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The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., ...

Academy Awards
presented annually by the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion ...
(AMPAS) since the awards debuted in 1929. This award goes to the
producers Producer or producers may refer to: Occupations *Producer (agriculture), a farm operator *Film producer, oversees the making of films *A stakeholder of economic production *Executive producer, contributes to the film's budget and usually does not w ...
of the film and is the only category in which every member of the Academy is eligible to submit a nomination and vote on the final ballot. Best Picture is the final award of the night and is considered the most prestigious honor of the ceremony. The Grand Staircase columns at the
Dolby Theatre The Dolby Theatre (formerly known as the Kodak Theatre) is a live-performance auditorium in the Hollywood and Highland Center Hollywood & Highland is a shopping center and entertainment complex at Hollywood Boulevard and Highland Avenue (Los Ange ...

Dolby Theatre
in
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...
, where the Academy Awards ceremonies have been held since 2002, showcase every film that has won the Best Picture title since the award's inception. There have been 571 films nominated for Best Picture and 92 winners.


History


Category name changes

At the 1st Academy Awards ceremony (for 1927 and 1928), there were two categories of awards that were each considered the top award of the night: ''Outstanding Picture'' and '' Unique and Artistic Picture,'' the former being won by the war epic ''
Wings A wing is a type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid. Accordingly, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoil An airfoil (American English Am ...
'', and the latter by the art film ''
Sunrise 250px, Skyline of Kaohsiung harbour, Taiwan at sunrise. Sunrise (or sunup) is the moment when the upper rim of the Sun appears on the horizon in the morning. The term can also refer to the entire process of the solar disk crossing the horizon a ...
''. Each award was intended to honor different and equally important aspects of superior filmmaking. The following year, the Academy dropped the ''Unique and Artistic Picture'' award, and decided retroactively that the award won by ''Wings'' was the highest honor that could be awarded. Although the award kept the title ''Outstanding Picture'' for the next ceremony, the name underwent several changes over the years as seen below. Since 1962, the award has been simply called ''Best Picture''. * 1927/281928/29: Academy Award for Outstanding Picture * 1929/30
1940 A calendar from 1940 according to the Gregorian calendar, factoring in the dates of Easter and related holidays, cannot be used again until the year 5280. Events Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix. January * January ...
: Academy Award for Outstanding Production *
1941 Events Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix. January * January–August – In the first phase of mass killings under the Action T4 program, 10,072 men, women and children with mental and physical disabilities are ...
1943 Events Below, the events of World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of ...
: Academy Award for Outstanding Motion Picture *
1944 Events Below, the events of World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority o ...
1961 As ''MAD Magazine'' pointed out on its cover for the March 1961 issue, this was the first "upside-up" year — i.e., one in which the numerals that form the year look the same as when the numerals are rotated upside down, a strobogrammatic num ...
: Academy Award for Best Motion Picture *
1962 Events January * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. ...
–present: Academy Award for Best Picture


Recipients

Until 1950, this award was presented to a representative of the production company. That year the protocol was changed so that the award was presented to all credited producers. This rule was modified in 1999 to apply a maximum limit of three producers receiving the award, after the five producers of ''
Shakespeare in Love ''Shakespeare in Love'' is a 1998 romantic period comedy-drama Comedy-drama, or dramedy, is a genre of dramatic works that combines elements of comedy and Drama (film and television), drama. History The advent of radio drama, film, cinema ...
'' had received the award. , the "Special Rules for the Best Picture of the Year Award" limit recipients to those who meet two main requirements: * Those with
screen credit Two types of credits are traditionally used in films A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atm ...
of "producer" or "produced by", explicitly excluding those with the screen credit "executive producer, co-producer, associate producer, line producer, or produced in association with" * those three or fewer producers who have performed the major portion of the producing functions The rules allow team of not more than two people shall be considered to be a single “producer” if the two individuals have had an established producing partnership as determined by the
Producers Guild of America The Producers Guild of America (PGA) is a 501(c)(6) trade association representing television producers, film producers and New media, New Media producers in the United States. The PGA's membership includes over 7,000 members of the producing establ ...
Producing Partnership Panel. Final determination of the qualifying producer nominees for each nominated picture will be made by the Producers Branch Executive Committee, including the right to name any additional qualified producer as a nominee. The Academy can make exceptions to the limit, as when
Anthony Minghella Anthony Minghella, (6 January 195418 March 2008) was a British film director, playwright and screenwriter. He was chairman of the board of Governors at the British Film Institute between 2003 and 2007. He won the Academy Award for Best Directo ...
and
Sydney Pollack Sydney Irwin Pollack (July 1, 1934 – May 26, 2008) was an American film director, producer and actor. Pollack directed more than 20 films and 10 television shows, acted in over 30 movies or shows and produced over 44 films. For his film ''Out ...

