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The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of
Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, and Malta. Semitic may also refer to: Religions * Abrahamic religions ** ...
-originated
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
s that claim descent from the
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
of the ancient
Israelites The Israelites (; ) were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israel and Judah, tribal and monarchic perio ...

Israelites
and the worship of the God of Abraham. The Abrahamic religions are
monotheistic Monotheism is the belief in one god. A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith Faith, der ...
, with the term deriving from the
patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...

patriarch
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic ...

Abraham
(a major figure described in the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
, the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
, and the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
, recognized by
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is t ...

Jews
,
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jes ...
,
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (to God)". Muslims consider the Quran ...
, and others). The three major Abrahamic religions trace their origins to the first two sons of Abraham: for Jews and Christians it is his second son
Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of t ...

Isaac
, and for Muslims his elder son
Ishmael Ishmael, ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration ...
. Abrahamic religions spread globally through
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
being adopted by the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity it included large territorial holdings aro ...

Roman Empire
in the 4th century and
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
by the
Umayyad Empire The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under th ...
from the 7th century. Today the Abrahamic religions are one of the major divisions in
comparative religion Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices, themes and impacts (including migration) of the world's religions. In general the comparative study of religi ...
(along with
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
,
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia ...
, and
East Asian religions In the study of comparative religion Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices, themes and impacts (including migration) of the world's religions. I ...
).C.J. Adams ''Classification of religions: Geographical''. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007
. Retrieved 15 May 2013
The major Abrahamic religions in chronological order of founding are
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
(the source of the other two religions) in the 6th century BCE, Christianity in the 1st century CE, and Islam in the 7th century CE. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are the Abrahamic religions with the greatest numbers of adherents. Abrahamic religions with fewer adherents include the
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a relatively new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Establish ...
,
Druzism The Druze (; ar, درزي ' or ', plural ') are an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in c ...
(sometimes considered a
school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes compulso ...
of
Ismaili Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''Esmâ'īliyân'') is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branch ...
Islam),
Yazidism Yazidism or Sharfadin ( ku, شه‌رفه‌دین ,Şerfedîn) is a monotheistic ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. Ethnic religions ar ...
,
Samaritanism The Samaritan religion, also known as Samaritanism, is the national religion of the Samaritans The Samaritans (; Samaritan Hebrew: , ' (, 'Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)'); he, שומרונים, ''Shomronim''; ar, السام ...
, and
Rastafari Rastafari, also known as the Rastafari movement or Rastafarianism, is a religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s. It is classified as both a new religious movement and a social movement by Religious studies, scholars of religion. The ...

Rastafari
.


Etymology

The Catholic scholar of Islam
Louis Massignon Louis Massignon (25 July 1883 – 31 October 1962) was a Catholic scholar of Islam and a pioneer of Catholic-Muslim mutual understanding. He was an influential figure in the twentieth century with regard to the Catholic Church, Catholic church' ...
stated that the phrase "Abrahamic religion" means that all these religions come from one spiritual source. The modern term comes from the plural form of a Quranic reference to '' dīn Ibrāhīm'', 'religion of Ibrahim', the Arabic form of Abraham's name. God's promise at
Genesis Genesis may refer to: Literature and comics * Genesis (DC Comics), a 1997 DC Comics crossover * Genesis (Marvel Comics), a Marvel Comics villain * Genesis, a fictional character from the ''Preacher (comics), Preacher'' comic-book series * ''Genes ...
15:4-8 regarding Abraham's heirs became paradigmatic for Jews, who speak of him as "our father Abraham" (''Avraham Avinu''). With the emergence of Christianity,
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
, in Romans 4:11-12, likewise referred to him as "father of all" those who have faith, circumcised or uncircumcised. Islam likewise conceived itself as the religion of Abraham.Jon D. Levenson, ''Inheriting Abraham: The Legacy of the Patriarch in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam,''
Princeton University Press Princeton University Press is an independent publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribu ...

Princeton University Press
, 2014 ch.1 & pp.3, 6, 178-179
All the major Abrahamic religions claim a direct lineage to Abraham, although in Christianity this is understood in spiritual terms: * Abraham is recorded in the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
as the ancestor of the
Israelites The Israelites (; ) were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israel and Judah, tribal and monarchic perio ...

Israelites
through his son
Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of t ...

Isaac
, born to
Sarah SAR-Lupe is Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, ...

Sarah
through a promise made in
Genesis Genesis may refer to: Literature and comics * Genesis (DC Comics), a 1997 DC Comics crossover * Genesis (Marvel Comics), a Marvel Comics villain * Genesis, a fictional character from the ''Preacher (comics), Preacher'' comic-book series * ''Genes ...
. * Christians affirm the ancestral origin of the Jews in Abraham, but, as
gentiles Gentile (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...
, faith is what determines the issue for being Christian, not lineal descent. * It is the Islamic tradition that
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
, as an
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Hea ...
, is descended from Abraham's son
Ishmael Ishmael, ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration ...
. Jewish tradition also equates the descendants of Ishmael,
IshmaelitesAccording to the Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis,, "''Bərēšīṯ''", "In hebeginning" the first book of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, ...
, with Arabs, while the descendants of Isaac by Jacob, who was also later known as Israel, are the Israelites. Adam Dodds argues that the term "Abrahamic faiths", while helpful, can be misleading, as it conveys an unspecified historical and
theological Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity ...
commonality that is problematic on closer examination. While there is commonality among the religions, in large measure their shared ancestry is peripheral to their respective foundational beliefs and thus conceals crucial differences. For example, the common Christian beliefs of
Incarnation Incarnation literally means ''embodied in flesh'' or ''taking on flesh''. It refers to the conception and birth of a sentient Sentience is the capacity to be aware of feeling Feeling was originally used to describe the physical sensation of to ...

Incarnation
,
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian' ...

Trinity
, and the
resurrection of Jesus The resurrection of Jesus ( gr, ανάσταση του Ιησού) is the Christianity, Christian belief that God in Christianity, God Resurrection, raised Jesus on the third day after Crucifixion of Jesus, his crucifixion, starting – or Pre ...
are not accepted by Judaism or Islam (see for example
Islamic view of Jesus' death The Biblical account of the crucifixion, death, and resurrection Resurrection or anastasis is the concept of coming back to life after death. In a number of religions, a Dying-and-rising deity, dying-and-rising god is a deity which dies an ...
). There are key beliefs in both Islam and Judaism that are not shared by most of Christianity (such as abstinence from pork), and key beliefs of Islam, Christianity, and the Baháʼí Faith not shared by Judaism (such as the
prophet In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, et ...
ic and Messianic position of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...
, respectively).


Challenges to the term

The appropriateness of grouping Judaism, Christianity, and Islam by the terms "Abrahamic religions" or "Abrahamic traditions" has been challenged. In 2012, Alan L. Berger, Professor of Judaic Studies at
Florida Atlantic University Florida Atlantic University (FAU or Florida Atlantic) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is ...
, in his Preface to ''Trialogue and Terror: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam after 9/11'' wrote that there are "commonalities", but "there are essential differences between the Abrahamic traditions" both "historical and theological". Although "Judaism birthed both Christianity and Islam", the "three monotheistic faiths went their separate ways". The three faiths "understand the role of Abraham" in "differing ways", and the relationships between Judaism and Christianity and between Judaism and Islam are "uneven". Also, the three traditions are "demographically unbalanced and ideologically diverse". Also in 2012, Aaron W. Hughes published a book about the category Abrahamic religions as an example of "abuses of history." He said that only recently the category "Abrahamic religions" has come into use and that it is a "vague referent." It is "largely a theological neologism" and "an artificial and imprecise" term. Combining the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions into this one category might serve the purpose of encouraging "interfaith trialogue", but it is not true to the "historical record". Abrahamic religions is "an ahistorical category". There are "certain family resemblances" among these three religions, but the "amorphous" term "Abrahamic religions" prevents an understanding of the "complex nature" of the interactions among them. Furthermore, the three religions do not share the same story of Abraham. For these and other reasons, Hughes argued that the term should not be used, at least in academic circles.


Religions


Judaism

One of Judaism's primary texts is the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
, an account of the
Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israe ...
s' relationship with God from their earliest history until the building of the
Second Temple The Second Temple (, ), also known in its later years as Herod's Temple, was the reconstructed Jewish holy temple that stood on the Temple Mount The Temple Mount (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Se ...

Second Temple
(c. 535 BCE). Abraham is hailed as the first
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...

