was not fully absorbed by that institution until 1939.Fascist Italy, John Whittam, page 84 In 1949, after the fall of the fascist regime, at the suggestion of
Benedetto Croce Benedetto Croce (; 25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography Historiography is the study of the methods o ...
the Lincean Academy recovered its independence. A brief history of this period of the Accademia, as well as the complete inventory of publications and documents produced in the same period, can be found in the book by .


The ''Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei''

In 1986, the Academy was placed under a statute that says it shall be composed of 540 members, of whom 180 are ordinary Italian members, 180 are foreigners, and 180 are Italian corresponding members. The members are divided into two classes: one for
mathematical Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physical" (Olivia Newton-John song) *Physical ( ...

physical
, and
natural sciences Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...
; the other for
moral A moral (from Latin ''morālis'') is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a narrative, story or wikt:event, event. The moral may be left to the hearer, reader, or viewer to determine for themselves, or may be explicitly enca ...
,
historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems a ...

historical
, and
philological Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
sciences. In 2001, the natural sciences were re-divided into five categories: mathematics,
mechanics Mechanics (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximat ...

mechanics
and applications;
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
,
geodesy Geodesy ( ) is the Earth science of accurately measuring and understanding Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field. The field also incorporates studies of how these properties change over time and equivalent measu ...
,
geophysics Geophysics () is a subject of natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a b ...

geophysics
and applications; physics,
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
and applications;
geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

geology
,
paleontology Paleontology (), also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene epoch (geology), epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes th ...
,
mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical mineralogy, optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifact (archaeology), artifacts. Specific st ...

mineralogy
and applications; and
biological sciences Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowl ...

biological sciences
and applications. At the same time, the moral sciences were divided into seven categories: philology and
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
;
archeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological ...

archeology
;
critic A critic is a person who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widesp ...
ism of
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
and of
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

poetry
; history,
historical geography Historical geography is the branch of geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the ...
, and
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
; ; juridical science;
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...

social
and
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
.


Notes


References

* This article draws material from the :it:Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, corresponding article in the Italian Wikipedia, retrieved 09:12, Feb 2, 2005 (UTC) * (in Italian language, Italian), freely available from th
Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali – Dipartimento per i Beni Archivistici e Librari – Direzione Generale per gli Archivi
(a branch of the Italian Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali). The complete inventory of the Reale Accademia d'Italia, which incorporated the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei between 1939 and 1944. * *, available at
Connexions
'. *Walton, S.A., ''Theophrastus on Lyngurium: medieval and early modern lore from the classical lapidary tradition'', 2001, ''Annals of Science'', 2001 Oct;58(4):357-79
PDF on Academia.edu
*David Freedberg, ''The Eye of the Lynx: Galileo, His Friends, and the Beginnings of Modern Natural History'', Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2002. * . ''Facts Worth Knowing Selected Mainly from the Scientific American for Household, Workshop, and Farm Embracing Practical and Useful Information for Every Branch of Industry''. Hartford: S. S. Scranton and Co. 1895.


External links


Official website, with brief history (in Italian).Official website in English
* *[http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/ItalianAcademies/Default.aspx The British Library's database of Italian Academies] {{DEFAULTSORT:Accademia Dei Lincei Scientific organisations based in Italy Members of the Lincean Academy, 01 National academies of sciences, Italy Organisations based in Rome 17th century in Rome Learned societies of Italy Scientific organizations established in 1603 1603 establishments in the Papal States 1603 establishments in Italy