Sydney Pollack
were posthumously included among the four producers nominated for ''
The Reader ''The Reader'' (german: Der Vorleser) is a novel by German law professor and judge Bernhard Schlink, published in Germany in 1995 and in the United States in 1997. The story is a parable, dealing with the difficulties post-war German generations ...
.'' the Producers Branch Executive Committee determines such exceptions, noting they take place only in "rare and extraordinary circumstance "
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood New Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the American New Wave or the Hollywood Renaissance, r ...

Steven Spielberg
currently holds the record for most nominations at ten, winning one, while Kathleen Kennedy holds the record for most nominations without a win at eight.
Sam Spiegel Samuel P. Spiegel (November 11, 1901December 31, 1985) was an American independent film producer born in Polish speaking part of Austria-Hungary. Financially responsible for some of the most critically acclaimed motion pictures of the twentieth c ...

Sam Spiegel
and
Saul Zaentz Saul Zaentz (; February 28, 1921January 3, 2014) was an American film producer and record company executive. He won the Academy Award for Best Picture The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards The Academy Awards, po ...
tie for the most wins with three each. As for the time when the Oscar was given to production companies instead,
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is an American media company, founded in 1924, that produces and distributes feature films and television programs. It is based in Beverly Hills, California ...
holds the record with five wins and 40 nominations.


Best Picture and Best Director

The Academy Awards for Best Picture and
Best DirectorBest Director is the name of an award which is presented by various film, television and theatre organizations, festivals, and people's awards. It may refer to: Film awards * AACTA Award for Best Direction * Academy Award for Best Director * BAFTA ...
have been closely linked throughout their history. Of the 92 films that have won Best Picture, 66 have also been awarded Best Director. Only five films have been awarded Best Picture without receiving a Best Director nomination: ''
Wings A wing is a type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid. Accordingly, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoil An airfoil (American English Am ...
'' (1927/28), ''
Grand HotelA grand hotel is a large and luxurious hotel A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided inside a hotel room may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with b ...
'' (1931/32), ''
Driving Miss Daisy '' Driving Miss Daisy'' is a 1989 American comedy-drama Comedy-drama, or dramedy, is a genre of dramatic works that combines elements of comedy and Drama (film and television), drama. History The advent of radio drama, film, cinema and in par ...
'' (1989), ''
Argo Image:Lorenzo Costa 001.jpg, ''The Argo'' (), painting by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, ''Argo'' (; in Ancient Greek, Greek: ) was the ship on which Jason and the Argonauts sailed from Iolcos to Colchis to retrieve the Golden Fleece. Name ...
'' (2012), and '' Green Book'' (2018). The only two Best Director winners to win for films that did not receive a Best Picture nomination were during the early years of the awards:
Lewis Milestone Lewis Milestone (born Leib Milstein (Russian: Лейб Мильштейн); September 30, 1895 – September 25, 1980) was a Russian-American Russian Americans ( rus, ру́сские америка́нцы, links= y, r= rússkiye amerikántsy ...
for ''
Two Arabian Knights ''Two Arabian Knights'' (1927) is an American comedy film A comedy film is a category of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, ...
'' (1927/28), and
Frank Lloyd Frank William George Lloyd (2 February 1886 – 10 August 1960) was a British people, British-born Americans, American film director, actor, Screenwriter, scriptwriter, and producer. He was among the founders of the Academy of Motion Picture ...