Hebrew
and the father of the
Jewish people Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2International Organization for Standardization, ISO 259 is a series of international standards for the romanization of Hebrew, romanization of Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew characters into Latin alphabet, La ...

Jewish people
. One of his great-grandsons was
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...
, from whom the religion ultimately gets its name. The Israelites were initially a number of tribes who lived in the Kingdom of Israel and
Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā(h)''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 ''Ya'uda''; arc, 𐤁‬𐤉‬𐤕‬𐤃𐤅‬𐤃 ''Bēyt Dāwīḏ'') was an Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, th ...
. After being conquered and exiled, some members of the
Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā(h)''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 ''Ya'uda''; arc, 𐤁‬𐤉‬𐤕‬𐤃𐤅‬𐤃 ''Bēyt Dāwīḏ'') was an Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, th ...
eventually returned to Israel. They later formed an
independent state File:Independencia brasil 001.jpg, upright=1.0, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in São Paulo after breaking the news of Independence of Brazil, Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, n ...
under the
Hasmonean dynasty The Hasmonean dynasty ( audio
; he, חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, ''Ḥašmona'īm'') was a ruling ...

Hasmonean dynasty
in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, before becoming a client kingdom of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity it included large territorial holdings aro ...

Roman Empire
, which also conquered the state and dispersed its inhabitants. From the 2nd to the 6th centuries Jews wrote the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism ( he, יהדות רבנית, Yahadut Rabanit), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been ...

Talmud
, a lengthy work of legal rulings and Biblical
exegesis Exegesis (; from the Greek from , "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text. Traditionally, the term was used primarily for work with religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They ...
which, along with the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...

Tanakh
, is a key text of Judaism.


Christianity

Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
began in the 1st century as a sect within Judaism initially led by
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...

Jesus
. His followers viewed him as the
Messiah In Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic people, Semitic-originated religions that claim descent from the Judaism of the ancient I ...
, as in the
Confession of Peter In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious ...
; after his
crucifixion Crucifixion is a method of punishment or capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang perhaps for several days, until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation. It was used as a punishment ...
and death they came to view him as , who was resurrected and will return at the end of time to judge the living and the dead and create an eternal
Kingdom of God The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used. The notion of God's kingship goes back to the Hebrew Bible, which refers to "his kingdom" but ...
. Within a few decades the new movement split from Judaism. Christian teaching is based on the
Old Old or OLD may refer to: Places *Old, Baranya Old () is a village in Baranya (county), Baranya county, Hungary. Populated places in Baranya County {{Baranya-geo-stub ..., Hungary *Old, Northamptonshire Old (previously Wold and befor ...
and
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
s of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
. After several periods of alternating persecution and relative peace ''vis a vis'' the Roman authorities under different administrations, Christianity became the
state church of the Roman Empire The state church of the Roman Empire refers to the church approved by the Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throug ...
in 380, but has been split into various churches from its beginning. An attempt was made by the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
to unify
Christendom Christendom historically refers to the "Christian world": Christian state A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the ...
, but this formally failed with the
East–West Schism The East–West Schism (also known as the Great Schism or Schism of 1054) was the break of communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating ...
of 1054. In the 16th century, the birth and growth of
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. ...
during the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in p ...

Reformation
further split Christianity into many
denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu denominations ** Schools of Buddhism, Buddhist denomination * Denomination (currency) * Denomination ( ...
.


Islam

Islam is based on the teachings of the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
. Although it considers Muhammad to be the
Seal of the prophets Khatam an-Nabiyyin ( ar, خاتم النبيين, translit=khātam an-nabīyīn or 'khātim an-nabīyīn), usually translated as Seal of the Prophets, is a title used in the Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن, translit=al-Qurʼān, ...
, Islam teaches that every
prophet In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, et ...
preached Islam, as the word ''Islam'' literally means submission to God, the main concept preached by all Abrahamic prophets. The teachings of the Quran are believed by Muslims to be the direct and final revelation and words of
Allah Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Allāh, ) is the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in coll ...

Allah
(i.e. The God in classical Arabic). Islam, like Christianity, is a
universal religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
(i.e. membership is open to anyone). Like Judaism, it has a strictly unitary conception of God, called ''
tawhid Tawhid ( ar, توحيد, ', meaning "unification or oneness of God as per Islam (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / ed ...
'', or "strict" monotheism.Religions » Islam » Islam at a glance
, BBC, 5 August 2009.


Other Abrahamic religions

Historically, the Abrahamic religions have been considered to be Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Some of this is due to the age and larger size of these three. The other, similar religions were seen as either too new to judge as being truly in the same class, or too small to be of significance to the category. However, some of the restriction of Abrahamic to these three is due only to tradition in historical classification. Therefore, restricting the category to these three religions has come under criticism. * * The religions listed below here claim Abrahamic classification, either by the religions themselves, or by scholars who study them.


Bábism

Bábism ( fa, بابیه, ''Babiyye''), (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
: , ''Bayání''), also known as the Bayání Faith is a monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible God Browne, E.G.br>''Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf''
, p. 15
who manifests his will in an unending series of
theophanies Theophany (from Ancient Greek , meaning "appearance of a deity") is the manifestation of a deity in an observable way. This term has been used to refer to appearances of the gods in ancient Greek and Near Eastern religions. While the ''Iliad'' i ...
, called Manifestations of God (Arabic: ). It is an extremely small religion, with no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of which are concentrated in Iran. It was founded by Ali Muhammad Shirazi, who assumed the title of the
Báb The Báb, born Sayyed `Alí Muḥammad Shírází (; fa, سيد علی ‌محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Baháʼí Faith. The Báb was a merchant fro ...
( "Gate") from which the religion gets its name, out of the belief that he was the gate to the
Twelfth Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Mahdi ( ar, مُحَمَّد بِن ٱلْحَسَن ٱلْمَهْدِي, ') is believed by the Twelver Twelver ( ar, ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ' fa, شیعه دوازده‌امامی, '), also known as Im ...
. However throughout his ministry his titles and claims underwent much evolution as the Báb progressively outlined his teachings.Lambden, Stephen
The Evolving Clains and Titles of Mirza `Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the Bab (1819–1850 CE)
Founded in 1844, Bábism flourished in
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle Ea ...
until 1852, then lingered on in exile in the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
, especially
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or politi ...
, as well as underground. An anomaly amongst Islamic messianic movements, the Bábí movement signaled a break with Islam, beginning a new religious system with its own unique laws, teachings, and practices. While Bábism was violently opposed by both clerical and government establishments, it led to the founding of the Baháʼí Faith, whose followers consider the religion founded by the Báb as a predecessor to their own.


Baháʼí Faith

The
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a relatively new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Establish ...
, which dates to the late 19th century, is a
new religious movement A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spirituality, spiritual group that has modern origins but is peripheral to its society's dominant religious culture. NRMs can be novel ...
that has sometimes been listed as Abrahamic by scholarly sources in various fields. Bahá'u'lláh (1817–1892), the founder, affirms the highest religious station of a Manifestation of God for Abraham and generally for prophets mentioned among the other Abrahamic religions, and has claimed a lineage of descent from Abraham through
Keturah Keturah ( he, קְטוּרָה, ''Qəṭūrā'', possibly meaning "incense"; ar, قطورة) was a wife (1917 Jewish Publication Society of America The Jewish Publication Society (JPS), originally known as the Jewish Publication Society of Ameri ...
and
Sarah SAR-Lupe is Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, ...

Sarah
. Additionally, Baháʼís cite that Bahá'u'lláh lost a son, Mírzá Mihdí. Bahá'u'lláh, then in prison, eulogized his son and connected the subsequent easing of restrictions to his son's dying prayer and compared it to the intended sacrifice of Abraham's son. The religion also shares many of the same commonalities of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The religion emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God, the station of the founders of the major religions as Manifestations of God come with
revelation In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, eth ...

revelation
as a series of interventions by God in human history that has been progressive, and each preparing the way for the next. There is no definitive list of Manifestations of God, but Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to several personages as Manifestations; they include individuals generally not recognized by other Abrahamic religions—
Krishna Krishna (, ; sa, कृष्ण, ) is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of Vishnu and also as the Svayam Bhagavan, supreme God in his own right. He is the god of protection, compassion, tenderness, and love ...

Krishna
,
Zoroaster Zoroaster (, ; el, Ζωροάστρης, ''Zōroastrēs''), also known as Zarathustra (, ; ae, , ''Zaraθuštra''), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra (Modern fa, زرتشت, ''Zartosht''), was an ancient Iranian prophet (spiritual ...

Zoroaster
, and
Buddha Gautama Buddha, popularly known as the Buddha (also known as Siddhattha Gotama or Siddhārtha Gautama or Buddha Shakyamuni), was an Śramaṇa, ascetic, a religious leader and teacher who lived in History of India#Iron Age (1500 – 200 BCE ...

Buddha
—and general statements go further to other cultures.


Druze faith

200px, Druze dignitaries celebrating the tomb_of_the_prophet_in_Hittin.html" ;"title="Nabi_Shu'ayb.html" ;"title="Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the Nabi Shu'ayb">tomb of the prophet in Hittin">Nabi_Shu'ayb.html" ;"title="Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the Nabi Shu'ayb">tomb of the prophet in Hittin. The Druze faith or Druzism is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of high Islamic figures like Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad and Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Greek philosophy, philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad is considered the founder of the Druze and the primary author of the Druze manuscripts. Jethro (Bible)#Druze, Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith. The Druze faith incorporates elements of Islam's Ismailism, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Pythagoreanism,
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
, Hinduism and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to interpret esoterically religious scriptures, and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. The Druze follow theophany, and believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul. At the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind (''Al Aaqal Al Kulli''). In the Druze faith,
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...

Jesus
is considered one of God's important prophets. The Druze Faith is often classified as a branch of Isma'ili Shia Islam. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze do not identify as
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (to God)". Muslims consider the Quran ...
, and they do not accept the Five Pillars of Islam, five pillars of Islam.


Mandaeism

Mandaeism or Mandaeanism ( ar, مندائية ') is a monotheistic Gnosticism, Gnostic religion with a strongly Dualistic cosmology, dualistic worldview. Its adherents, the Mandaeans, revere Adam, Cain and Abel, Abel, Seth, Enos (biblical figure), Enos, Noah, Shem, Aram, son of Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptist. The Mandaeans do not worship the God of Abraham and they hate Abraham,Lupieri writes, "they hate Abraham" (p. 66) and quotes Ricoldo who wrote, "They detest Abraham because of circumcision" (p. 65) considering him, along with Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, to be a false prophet. They regard the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam as hostile or enemy religions. Abraham, or Braham, was a priest of the Mandai, who, because he was circumcised, went out into the desert with the lepers and the unclean and began to worship Yurba, one of the powers of Darkness. It was through Yurba's power of Darkness that Abraham and his people became strong. The Mandaeans are Gnostics and worship a supreme God far removed from the malevolent creator god of the material world, who in Mandaean writings, is identified as the Lord of the Old Testament and is associated with the Holy Spirit. Both the Lord and the Holy Spirit are regarded as malevolent figures. While biblically informed, Mandaeanism has been characterized as "not-exactly-Abrahamic-or-Muslim" dualism.


Rastafari

Rastafari Rastafari, also known as the Rastafari movement or Rastafarianism, is a religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s. It is classified as both a new religious movement and a social movement by Religious studies, scholars of religion. The ...

Rastafari
, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is also sometimes listed as an Abrahamic religion. Classified as both a
new religious movement A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spirituality, spiritual group that has modern origins but is peripheral to its society's dominant religious culture. NRMs can be novel ...
and social movement, it developed in Jamaica during the 1930s. It lacks any centralised authority and there is much heterogeneity among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas. Rastafari refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
, as "Rastalogy". Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah—who partially resides within each individual. The former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, is given central importance. Many Rastas regard him as an incarnation of Jah on Earth and as the Second Coming of Christ. Others regard him as a human prophet who fully recognised the inner divinity within every individual. Rastafari is Afrocentrism, Afrocentric and focuses its attention on the African diaspora, which it believes is oppressed within Western society, or "Babylon". Many Rastas call for the resettlement of the African diaspora in either Ethiopia or Africa more widely, referring to this continent as the Promised Land of "Zion". Other interpretations shift focus on to the adoption of an Afrocentric attitude while living outside of Africa. Rastas refer to their practices as "livity". Communal meetings are known as "groundations", and are typified by music, chanting, discussions, and the Entheogenic use of cannabis, smoking of cannabis, the latter being regarded as a sacrament with beneficial properties. Rastas place emphasis on what they regard as living 'naturally', adhering to ital dietary requirements, allowing their hair to form into dreadlocks, and following patriarchy, patriarchal gender roles. Rastafari originated among impoverished and socially disenfranchised Afro-Jamaican communities. Its Afrocentric ideology was largely a reaction against Jamaica's then-dominant Colony of Jamaica, British colonial culture. It was influenced by both Ethiopian movement, Ethiopianism and the Back-to-Africa movement promoted by black nationalism, black nationalist figures like Marcus Garvey. The movement developed after several Christian clergymen, most notably Leonard Howell, proclaimed that the crowning of Haile Selassie as Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930 fulfilled a Biblical prophecy. By the 1950s, Rastafari's counter-culture, counter-cultural stance had brought the movement into conflict with wider Jamaican society, including violent clashes with law enforcement. In the 1960s and 1970s it gained increased respectability within Jamaica and greater visibility abroad through the popularity of Rasta-inspired reggae musicians like Bob Marley. Enthusiasm for Rastafari declined in the 1980s, following the deaths of Haile Selassie and Marley. The Rasta movement is organised on a largely cellular basis. There are several denominations, or "Mansions of Rastafari", the most prominent of which are the Nyahbinghi, Bobo Ashanti, Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, and the Twelve Tribes of Israel (Rastafari), Twelve Tribes of Israel, each of which offers different interpretations of Rasta belief. There are an estimated 700,000 to 1 million Rastas across the world; the largest population is in Jamaica although communities can be found in most of the world's major population centres.


Samaritanism

Samaritanism The Samaritan religion, also known as Samaritanism, is the national religion of the Samaritans The Samaritans (; Samaritan Hebrew: , ' (, 'Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)'); he, שומרונים, ''Shomronim''; ar, السام ...
is based on some of the same books used as the basis of Judaism but differs from the latter. Samaritan religious works include the Samaritan Pentateuch, Samaritan version of the Torah, the Memar Markah, the Samaritan liturgy, and Samaritan law codes and biblical commentaries. Many claim the Samaritans appear to have a text of the Torah as old as the Masoretic Text; scholars have various theories concerning the actual relationships between these three texts.


Shabakism

Shabakism is the name given to the beliefs and practices of the Shabak people of Kurdistan region and around Mosul in Iraq. A majority of Shabaks regard themselves as Shia, and a minority identify as Sunni Islam, Sunnis. Despite this, their actual faith and rituals differ from Islam, and have characteristics that make them distinct from neighboring Muslim populations. These include features from Christianity including Confession (religion), confession, and the consumption of alcohol (drug), alcohol, and the fact that Shabaks often go on pilgrimage to Yazidi shrines. Nevertheless, the Shabak people also go on pilgrimages to Shia holy cities such as Najaf and Karbala, and follow many Shiite teachings. The organization of Shabakism appears to be much like that of a Sufi order: adult laymen (Murids) are bound to spiritual guides (Pir (Sufism), pîrs or Murshids) who are knowledgeable in matters of religious doctrine and ritual. There are several ranks of such pîrs; at the top stands the Baba, or supreme head of the order. Theoretically individuals can choose their own pîr, but in practice the pir families often become associated with lay families over several generations. Shabakism combines elements of Sufism with the uniquely Shabak interpretation of "divine reality." According to Shabaks, this divine reality supersedes the literal, or Shar'ia, interpretation of the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
. Shabaks comprehend divine reality through the mediation of the "Pir" or spiritual guide, who also performs Shabak rituals. The structure of these mediatory relationships closely resembles that of the Yarsan. The primary Shabak religious text is the Buyruk (Shabak), Buyruk or ''Kitab al-Managib'' (Book of Exemplary Acts) and is written in Iraqi Turkmens#Language, Turkoman. Shabaks also consider the poetry of Ismail I to be revealed by God, and they recite Ismail's poetry during religious meetings.


Abrahamic ethno-religious groups

Some small religions, such as
Samaritanism The Samaritan religion, also known as Samaritanism, is the national religion of the Samaritans The Samaritans (; Samaritan Hebrew: , ' (, 'Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)'); he, שומרונים, ''Shomronim''; ar, السام ...
, Druze, Rastafari movement, and the Bábí Faith, are Abrahamic. These religions are regional, with Samaritans largely in Israel and the West Bank, Druze largely in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, Rastafari largely in Jamaica, and Bábí Faith, Bábísts largely in Iran.