Frank Lloyd
for ''
The Divine Lady ''The Divine Lady'' is a 1929 American Vitaphone sound film with a synchronized musical score, sound effects, and some synchronized singing, but no spoken dialogue. It stars Corinne Griffith and tells the story of the love affair between Horatio ...
'' (1928/29).


Nomination limit increased

On June 24, 2009,
AMPAS The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion ...

AMPAS
announced that the number of films to be nominated in the Best Picture award category would increase from five to ten, starting with the
82nd Academy Awards The 82nd Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best 2009 in film, films of 2009 and took place on March 7, 2010, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5: ...
(2009). Although the Academy never officially said so, many commenters noted the expansion was likely in part a response to public criticism of '' The Dark Knight'' (2008) (and, in previous years, other blockbusters and popular films) not being nominated for Best Picture. Officially, the Academy said the rule change was a throwback to the Academy's early years in the 1930s and 1940s, when eight to 12 films were nominated each year. "Having 10 Best Picture nominees is going to allow Academy voters to recognize and include some of the fantastic movies that often show up in the other Oscar categories but have been squeezed out of the race for the top prize," AMPAS President
Sid Ganis Sidney (Sid) Ganis (born January 8, 1940) is an American motion picture executive and producer who has produced such films as '' Big Daddy'', '' Deuce Bigalow: Male Gigolo'', '' Mr. Deeds'', ''The Master of Disguise ''The Master of Disguise'' i ...
said in a press conference. "I can't wait to see what that list of 10 looks like when the nominees are announced in February." At the same time, the voting system was switched from
first-past-the-post In a first-past-the-post electoral system (FPTP or FPP; sometimes formally called single-member plurality voting or SMP; sometimes called choose-one voting for single-member districts, in contrast to ranked voting, ranked-choice voting), voter ...
to
instant runoff voting Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a type of Ranked voting, ranked preferential electoral system, vote counting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates. IRV is also sometimes referred to as the alternative vote (AV), pre ...
(also known as preferential voting). Two years after this change, the Academy revised the rule again so that the number of films nominated was between five and ten; nominated films must earn either 5% of first-place rankings or 5% after an abbreviated variation of the
single transferable vote Single transferable vote (STV) is a type of ranked preferential electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are de ...
nominating process. Bruce Davis, the Academy executive director at the time, said, "A Best Picture nomination should be an indication of extraordinary merit. If there are only eight pictures that truly earn that honor in a given year, we shouldn't feel an obligation to round out the number."