Origins and history

The civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia influenced some religious texts, particularly the Hebrew Bible and the Book of Genesis. Abraham is said to have originated in Mesopotamia. Judaism regards itself as the religion of the descendants of Jacob,Jacob is also called Israel, a name the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
states he was given by God.
a grandson of Abraham. It has a God in Judaism, strictly unitary view of God, and the central holy book for almost all branches is the Masoretic Text as elucidated in the Oral Torah. In the 19th century and 20th centuries Judaism developed a small number of branches, of which the most significant are Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox, Conservative Judaism, Conservative, and Reform Judaism, Reform. Early Christianity, Christianity began as a Jewish Christian, sect of Judaismcf. Judaizer, Messianic Judaism in the Mediterranean BasinWith several centers, such as Early centers of Christianity#Rome, Rome, Early centers of Christianity#Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Early centers of Christianity#Alexandria, Alexandria, Early centers of Christianity#Greece, Thessaloniki and Corinth, Early centers of Christianity#Antioch, Antioch, and later spread outwards, eventually having two main centers in the empire, one for the Western Church and one for the Eastern Church in Rome and Constantinople respectively by the Christianity in the 5th century, 5th century CE of the first century Common Era, CE and Split of early Christianity and Judaism, evolved into a separate religion—Christianity—with distinctive beliefs and practices. Jesus in Christianity, Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, considered by almost all denominations to be God the Son, one Hypostasis (philosophy and religion), person of the
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian' ...

Trinity
. (''See God in Christianity.Trinity, Triune God is also called the "Holy Trinity"'') The Christian biblical canons are usually held to be the ultimate authority, alongside sacred tradition in some
denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu denominations ** Schools of Buddhism, Buddhist denomination * Denomination (currency) * Denomination ( ...
(such as the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church). Over many centuries, Christianity divided into three main branches (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestantism, Protestant), List of Christian denominations, dozens of significant denominations, and hundreds of smaller ones. Islam arose in the Arabian PeninsulaIslam arose specifically in Tihamah city of Mecca and Hejaz city of Medina of Arabia in the 7th century CE with a God in Islam, strictly unitary view of God.The monotheistic view of God in Islam is called ''
tawhid Tawhid ( ar, توحيد, ', meaning "unification or oneness of God as per Islam (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / ed ...
'' which is essentially the same as the conception of God in Judaism
Muslims hold the Quran to be the ultimate authority, as revealed and elucidated through the Sunnah, teachings and practicesTeachings and practices of Muhammad are collectively known as the ''sunnah'', similar to the Halakha, Judaic concepts of oral law and
exegesis Exegesis (; from the Greek from , "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text. Traditionally, the term was used primarily for work with religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They ...
, or ''talmud'' and ''midrash''
of a central, but not divine, prophet, Muhammad. The Islamic faith considers all Prophets and messengers in Islam, prophets and messengers from Adam through the Seal of the Prophets, final messenger (Muhammad) to carry the same Islamic monotheistic principles. Soon after its founding, Islam split into two main branches (Sunni and Shia Islam), each of which now has a number of denominations. The Baháʼí Faith began within the context of Shia Islam in 19th-century Persia, after a merchant named Báb, Siyyid 'Alí Muḥammad Shírází claimed divine revelation and took on the title of the Báb, or "the Gate". The Bab's ministry proclaimed the imminent advent of "He whom God shall make manifest", who Baháʼís accept as Bahá'u'lláh. Baháʼís revere the Torah, Gospels and the Quran, and the writings of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and 'Abdu’l-Bahá' are considered the central texts of the faith. A vast majority of adherents are unified under a single denomination. Lesser-known Abrahamic religions, originally offshoots of Shia Islam, include BábismHistorically, the Baháʼí Faith arose in 19th-century Persia, in the context of Shia Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Baháʼí Faith considers itself an independent religious tradition, which arose from a Muslim context but also recognizes other traditions. The Baháʼí Faith may also be classed as a
new religious movement A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spirituality, spiritual group that has modern origins but is peripheral to its society's dominant religious culture. NRMs can be novel ...
, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered sufficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable.
and the Druze faith.


Common aspects

All Abrahamic religions accept the tradition that God in Abrahamic religions, God revealed himself to the patriarch Abraham. All are monotheistic, and conceive God to be a Transcendence (religion), transcendent Creator deity, creator and the source of Morality, moral law. Their religious texts feature many of the same figures, histories, and places, although they often present them with different roles, perspectives, and meanings. Believers who agree on these similarities and the common Abrahamic origin tend to also be more positive towards other Abrahamic groups. In the three main Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam), the individual, God, and the universe are highly separate from each other. The Abrahamic religions believe in a judging, paternal, fully external god to which the individual and nature are subordinate. One seeks salvation or transcendence not by contemplating the natural world or via philosophical speculation, but by seeking to please God (such as obedience with God's wishes or his law) and see divine revelation as outside of self, nature, and custom.


Monotheism

All Abrahamic religions claim to be monotheistic, worshiping an exclusive God, although one known by different names. Each of these religions preaches that God creates, is one, rules, reveals, loves, judges, punishes, and forgives. However, although Christianity does not profess to believe in three gods—but rather in three Hypostasis (philosophy), persons, or hypostases, united in one Ousia, essence—the Trinity, Trinitarian doctrine, a fundamental of faith for the vast majority of Christian denominations, conflicts with Jewish and Muslim concepts of monotheism. Since the conception of a divine Trinity is not amenable to ''
tawhid Tawhid ( ar, توحيد, ', meaning "unification or oneness of God as per Islam (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / ed ...
'', the Islamic doctrine of monotheism, Islam regards Christianity as variously polytheism, polytheistic. Christianity and Islam both revere Jesus (Arabic language, Arabic: ''Jesus in Islam, Isa'' or ''Yasu'' among Muslims and Arab Christians respectively) but with vastly differing conceptions: * Christians view Jesus as the Redeemer (Christianity), saviour (and most Christians also regard him as ). * Muslims see Isa as a Prophet of IslamUri Rubin, ''Prophets and Prophethood'', ''Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an'' and Messiah. However, the worship of Jesus, or the ascribing of partners to God (known as ''Shirk (Islam), shirk'' in Islam and as ''shituf'' in Judaism), is typically viewed as the heresy of idolatry by Islam and Judaism.


Theological continuity

All the Abrahamic religions affirm one eternal God who created the universe, who rules history, who sends prophecy, prophetic and angelic messengers and who reveals the divine law, divine will through inspired
revelation In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, eth ...

revelation
. They also affirm that obedience to this creator deity is to be lived out historically and that one day God will unilaterally intervene in human history at the Last Judgment. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism have a Teleology, teleological view on history, unlike the static or Social cycle theory, cyclic view on it found in other cultures (the latter being common in Indian religions).


Scripture

All Abrahamic religions believe that God guides humanity through
revelation In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, eth ...

revelation
to prophets, and each religion recognizes that God revealed teachings up to and including those in their own scripture.


Ethical orientation

An Ethics, ethical orientation: all these religions speak of a choice between good and evil, which is associated with obedience or disobedience to a single God and to Divine Law.


Eschatological world view

An eschatology, eschatological world view of history and destiny, beginning with the Creation myth, creation of the world and the concept that God works through history, and ending with a resurrection of the dead and Last Judgment, final judgment and world to come.


Importance of Jerusalem

Jerusalem is considered Judaism's holiest city. Its origins can be dated to 1004 BCE when according to Biblical tradition David established it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel, and his son Solomon built the First Temple on Mount Moriah. Since the Hebrew Bible relates that Binding of Isaac, Isaac's sacrifice took place there, Mount Moriah's importance for Jews predates even these prominent events. Jews thrice daily pray in its direction, including in their prayers pleas for the restoration and the rebuilding of the Holy Temple (the Third Temple) on mount Moriah, close the Passover service with the wistful statement "Next year in built Jerusalem," and recall the city in the blessing at the end of each meal. Jerusalem has served as the only capital for the five Jewish states that have existed in Israel since 1400 BCE (the United Kingdom of Israel, the
Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā(h)''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 ''Ya'uda''; arc, 𐤁‬𐤉‬𐤕‬𐤃𐤅‬𐤃 ''Bēyt Dāwīḏ'') was an Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, th ...
, Yehud Medinata, the Hasmonean Kingdom, and modern Israel). It has been majority Jewish since about 1852 and continues through today. Early centers of Christianity#Jerusalem, Jerusalem was an early center of Christianity. There has been a continuous Christian presence there since.Wilken, Robert L. "From Time Immemorial? Dwellers in the Holy Land." ''Christian Century'', 30 July – 6 August 1986, p. 678. William R. Kenan, Jr., professor of the history of Christianity at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, writes that from the middle of the 4th century to the Islamic conquests, Islamic conquest in the middle of the 7th century, the Syria Palaestina, Roman province of Palestine was a Christian nation with Jerusalem its principal city. According to the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
, Jerusalem was the city Jesus was brought to as a child to be presented at the temple and for the feast of the Passover. He preached and healed in Jerusalem, unceremoniously drove the Jesus and the money changers, money changers in disarray from the temple there, held the Last Supper in an "upper room" (traditionally the Cenacle) there the night before he was crucified on the cross and was arrested in Gethsemane. The six parts to Jesus' trial—three stages in a religious court and three stages before a Roman court—were all held in Jerusalem. His crucifixion at Calvary, Golgotha, his burial nearby (traditionally the Church of the Holy Sepulchre), and his resurrection and ascension and Second Coming, prophecy to return all are said to have occurred or will occur there. Jerusalem became holy to Muslims, third after Mecca and Medina. The Al-Aqsa Mosque, which translates to "farthest mosque" in sura Al-Isra in the Quran and its surroundings are addressed in the Quran as "the holy land". Muslim tradition as recorded in the ahadith identifies al-Aqsa with a mosque in Jerusalem. The first Muslims did not pray toward Kaaba, but toward Jerusalem (this was the ''qibla'' for 13 years): the qibla was switched to Kaaba later on to fulfill the order of Allah of praying in the direction of Kaaba (Quran, Al-Baqarah 2:144–150). Another reason for its significance is its connection with the Isra and Mi'raj, Miʿrāj, where, according to traditional Muslim, Muhammad ascended through the Seven heavens on a winged mule named Buraq, guided by the Archangel Gabriel, beginning from the Foundation Stone on the Temple Mount, in modern times under the Dome of the Rock."Jerusalem (Britannica)"
, ''Jerusalem(Britannica)''


Significance of Abraham

Even though members of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam do not all claim Abraham as an ancestor, some members of these religions have tried to claim him as exclusively theirs. For
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is t ...

Jews
, Abraham is the founding Patriarchs (Bible), patriarch of the children of Israel. God promised Abraham: "I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you." With Abraham, God entered into "an everlasting covenant throughout the ages to be God to you and to your offspring to come". It is this covenant that makes Abraham and his descendants children of the covenant. Similarly, converts, who join the covenant, are all identified as sons and daughters of Abraham. Abraham is primarily a revered ancestor or
patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...

patriarch
(referred to as ''Avraham Avinu'' (אברהם אבינו in Hebrew) "Abraham our father") to whom God made several promises: chiefly, that he would have numberless descendants, who would receive the land of Canaan (the "Promised Land"). According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was the first post-Genesis flood narrative, Flood prophet to reject idolatry through rational analysis, although Shem and Eber carried on the tradition from Noah. Abraham#Christianity, Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of Faith in Christianity, faith, and a spiritual, as well as physical, ancestor of Jesus. For Christians, Abraham is a spiritual forebear as well as/rather than a direct ancestor depending on the Paul the Apostle and Judaism, individual's interpretation of Paul the Apostle, with the Abrahamic covenant "reinterpreted so as to be defined by faith in Christ rather than biological descent" or both by faith as well as a direct ancestor; in any case, the emphasis is placed on faith being the only requirement for the Abrahamic Covenant to apply (see also New Covenant and supersessionism). In Christian belief, Abraham is a role model of faith, and his obedience to God by Binding of Isaac, offering Isaac is seen as a foreshadowing of God's offering of his son Jesus. Christian commentators have a tendency to interpret God's promises to Abraham as applying to Christianity subsequent to, and sometimes rather than (as in supersessionism), being applied to Judaism, whose adherents Rejection of Jesus, rejected Jesus. They argue this on the basis that just as Abraham as a Gentile (before he was Circumcision controversy in early Christianity, circumcised) "believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness" (cf. Rom. 4:3, James 2:23), "those who have faith are children of Abraham" (see also John 8:39). This is most fully developed in Pauline Christianity, Paul's theology where all who believe in God are spiritual descendants of Abraham. However, with regards to and , in both cases he refers to these spiritual descendants as the "sons of God" rather than "children of Abraham". For Muslims, Abraham is a Prophet of Islam, prophet, the "apostle (Islam), messenger of God" who stands in the line from Adam to Muhammad, to whom God gave revelations,, who "raised the foundations of the House" (i.e., the Kaaba) with his first son, Isma'il, a symbol of which is every mosque. Ibrahim (Abraham) is the first in a genealogy for Muhammad. Islam considers Abraham to be "one of the first Muslims" (Surah 3)—the first monotheist in a world where monotheism was lost, and the community of those faithful to God, thus being referred to as ابونا ابراهيم or "Our Father Abraham", as well as ''Ibrahim Hanif, al-Hanif'' or "Abraham the Monotheist". Also, the same as Judaism, Islam believes that Abraham rejected idolatry through logical reasoning. Abraham is also recalled in certain details of the annual Hajj pilgrimage.


Differences


God

The Abrahamic God is conceived of as Eternity#God and eternity, eternal, omnipotent, omniscient and as the Creator deity, creator of the universe. God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is also Transcendence (religion), transcendent, but at the same time personal God, personal and involved, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures. In Jewish theology, God is strictly monotheistic. God is an absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world. In Judaism, the one God of Israel is the God of Abraham,
Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of t ...

Isaac
, and Jacob, who is the guide of the world, delivered Israelites, Israel from The Exodus, slavery in Egypt, and gave them the 613 Mitzvot at Mount Sinai as described in the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
. The national god of the
Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israe ...
s has a Theonym, proper name, written YHWH () in the Tanakh, Hebrew Bible. The name YHWH is a combination of the future, present, and past tense of the verb "howa" ( he, הוה) meaning "to be" and translated literally means "The self-existent One". A further explanation of the name was given to Moses when YHWH stated ''Eheye Asher Eheye'' ( he, אהיה אשר אהיה) "I will be that I will be", the name relates to God as God truly is, God's revealed essence, which transcends the universe. It also represents God's compassion towards the world. In Jewish tradition another name of God is Elohim, relating to the interaction between God and the universe, God as manifest in the physical world, it designates the justice of God, and means "the One who is the totality of powers, forces and causes in the universe". In Christian theology, God is the Eternity#God and eternity, eternal being who Genesis creation narrative, created and Divine providence, preserves the world. Christians believe God to be both transcendent and immanent (involved in the world).''Basic Christian Doctrine'' by John H. Leith (1 January 1992) pages 55–56''Introducing Christian Doctrine'' (2nd Edition) by Millard J. Erickson (1 April 2001) pages 87–88 Early Christianity, Early Christian views of God were expressed in the Pauline Epistles and the early creeds, which proclaimed one God and the Son of God, divinity of Jesus. Around the year 200, Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian' ...

Trinity
which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the later definitive form produced by the First Council of Constantinople, Ecumenical Council of 381.Prestige G.L. ''Fathers and Heretics'' SPCK:1963, p. 29Kelly, J.N.D. ''Early Christian Doctrines'' A & C Black:1965, p. 280 Trinitarians, who form the large majority of
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jes ...
, hold it as a core tenet of their faith.''Mercer Dictionary of the Bible'' edited by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 page 935Kelly, J.N.D. ''Early Christian Doctrines'' A & C Black: 1965, p. 115 Nontrinitarianism, Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in a number of different ways.''Theology: The Basics'' by Alister E. McGrath (21 September 2011) pages 117–120 The theology of the Attributes of God in Christianity, attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things".''Irenaeus of Lyons'' by Eric Francis Osborn (26 November 2001) pages 27–29 In the 8th century, John of Damascus listed eighteen attributes which remain widely accepted.''Global Dictionary of Theology'' by William A. Dyrness, Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Juan F. Martinez and Simon Chan (10 October 2008) pages 352–353 As time passed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on statements in the Bible (e.g., the Lord's Prayer, stating that the God the Father, Father is in Heaven (Christianity), Heaven), others based on theological reasoning.''Christian Doctrine'' by Shirley C. Guthrie (1 July 1994) pages 111 and 100Hirschberger, Johannes. ''Historia de la Filosofía I, Barcelona'': Herder 1977, p. 403 In Islamic theology, God ( ar, ''Allāh, '') is the Omnipotence, all-powerful and Omniscience, all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence.Gerhard Böwering ''God and his Attributes'', Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Quran.com, ''Islam: The Straight Path'', Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 22 Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (''tawhid, '') unique (') and inherently One ('), all-merciful and omnipotent."Allah". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica According to Islamic teachings, God exists without placeBritannica Encyclopedia, "Islam", p. 3 and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things." God, as referenced in the Quran, is the only God.F. E. Peters, ''Islam'', p. 4, Princeton University Press, 2003 Islamic tradition also describes the Names of God in the Qur'an, 99 names of God. These 99 names describe attributes of God, including Most Merciful, The Just, The Peace and Blessing, and the Guardian. Islamic belief in God is distinct from Christianity in that God has no progeny. This belief is summed up in Sura, chapter 112 of the Quran titled Al-Ikhlas, which states "Say, he is Allah (who is) one, Allah is the Eternal, the Absolute. He does not beget nor was he begotten. Nor is there to Him any equivalent".