Language and country of origin

Only eleven non-
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
films have been nominated in the category: ''
La Grande Illusion ''La Grande Illusion'' (also known as ''The Grand Illusion'') is a 1937 French war film directed by Jean Renoir, who co-wrote the screenplay with Charles Spaak. The story concerns class relationships among a small group of French officers who a ...
'' (French, 1938); '' Z'' (French, 1969); '' The Emigrants'' (Swedish, 1972); ''
Cries and Whispers ''Cries and Whispers'' ( sv, Viskningar och rop, lit=Whispers and Cries) is a 1972 Swedish period drama A historical drama (also period drama, costume drama, and period piece) is a work set in a past time period, usually used in the context o ...
'' (Swedish, 1973); '' The Postman (Il Postino)'' (Italian/Spanish, 1995); ''
Life Is Beautiful ''Life Is Beautiful'' ( it, La vita è bella, ) is a 1997 Italian comedy-drama Comedy-drama, or dramedy, is a genre of dramatic works that combines elements of comedy and Drama (film and television), drama. History The advent of radio drama ...
'' (Italian, 1998); ''
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon ''Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon'' () is a 2000 '' wuxia'' film directed by Ang Lee and written by Wang Hui-ling, James Schamus and Kuo Jung Tsai. The film features an international cast of actors of Chinese people, Chinese ethnicity, includi ...
'' (
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
, 2000); ''
Letters from Iwo Jima is a 2006 Japanese-language American war film directed and co-produced by Clint Eastwood Clinton Eastwood Jr. (born May 31, 1930) is an American actor, film director, composer, and producer. After achieving success in the Western (genre), ...
'' (Japanese, 2006, but ineligible for
Best Foreign Language FilmThis is a list of categories of awards commonly awarded through organizations that bestow film awards, including those presented by various film, festivals, and people's awards. Best Actor/Best Actress *See Best Actor#Film awards, Best Actress#Fi ...
, as it was an American production); '' Amour'' (French, 2012); ''Roma'' (Spanish/Mixtec, 2018); and ''
Parasite Parasitism is a Symbiosis, close relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or inside another organism, the Host (biology), host, causing it some harm, and is adaptation (biology), adapted structurally to this w ...
'' (Korean, 2019). ''Parasite'' became the first film not in English to win Best Picture. Only ten films wholly financed outside the United States have won Best Picture, eight of which were financed, in part or in whole, by the United Kingdom: ''
Hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (baptism, bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and acto ...
'' (1948), '' Tom Jones'' (1963), '' A Man for All Seasons'' (1966), ''
Chariots of Fire ''Chariots of Fire'' is a 1981 British historical drama, historical Sports film, sports drama film directed by Hugh Hudson, written by Colin Welland, and produced by David Puttnam. It is based on the true story of two British athletes in the 192 ...
'' (1981), ''
Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist, Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the t ...
'' (1982), ''
The Last Emperor ''The Last Emperor'' ( it, L'ultimo imperatore; zh, 末代皇帝) is a 1987 Epic film, epic biographical film, biographical drama film, directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, about the life of Puyi, the last List of Chinese monarchs, Emperor of China ...
'' (1987), ''
Slumdog Millionaire ''Slumdog Millionaire'' is a 2008 British drama film In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of this ki ...
'' (2008), and ''
The King's Speech ''The King's Speech'' is a 2010 British historical drama film directed by Tom Hooper and written by David Seidler. Colin Firth plays the future King George VI who, to cope with a stammer, sees Lionel Logue, an Australian speech and language t ...
'' (2010). The ninth film, '' The Artist'' (2011), was financed by France and the tenth film, ''Parasite'' (2019), was financed by South Korea.


Genres

Some genres of film (or mediums in the case of an animation) have received few or no nominations or awards. Only three animated films have been nominated — ''
Beauty and the Beast ''Beauty and the Beast'' (french: La Belle et la Bête) is a fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is ...
'' (1991), '' Up'' (2009) and ''
Toy Story 3 ''Toy Story 3'' is a 2010 American computer-animated film A computer-animated film is a feature film that has been computer animation, computer-animated to appear three-dimensional. While traditional 2D computer graphics, 2D animation, anima ...
'' (2010). The latter two were nominated after the Academy expanded the number of nominees, but none have won. No comic book or superhero film has won, and only two have ever been nominated — ''
Black Panther A black panther is the melanistic colour variant of the leopard The leopard (''Panthera pardus'') is one of the five extant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...
'' (2018), and ''
Joker Joker, The Joker or The Jokers may refer to: * Joker (playing card) * Jester, a person employed to tell jokes and provide entertainment Fictional characters Print * Joker (character), a DC comics character ** The Joker (comic book), ''The Joker'' ...
'' (2019). Only two fantasy films have won — '' The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King'' (2003) and ''
The Shape of Water ''The Shape of Water'' is a 2017 American romantic fantasy film Fantasy films are films that belong to the fantasy genre with fantastic themes, usually magic, supernatural events, mythology, folklore Folklore is the expressive bod ...
'' (2017), although more have been nominated. '' The Silence of the Lambs'' (1991) is the only horror film to win Best Picture, and only five others have been nominated for Best Picture: ''
The Exorcist ''The Exorcist'' is an American media franchise A media franchise, also known as multimedia franchise, is a collection of related media in which several derivative works have been produced from an original creative work of fiction, such as a film ...
'' (1973), '' Jaws'' (1975), ''
The Sixth Sense ''The Sixth Sense'' is a 1999 American supernatural fiction, supernatural psychological thriller film written and directed by M. Night Shyamalan. It stars Bruce Willis as a child psychologist whose patient (Haley Joel Osment) can talk to the dead ...