Scriptures

All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered to be the word of God—hence sacred and unquestionable—and some the work of religious men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to have been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being. The sacred scriptures of Judaism are the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...

Tanakh
, a Hebrew acronym standing for ''
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
'' (Law or Teachings), ''Nevi'im'' (Prophets) and ''Ketuvim'' (Writings). These are complemented by and supplemented with various (originally oral) traditions: ''Midrash'', the ''Mishnah'', the ''
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism ( he, יהדות רבנית, Yahadut Rabanit), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been ...

Talmud
'' and collected rabbinical writings. The Tanakh (or Hebrew Bible) was composed between 1,400 BCE, and 400 BCE by Jewish :Jewish prophets, prophets, kings, and Kohen, priests. The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular is considered holy, down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error in a single letter, ornamentation or symbol of the 300,000+ stylized letters that make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use; hence the skills of a Torah scribe are specialist skills, and a scroll takes considerable time to write and check. The sacred scriptures of most Christian groups are the Old Testament and the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
. Latin Bibles originally contained 73 books; however, 7 books, collectively called the Apocrypha or Deuterocanon depending on one's opinion of them, were removed by Martin Luther due to a lack of original Hebrew sources, and now vary on their inclusion between denominations. Greek Bibles contain additional materials. The New Testament comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus (the Four Gospels), as well as several other writings (the Epistle#New Testament epistles, epistles) and the Book of Revelation. They are usually considered to be Biblical inspiration, divinely inspired, and together comprise the Bible, Christian Bible. The vast majority of Christian faiths (including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and most forms of Protestantism) recognize that the Gospels were passed on by oral tradition, and were not set to paper until decades after the resurrection of Jesus and that the extant versions are copies of those originals. The version of the Bible considered to be most valid (in the sense of best conveying the true meaning of the word of God) has varied considerably: the Greek Septuagint, the Syriac language, Syriac Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate, the English King James Version of the Bible, King James Version and the Russian Synodal Bible have been authoritative to different communities at different times. The sacred scriptures of the Christian Bible are complemented by a large body of writings by individual Christians and councils of Christian leaders (see canon law). Some Christian churches and denominations consider certain Religious text#Additional and alternate scriptures, additional writings to be binding; other Christian groups consider only the Bible to be binding (sola scriptura). Islam's holiest book is the Quran, comprising 114 Suras ("chapters of the Qur'an"). However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism and Christianity in their original forms, albeit not the current versions. According to the Quran (and mainstream Muslim belief), the verses of the Quran were revealed by God through the Archangel Jibrail to Muhammad on separate occasions. These revelations were written down and also memorized by hundreds of companions of Muhammad. These multiple sources were collected into one official copy. After the death of Mohammed, Quran was copied on several copies and Caliph Uthman provided these copies to different cities of Islamic Empire. The Quran mentions and reveres several of the Israelite prophets, including Moses and Jesus#Islamic views, Jesus, among others (see also: Prophets of Islam). The stories of these prophets are very similar to those in the Bible. However, the detailed precepts of the Tanakh and the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
are not adopted outright; they are replaced by the new commandments accepted as revealed directly by God (through Gabriel) to Muhammad and codified in the Quran. Like the Jews with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic language, Arabic text of the Quran as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are considered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Quran, as only the original Arabic text is considered to be the divine scripture. Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew Bible, the Quran is complemented by the ''Hadith'', a set of books by later authors recording the sayings of the prophet Muhammad. The Hadith interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. Islamic scholars have categorized each Hadith at one of the following levels of authenticity or isnad: genuine (''sahih''), fair (''hasan'') or weak (''da'if''). By the 9th century, six major Hadith collections were accepted as reliable to Sunni Muslims. * Sahih al-Bukhari * Sahih Muslim * Sunan ibn Majah * Sunan Abu Dawud * Jami al-Tirmidhi * Sunan an-Nasa'ii Shia Muslims, however, refer to other authenticated hadiths instead. They are known collectively as The Four Books. The Hadith and the life story of Muhammad (Sirah Rasul Allah, sira) form the Sunnah, an authoritative supplement to the Quran. The legal opinions of Islamic jurists (Faqīh) provide another source for the daily practice and interpretation of Islamic tradition (see Fiqh.) The Quran contains repeated references to the "religion of Abraham" (see Suras 2:130,135; 3:95; 6:123,161; 12:38; 16:123; 22:78). In the Quran, this expression refers specifically to Islam; sometimes in contrast to Christianity and Judaism, as in Sura 2:135, for example: 'They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (to salvation)." Say thou (O Muslims): "Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with God." ' In the Quran, Abraham is declared to have been a Muslim (a ''hanif'', more accurately a "fitra, primordial monotheist"), not a Jew nor a Christian (Sura 3:67).


Eschatology

In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual who will herald the Eschatology, time of the end or bring about the
Kingdom of God The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used. The notion of God's kingship goes back to the Hebrew Bible, which refers to "his kingdom" but ...
on Earth; in other words, the Messianic prophecy. Judaism awaits the coming of the Jewish Messiah; the Jewish concept of Messiah differs from the Christian concept in several significant ways, despite the same term being applied to both. The Jewish Messiah is not seen as a "god", but as a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy of that description. His appearance is not the end of history, rather it signals the coming of the Jewish eschatology#Olam Haba, world to come. Christianity awaits the Second Coming of Christ, though Full Preterism, Full Preterists believe this has already happened. Islam awaits both the second coming of Jesus (to complete his life and die) and the coming of Mahdi (Sunnis in his first incarnation, Twelver Shia as the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi). Most Abrahamic religions agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies, and the soul, which is Immortality of the Soul, capable of remaining alive beyond human death and carries the person's essence, and that God will judge each person's life accordingly on the Day of Judgement. The importance of this and the focus on it, as well as the precise criteria and end result, differ between religions. Judaism's views on the afterlife ("the Next World") are quite diverse. This can be attributed to an almost non-existent tradition of souls/spirits in the Hebrew Bible (a possible exception being the Witch of Endor), resulting in a focus on the present life rather than future reward. Christians have more diverse and definite teachings on the end times and what constitutes afterlife. Most Christian approaches either include different abodes for the dead (Heaven (Christianity), Heaven, Hell, Limbo, Purgatory) or universal reconciliation because all souls are made in the image of God. A small minority teach annihilationism, the doctrine that those persons who are not reconciled to God simply cease to exist. In Islam, God is said to be "Most Compassionate and Most Merciful" (Quran 1:2, as well as the start of all Suras but one). However, God is also "Most Just"; Islam prescribes a literal Hell#Islam, Hell for those who disobey God and commit gross sin. Those who obey God and submit to God will be rewarded with their own place in Paradise. While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of punishment described, depending on the sin committed; Hell is divided into numerous levels. Those who worship and remember God are promised eternal abode in a physical and spiritual Paradise. Heaven is divided into eight Jannah, levels, with the highest level of Paradise being the reward of those who have been most virtuous, the prophets, and those killed while fighting for Allah (martyrs). Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven, on the condition they are not repeated, as God is supremely merciful. Additionally, those who believe in God, but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then eventually released into Paradise. If anyone dies in a state of Shirk (polytheism), Shirk (i.e. associating God in any way, such as claiming that He is equal with anything or denying Him), this is not pardonable—he or she will stay forever in Hell. Once a person is admitted to Paradise, this person will abide there for eternity.


Worship and religious rites

Worship, ceremonies and religion-related customs differ substantially among the Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which one day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer or other religious activities—''Shabbat'', Christian Sabbath, Sabbath, or ''jumu'ah''; this custom is related to the biblical story of Genesis, where God created the universe in six days and rested in the seventh. Orthodox Judaism practice is guided by the interpretation of the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
and the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism ( he, יהדות רבנית, Yahadut Rabanit), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been ...

Talmud
. Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Jewish priests offered korban, sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, until the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times daily, including the Cantillation, chanting of the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
, and facing in the direction of Jerusalem's Temple Mount. Other practices include Brit milah, circumcision, Kashrut, dietary laws, Shabbat, Passover Seder, Passover, Torah study, Tefillin, Niddah, purity and 613 Mitzvot, others. Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism and the Reconstructionist Judaism, Reconstructionist movement all move away, in different degrees, from the strict tradition of the law. Jewish women's prayer obligations vary by Jewish religious movements, denomination; in contemporary Orthodox practice, women do not read from the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
and are only required to say certain parts of these daily services. All versions of Judaism share a common, specialized calendar, containing many festivals. The calendar is lunisolar, with lunar months and a solar year (an extra month is added every second or third year to allow the shorter lunar year to "catch up" to the solar year). All streams observe the same festivals, but some emphasize them differently. As is usual with its extensive law system, the Orthodox have the most complex manner of observing the festivals, while the Reform pay more attention to the simple symbolism of each one. Christian worship varies from Christian denominations, denomination to denomination. Individual Prayer in Christianity, prayer is usually not ritualised, while group prayer may be ritual or non-ritual according to the occasion. During church services, some form of liturgy is frequently followed. Rituals are performed during sacraments, which also vary from denomination to denomination and usually include Baptism and Eucharist, Communion, and may also include Confirmation, Confession (religion), Confession, Last Rites and Holy Orders. Catholic worship practice is governed by documents, including (in the largest, Western, Latin Church) the Roman Missal. Individuals, churches and denominations place different emphasis on ritual—some denominations consider most ritual activity optional (see Adiaphora), particularly since the Protestant Reformation. The followers of Islam (Muslims) are to observe the Five Pillars of Islam. The first pillar is the belief in the oneness of Allah, and in Muhammad as his final and most perfect prophet. The second is to pray five times daily (salat) towards the direction (qibla) of the Kaaba in Mecca. The third pillar is almsgiving (Zakah), a portion of one's wealth given to the poor or to other specified causes, which means the giving of a specific share of one's wealth and savings to persons or causes, as is commanded in the Quran and elucidated as to specific percentages for different kinds of income and wealth in the hadith. The normal share to be paid is two and a half percent of one's earnings: this increases if labour was not required, and increases further if only capital or possessions alone were required (i.e. proceeds from renting space), and increases to 50% on "unearned wealth" such as treasure-finding, and to 100% on wealth that is considered haram, as part of attempting to make atonement for the sin, such as that gained through financial interest (riba). Fasting (sawm) during the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar, Ramadan, is the fourth pillar of Islam, to which all Muslims after the age of puberty in good health (as judged by a Muslim doctor to be able fast without incurring grave danger to health: even in seemingly obvious situations, a "competent and upright Muslim physician" is required to agree), that are not menstruating are bound to observe—missed days of the fast for any reason must be made up, unless there be a permanent illness, such as diabetes, that prevents a person from ever fasting. In such a case, restitution must be made by feeding one poor person for each day missed. Finally, Muslims are also required, if physically able, to undertake a Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one's life: it is strongly recommended to do it as often as possible, preferably once a year. Only individuals whose financial position and health are severely insufficient are exempt from making Hajj (e.g. if making Hajj would put stress on one's financial situation, but would not end up in homelessness or starvation, it is still required). During this pilgrimage, the Muslims spend three to seven days in worship, performing several strictly defined rituals, most notably circumambulating the Kaaba among millions of other Muslims and the "stoning of the devil" at Mina, Saudi Arabia, Mina. At the end of the Hajj, the heads of men are shaved, sheep and other halal animals, notably camels, are slaughtered as a ritual sacrifice by bleeding out at the neck according to a strictly prescribed ritual slaughter method similar to the Jewish kashrut, to commemorate the moment when, according to Islamic tradition, Allah replaced Abraham's son
Ishmael Ishmael, ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration ...
(contrasted with the Judaeo-Christian tradition that
Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of t ...

Isaac
was the intended sacrifice) with a sheep, thereby preventing human sacrifice. The meat from these animals is then distributed locally to needy Muslims, neighbours and relatives. Finally, the hajji puts off ''ihram'' and the hajj is complete.


Circumcision

Judaism commands that brit milah, males be circumcised when they are 8 days old, as does the Sunnah in Khitan (Circumcision), Islam. Western Christianity replaced the custom of male circumcision with the ritual of baptism a ceremony which varies according to the doctrine of the denomination, but it generally includes Baptism by immersion, immersion, aspersion, or anointment with water. The Early Church (Acts 15, the Council of Jerusalem) decided that Gentile Christians are not required to undergo circumcision. The Council of Florence in the 15th century prohibited it. Paragraph #2297 of the Catholic Catechism calls non-medical amputation or mutilation immoral. By the 21st century, the Catholic Church had adopted a neutral position on the practice, as long as it is not practised as an initiation ritual. Catholic scholars make various arguments in support of the idea that this policy is not in contradiction with the previous edicts. The
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
chapter Council of Jerusalem, Acts 15 records that Christianity did not require circumcision. The Catholic Church currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision, and in 1442 it banned the practice of religious circumcision in the 11th Council of Florence. Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Coptic Christians practice circumcision as a rite of passage. The Eritrean Orthodox Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Church calls for circumcision, with near-universal prevalence among Orthodox men in Ethiopia. Many countries with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates, while both religious and non-religious circumcision is common in many predominantly Christian countries such as the United States, and the Philippines, Australia, and Canada, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, and Kenya, and many other African Christian countries, Circumcision is near universal in the Christian countries of Oceania. Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Coptic Christianity and Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eritrean Orthodoxy still observe male circumcision and practice circumcision as a rite of passage. Male circumcision is also widely practiced among
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jes ...
from South Korea, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine (region), Palestine, Israel, and North Africa. (See also aposthia.) Male circumcision is among the rites of Islam and is part of the ''fitrah'', or the innate disposition and natural character and instinct of the human creation.


Dietary restrictions

Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws, with permitted food known as kosher in Judaism, and halal in Islam. These two religions prohibit the consumption of pork; Islam prohibits the consumption of Alcoholic drink, alcoholic beverages of any kind. Halal restrictions can be seen as a modification of the kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God. Hence, in many places, Muslims used to consume kosher food. However, some foods not considered kosher are considered halal in Islam. With rare exceptions, Christians do not consider the Old Testament's strict food laws as relevant for today's church; see also Biblical law in Christianity. Most Protestants have no set food laws, but there are minority exceptions. The Roman Catholic Church believes in observing abstinence and penance. For example, all Fridays through the year and the time of Lent are penitential days. The law of abstinence requires a Catholic from 14 years of age until death to abstain from eating meat on Fridays in honor of the Passion of Jesus on Good Friday. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops obtained the permission of the Holy See for Catholics in the U.S. to substitute a penitential, or even a charitable, practice of their own choosing. Eastern Rite Catholics have their own penitential practices as specified by the Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches. The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA) embraces numerous Old Testament rules and regulations such as tithing, Sabbath observance, and Jewish food laws. Therefore, they do not eat pork, shellfish, or other foods considered unclean under the Old Covenant. The "Fundamental Beliefs" of the SDA state that their members "are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures". among others In the Christian Bible, the consumption of strangled animals and of Taboo food and drink#Blood, blood was forbidden by Apostolic Decree and are still forbidden in the Greek Orthodox Church, according to German theologian Karl Josef von Hefele, who, in his Commentary on Canon II of the Second Ecumenical Council held in the 4th century at Gangra, notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra, the rule of the Apostolic Synod [the Council of Jerusalem of Acts 15] with regard to blood and things strangled was still in force. With the Greek Orthodox, Greeks, indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show." He also writes that "as late as the eighth century, Pope Gregory III, Pope Gregory the Third, in 731, forbade the eating of blood or things strangled under threat of a penance of forty days." Jehovah's Witnesses abstain from eating blood and from blood transfusions based on . The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints prohibits the consumption of alcohol, coffee, and non-herbal tea. While there is not a set of prohibited food, the church encourages members to refrain from eating excessive amounts of red meat.


Sabbath observance

Sabbath in the Bible is a weekly day of leisure, rest and time of worship. It is observed differently in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and informs a similar occasion in several other Abrahamic faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition.