The Sixth Sense
'' (1999), ''
Black Swan The black swan (''Cygnus atratus'') is a large waterbird, a species of swan which breeds mainly in the southeast and southwest regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign co ...
'' (2010), and ''
Get Out ''Get Out'' is a 2017 American horror film A horror film is one that seeks to elicit or in its audience for entertainment purposes. Initially inspired by from authors such as , , and , horror has existed as a film genre for more than ...
'' (2017). No science fiction film has won the award, though eleven films have been nominated: '' A Clockwork Orange'', ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...
'', '' E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial'', ''
Avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", is the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to an ...
'', ''
District 9 ''District 9'' is a 2009 science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination.'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or ...

District 9
'', ''
Inception ''Inception'' is a 2010 science fiction action film written and directed by Christopher Nolan Christopher Edward Nolan (; born 30 July 1970) is a British-American film director, producer, and screenwriter. Christopher Nolan filmography, ...

Inception
'', ''
Gravity Gravity (), or gravitation, is a by which all things with or —including s, s, , and even —are attracted to (or ''gravitate'' toward) one another. , gravity gives to s, and the causes the s of the oceans. The gravitational attracti ...
'', '' Her'', '' Mad Max: Fury Road'', '' The Martian'', and '' Arrival''. No documentary feature has yet been nominated for Best Picture, although '' Chang'' was nominated in the "Unique and Artistic Production" category at the 1927/28 awards. Several musical adaptations based on material previously filmed in non-musical form have won Best Picture, including '' Gigi'', ''
West Side Story ''West Side Story'' is a Musical theatre, musical conceived by Jerome Robbins with music by Leonard Bernstein, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and a Book (musical theatre), book by Arthur Laurents. Inspired by William Shakespeare's play ''Romeo and ...
'', ''
My Fair Lady ''My Fair Lady'' is a musical theatre, musical based on George Bernard Shaw's 1913 play ''Pygmalion (play), Pygmalion'', with book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe. The story concerns Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower g ...
'', ''
The Sound of Music ''The Sound of Music'' is a musical with music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, and a book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse. It is based on the 1949 memoir of Maria von Trapp, ''The Story of the Trapp Family Singers''. ...
'', ''
Oliver! ''Oliver!'' is a British coming-of-age Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult. It continues through adolescence. The specific age at which this transition takes place varies between societies, ...
'', and ''
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...
''.


Sequel nominations and winners

Few sequels have been nominated for Best Picture and just two have won: ''
The Godfather Part II ''The Godfather Part II'' is a 1974 American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a genre of film with heroic elements Epic or ...
'' (the film before that, ''
The Godfather ''The Godfather'' is a 1972 American Epic film, epic crime film directed by Francis Ford Coppola, who co-wrote the screenplay with Mario Puzo, based on Puzo's best-selling 1969 The Godfather (novel), novel of the same name. The film stars Marl ...

The Godfather
'', also won the award; the third film in the installment ''
The Godfather Part III ''The Godfather Part III'' is a 1990 American crime film produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola from the screenplay co-written with Mario Puzo. The film stars Al Pacino, Diane Keaton, Talia Shire, and Andy García, Eli Wallach, Joe Mantegn ...
'', was nominated as well but did not win the award) and '' The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King'' (the films before that, '' Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring'' and ''Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers'' were both nominated for the award but did not win). Other nominees include ''The Bells of St. Mary's'' (the sequel to the 1944 winner, ''Going My Way''), ''
Toy Story 3 ''Toy Story 3'' is a 2010 American computer-animated film A computer-animated film is a feature film that has been computer animation, computer-animated to appear three-dimensional. While traditional 2D computer graphics, 2D animation, anima ...
,'' and '' Mad Max: Fury Road.'' Another nominee, ''Broadway Melody of 1936,'' was a follow-up of sorts to previous winner ''The Broadway Melody.'' But, beyond the title and some music, there is no story connection to the earlier film. '' The Silence of the Lambs'' was adapted from the sequel novel to ''Red Dragon (novel), Red Dragon.'' The latter had been adapted for film as ''Manhunter (film), Manhunter'' by a different studio. Best Picture nominee ''The Lion in Winter (1968 film), The Lion in Winter'' features Peter O'Toole as Henry II of England, King Henry II, a role he had played previously in the film ''Becket (1964 film), Becket''. But ''Winter'' is not a sequel to ''Becket''. Clint Eastwood's ''
Letters from Iwo Jima is a 2006 Japanese-language American war film directed and co-produced by Clint Eastwood Clinton Eastwood Jr. (born May 31, 1930) is an American actor, film director, composer, and producer. After achieving success in the Western (genre), ...
'' was a companion piece to his film ''Flags of Our Fathers (film), Flags of Our Fathers'', released earlier the same year. These two films depict the same battle from the different viewpoints of Japanese and United States military forces; the two films were shot back-to-back. In addition, ''
Black Panther A black panther is the melanistic colour variant of the leopard The leopard (''Panthera pardus'') is one of the five extant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...
'' is a continuation on the events that occurred in ''Captain America: Civil War'' and the Marvel Cinematic Universe.


Silent film winners

At the 1st Academy Awards, the Best Picture award then named "Academy Award for Outstanding Picture" was presented to the 1927 silent film ''
Wings A wing is a type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid. Accordingly, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoil An airfoil (American English Am ...
''. '' The Artist'' (with the exception of a single scene of dialogue, and dream sequence with sound effects) was the first silent film since ''
Wings A wing is a type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid. Accordingly, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoil An airfoil (American English Am ...
'' to win Best Picture. It was the first silent nominee since 1928's ''The Patriot (1928 film), The Patriot''. It was the first Best Picture winner to be shot entirely in black-and-white since 1960's ''The Apartment.'' (''Schindler's List'', the 1993 winner, was predominantly black-and-white but it did contain some color sequences).


Version availability

No Best Picture winner has been lost film, lost, though a few such as ''All Quiet on the Western Front (1930 film), All Quiet on the Western Front'' and ''Lawrence of Arabia (film), Lawrence of Arabia'' exist only in a form altered from their original, award-winning release form. This has usually been due to editing for reissue (and subsequently partly restored by archivists). Other winners and nominees, such as ''Tom Jones'' (prior to its 2018 reissues by The Criterion Collection and the British Film Institute) and ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...
,'' are widely available only in subsequently altered versions. ''The Broadway Melody'' originally had some sequences photographed in Technicolor#Process 3, two-color Technicolor. This footage survives only in black and white. The 1928 film ''The Patriot (1928 film), The Patriot'' is the only Best Picture nominee that is lost (about one-third is extant). ''The Racket (1928 film), The Racket'', also from 1928, was believed lost for many years until a print was found in Howard Hughes' archives. It has since been restored and shown on Turner Classic Movies. The only surviving complete prints of 1931's ''East Lynne (1931 film), East Lynne'' and 1934's ''The White Parade'' exist within the UCLA film archive.


Ceremony mistake

In 2017, at the 89th Academy Awards, presenter Faye Dunaway read ''La La Land'' as the winner of the award. However, she and Warren Beatty had mistakenly been given the duplicate envelope for the "Academy Award for Best Actress, Best Actress in a Leading Role" award, which Emma Stone had won for her role in ''La La Land'' moments prior. When the mistake was realized, the show's producers rushed onstage to correct it; in the resulting chaos, it was ''La La Land'' producer Jordan Horowitz who finally announced that ''Moonlight (2016 film), Moonlight'' was the real winner.