Proselytism

Judaism accepts converts, but has had no explicit missionary, missionaries since the end of the Second Temple Judaism, Second Temple era. Judaism states that non-Jews can achieve righteousness by following Noahide Laws, a set of moral imperatives that, according to the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism ( he, יהדות רבנית, Yahadut Rabanit), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been ...

Talmud
, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah"—that is, all of humanity. It is believed that as much as ten percent of the Roman Empire followed Judaism either as fully ritually obligated Jews or the simpler rituals required of non-Jewish members of that faith. Moses Maimonides, one of the major Jewish teachers, commented: "Quoting from our sages, the righteous people from other nations have a place in the world to come if they have acquired what they should learn about the Creator". Because the commandments applicable to the Jews are much more detailed and onerous than Noahide laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that it is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion. In the U.S., as of 2003 28% of married Jews were married to non-Jews. ''See also Conversion to Judaism.'' Christianity encourages evangelism. Many Christian organizations, especially Protestant churches, send missionary, missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the world. ''See also Great Commission''. Forced conversions to Catholicism have been alleged at various points throughout history. The most prominently cited allegations are the Constantine I turn against Paganism, conversions of the pagans after Constantine; of Muslims, Jews and Eastern Orthodox during the Crusades; of Jews and Muslims during the time of the Spanish Inquisition, where they were offered the choice of exile, conversion or death; and of the Aztecs by Hernán Cortés. Forced conversions to Protestantism may have occurred as well, notably during the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in p ...

Reformation
, especially in England and Ireland (see recusancy and Popish plot). Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, which officially states that forced conversions pollute the Christian religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offences are regarded as a scandal (a cause of unbelief). According to Pope Paul VI, "It is one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response to God in faith must be free: no one, therefore, is to be forced to embrace the Christian faith against his own will." The Roman Catholic Church has declared that Catholics should fight Antisemitism, anti-Semitism. Dawah is an important Islamic concept which denotes the preaching of Islam. Da‘wah literally means "issuing a summons" or "making an invitation". A Muslim who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī, plural du‘āt. A dā‘ī is thus a person who invites people to understand Islam through a dialogical process and may be categorized in some cases as the Islamic equivalent of a missionary, as one who invites people to the faith, to the prayer, or to Islamic life. Da'wah activities can take many forms. Some pursue Islamic studies specifically to perform Da'wah. Mosques and other Islamic centers sometimes spread Da'wah actively, similar to evangelical churches. Others consider being open to the public and answering questions to be Da'wah. Recalling Muslims to the faith and expanding their knowledge can also be considered Da'wah. In Islamic theology, the purpose of Da‘wah is to invite people, both Muslims and non-Muslims, to understand the commandments of God as expressed in the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet, as well as to inform them about Muhammad. Da‘wah produces converts to Islam, which in turn grows the size of the Muslim Ummah, or community of Muslims.


Dialogue between Abrahamic religions

This section reports on writings and talks which describe or advocate dialogue between the Abrahamic religions. Amir Hussain
In 2003, a book called ''Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism'' contains a chapter by Amir Hussain on "Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue" which he shows how interfaith dialogue has been an integral part of Islam from its beginning. From his "first revelation" for the rest of his life, Muhammad was "engaged in interfaith dialogue." Islam would not have spread without "interfaith dialogue." Hussain gives an early example of "the importance of pluralism and interfaith dialogue" to Islam. When some of Muhammad's followers suffered "physical persecution" in Mecca, he sent them to Ethiopian Empire, Abyssinia, a Christian nation, where they were "welcomed and accepted" by the Christian king. Another example is Córdoba, Andalusia in Muslim Spain, in the ninth and tenth centuries. Córdoba was "one of the most important cities in the history of the world". In "Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city." Thus, there is "a history of Muslims, Jews, Christians, and other religious traditions living together in a pluralistic society." Turning to the present, Hussain says that one of the challenges faced by Muslims now is the conflicting passages in the Qur̀an some of which support interfaith "bridge-building," but others can be used "justify mutual exclusion." Trialogue
The 2007 book ''Trialogue: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Dialogue'' puts the importance of interfaith dialogue starkly: "We human beings today face a stark choice: dialogue or death!" The ''Trialogue'' book gives four reasons why the three Abrahamic religions should engage in dialogue: :1. They "come from the same Hebraic roots and claim Abraham as their originating ancestor." :2. "All three traditions are religions of ethical monotheism." :3. They "are all historical religions." :4. All three are "religions of revelation." Pope Benedict XVI
In 2010, Pope Benedict XVI spoke about "Interreligious dialogue." He said that "the Church's universal nature and vocation require that she engage in dialogue with the members of other religions." For the Abrahamic religions, this "dialogue is based on the spiritual and historical bonds uniting Christians to Jews and Muslims." It is dialogue "grounded in the sacred Scriptures" and "defined in the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church ''Lumen Gentium'' and in the Declaration on the Church's Relation to Non-Christian Religions ''Nostra Aetate''. The Pope concluded with a prayer: "May Jews, Christians and Muslims . . . give the beautiful witness of serenity and concord between the children of Abraham." Learned Ignorance
In the 2011 book ''Learned Ignorance: Intellectual Humility Among Jews, Christians and Muslims'', the three editors address the question of "why engage in interreligious dialogue; its purpose?":
James L. Heft
a Roman Catholic priest, suggests "that the purpose of interreligious dialogue is, not only better mutual understanding . . . but also trying . . . to embody the truths that we affirm." *Omid Safi, a Muslim, answers the question of "why engage in interreligious dialogue?" He writes, "because for me, as a Muslim, God is greater than any one path leading to God." Therefore, "neither I nor my traditions has a monopoly on truth, because in reality, we belong to the Truth (God), Truth to us."
Reuven Firestone
a Jewish Rabbi writes about the "tension" between the "particularity" of one's "own religious experience" and the "universality of the divine reality" that as expressed in history has led to verbal and violent conflict. So, although this tension may never be "fully resolved," Firestone says that "it is of utmost consequence for leaders in religion to engage in the process of dialogue." The Interfaith Amigos
In 2011, TED (conference), TED broadcast a 10-minute program about "Breaking the Taboos of Interfaith Dialogue" with Rabbi Ted Falcon (Jewish), Pastor Don Mackenzie (Christian), and Imam Jamal Rahman (Muslim) collectively known a
The Interfaith Amigos
See their TED progra
by clicking here.
Divisive matters should be addressed
In 2012, a PhD thesis ''Dialogue Between Christians, Jews and Muslims'' argues that "the paramount need is for barriers against non-defensive dialogue conversations between Christians, Jews, and Muslims to be dismantled to facilitate the development of common understandings on matters that are deeply divisive." As of 2012, the thesis says that this has not been done. Cardinal Koch
In 2015, Cardinal Kurt Koch, the President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and who is "responsible for the Church's dialogue with the Jewish people," was interviewed in 2015. He noted that the Church is already engaged in "bilateral talks with Jewish and Muslim religious leaders." However, he said that it is too early for "trialogue" talks among the three Abrahamic religions. Yet, Koch added, "we hope that we can go in this [direction] in future." Omid Safi
In 2016, a 26-minute interview with Professor Omid Safi, a Muslim and Director of th
Duke Islamic Studies Center
was posted on YouTube.com. In it, Safi said that his life had been trying to combine "love and tenderness" which are the "essence of being human" with "social justice."


See also

* Abrahamites * Abraham's family tree * Ancient Semitic religion * Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement * Chrislam (Yoruba) * Christianity and Islam * Christianity and Judaism * Dharmic religions * Islam and Judaism * Messianism * People of the Book *Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions, Table of Abrahamic Prophets * Zoroastrianism


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * * * * * * Freedman H. (trans.), and Simon, Maurice (ed.), Genesis Rabbah, Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., ''Midrash Rabbah: Genesis'', Volume II, London: The Soncino Press, 1983. . * * Guggenheimer, Heinrich W., ''Seder Olam: The rabbinic view of Biblical chronology'', (trans., & ed.), Jason Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1998 * Guggenheimer, Heinrich W., ''Seder Olam: The rabbinic view of Biblical chronology'', (trans., & ed.), Jason Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1998 * * * * * * * * Scherman, Nosson, (ed.), ''Tanakh, Vol.I, The Torah'', (Stone edition), Mesorah Publications, Ltd., New York, 2001 * * Simon, Maurice (ed.), Genesis Rabbah, Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., ''Midrash Rabbah: Genesis'', Volume II, London: The Soncino Press, 1983. .


External links

{{Authority control Abrahamic religions, Monotheistic religions Comparative religion