Winners and nominees

In the list below, winners are listed first in the gold row, followed by the other nominees. Except for the early years (when the Academy used a non-calendar year), the year shown is the one in which the film first premiered in Los Angeles County, California; normally this is also the year of first release, however, it may be the year after first release (as with ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' and, if the film-festival premiere is considered, ''Crash (2004 film), Crash''). This is also the year before the ceremony at which the award is given; for example, a film exhibited theatrically during 2005 was eligible for consideration for the 2005 Best Picture Academy Awards, Oscar, awarded in 2006. The number of the ceremony (1st, 2nd, etc.) appears in Bracket, parentheses after the awards year, linked to the article on that ceremony. Each individual entry shows the title followed by nominee. Until 1950, the Best Picture award was given to the production company; from 1951 on, it has gone to the producer or producers. The Academy used the producer credits of the
Producers Guild of America The Producers Guild of America (PGA) is a 501(c)(6) trade association representing television producers, film producers and New media, New Media producers in the United States. The PGA's membership includes over 7,000 members of the producing establ ...
(PGA) until 1998, when all five producers of ''
Shakespeare in Love ''Shakespeare in Love'' is a 1998 romantic period comedy-drama Comedy-drama, or dramedy, is a genre of dramatic works that combines elements of comedy and Drama (film and television), drama. History The advent of radio drama, film, cinema ...
'' made speeches after its win. A three-producer limit has been applied some years since. There was controversy over the exclusion of some PGA-credited producers of ''Crash (2004 film), Crash'' and ''Little Miss Sunshine''. The Academy can make exceptions to the limit, as when
Anthony Minghella Anthony Minghella, (6 January 195418 March 2008) was a British film director, playwright and screenwriter. He was chairman of the board of Governors at the British Film Institute between 2003 and 2007. He won the Academy Award for Best Directo ...
and
Sydney Pollack Sydney Irwin Pollack (July 1, 1934 – May 26, 2008) was an American film director, producer and actor. Pollack directed more than 20 films and 10 television shows, acted in over 30 movies or shows and produced over 44 films. For his film ''Out ...

Sydney Pollack
were posthumously among the four nominated for ''
The Reader ''The Reader'' (german: Der Vorleser) is a novel by German law professor and judge Bernhard Schlink, published in Germany in 1995 and in the United States in 1997. The story is a parable, dealing with the difficulties post-war German generations ...
''. However, now any number of producers on a film can be nominated for Best Picture, should they be deemed eligible. For the first ceremony, three films were nominated for the award. For the following three years, five films were nominated for the award. This was expanded to eight in 1933, to ten in 1934, and to twelve in 1935, before being dropped back to ten in 1937. In 1945, it was further reduced to five. This number remained until 2009, when the limit was raised to ten and later adjusted in 2011, to vary between five and ten. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. For example, the 2nd Academy Awards presented on April 3, 1930, recognized films that were released between August 1, 1928, and July 31, 1929. Starting with the 7th Academy Awards, held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31.


1920s


1930s


1940s


1950s


1960s


1970s


1980s


1990s


2000s


2010s


2020s


Individuals with multiple wins

;3 wins *
Sam Spiegel Samuel P. Spiegel (November 11, 1901December 31, 1985) was an American independent film producer born in Polish speaking part of Austria-Hungary. Financially responsible for some of the most critically acclaimed motion pictures of the twentieth c ...

Sam Spiegel
*
Saul Zaentz Saul Zaentz (; February 28, 1921January 3, 2014) was an American film producer and record company executive. He won the Academy Award for Best Picture The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards The Academy Awards, po ...
;2 wins * Clint Eastwood * Arthur Freed * Dede Gardner * Jeremy Kleiner * Branko Lustig * Albert S. Ruddy * Robert Wise


Individuals with multiple nominations

;10 nominations *
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood New Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the American New Wave or the Hollywood Renaissance, r ...

Steven Spielberg
;9 nominations * Scott Rudin ;8 nominations * Kathleen Kennedy ;6 nominations * Eric Fellner * Dede Gardner * Stanley Kramer ;5 nominations * Tim Bevan * Francis Ford Coppola * Clint Eastwood * Jeremy Kleiner * Frank Marshall (producer), Frank Marshall ;4 nominations * Warren Beatty * James L. Brooks * David Brown (producer), David Brown * Megan Ellison * Coen brothers, Ethan Coen * Donna Gigliotti * Peter Jackson * Norman Jewison * Graham King *
Sydney Pollack Sydney Irwin Pollack (July 1, 1934 – May 26, 2008) was an American film director, producer and actor. Pollack directed more than 20 films and 10 television shows, acted in over 30 movies or shows and produced over 44 films. For his film ''Out ...

Sydney Pollack
* David Puttnam *
Sam Spiegel Samuel P. Spiegel (November 11, 1901December 31, 1985) was an American independent film producer born in Polish speaking part of Austria-Hungary. Financially responsible for some of the most critically acclaimed motion pictures of the twentieth c ...

Sam Spiegel
* George Stevens * Irwin Winkler ;3 nominations * Lawrence Bender * Jason Blum * Ceán Chaffin * Robert Chartoff * Coen brothers, Joel Coen * Bruce Cohen * Christian Colson * Bradley Cooper * Michael De Luca * Steve Golin * Brian Grazer * David Heyman * Alejandro González Iñárritu * Emma Tillinger Koskoff * Stanley Kubrick * Robert Lorenz * Ismail Merchant * Barrie M. Osborne * Brad Pitt * Marc Platt (producer), Marc Platt * Martin Scorsese * Hal B. Wallis * Fran Walsh * Robert Wise * John and James Woolf, John Woolf *
Saul Zaentz Saul Zaentz (; February 28, 1921January 3, 2014) was an American film producer and record company executive. He won the Academy Award for Best Picture The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards The Academy Awards, po ...
* Richard D. Zanuck ;2 nominations * Buddy Adler * Robert Altman * Paul Thomas Anderson * Kathryn Bigelow * Mark Boal * John Boorman * John Knatchbull, 7th Baron Brabourne, John Brabourne * Lisa Bruce * Dana Brunetti * Jim Burke (film producer), Jim Burke * James Cameron * Iain Canning * Peter Chernin * Alfonso Cuarón * Cecil B. DeMille * Finola Dwyer * John Foreman (producer), John Foreman * Gray Frederickson * Arthur Freed * Richard N. Gladstein * Jonathan Gordon * Ed Guiney * Jerome Hellman * Grant Heslov * Grant Hill (producer), Grant Hill * Ron Howard * Stanley R. Jaffe * Dan Janvey * Dan Jinks * Mark Johnson (producer), Mark Johnson * Ross Katz * A. Kitman Ho * Arnold Kopelson * Kristie Macosko Krieger * Gary Kurtz * Jon Landau (film producer), Jon Landau * Ang Lee * Ernest Lehman * Daniel Lupi * Branko Lustig * Michael Mann * Anthony McCarten * Frank McCarthy (producer), Frank McCarthy * Barry Mendel * Arnon Milchan * George Miller (director), George Miller * Doug Mitchell (film producer), Doug Mitchell * Gil Netter * Patrick J. Palmer * David Parfitt * Amy Pascal * Jordan Peele * Julia Phillips * Michael Phillips (producer), Michael Phillips * Amanda Posey * Sean McKittrick * Christopher Nolan * Fred Roos * Albert S. Ruddy * Tracey Seaward * Ronald L. Schwary * JoAnne Sellar * Michael Shamberg * Stacey Sher * Emile Sherman * Bernard Smith (editor), Bernard Smith * Peter Spears * Ray Stark * Oliver Stone * Emma Thomas * Jenno Topping * Douglas Urbanski * Jerry Wald * Jack L. Warner * Harvey Weinstein * Douglas Wick * John and James Woolf, James Woolf * William Wyler * Peter Yates * Sam Zimbalist * Fred Zinnemann * Edward Zwick


Production companies with multiple nominations and wins


See also

* BAFTA Award for Best Film * Independent Spirit Award for Best Film * Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Picture * Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama * Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy * Producers Guild of America Award for Best Theatrical Motion Picture * Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture * List of actors who have appeared in multiple Best Picture Academy Award winners, List of actors who have appeared in multiple Best Picture winners * List of superlative Academy Award winners and nominees * List of presenters of Best Picture Academy Award, List of presenters of the Academy Award for Best Picture * List of Big Five Academy Award winners and nominees * Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture * List of Academy Award-winning films * List of film production companies * List of films considered the best * Lists of films


Notes


References


External links


Oscars.org
(official Academy site)
Oscar.com
(official ceremony site)
The Academy Awards Database
(official site) {{DEFAULTSORT:Academy Award For Best Picture Academy Awards, Picture Awards for best film Best Picture Academy Award winners,