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The Abidjan Peace Accord was a treaty signed in
Abidjan Abidjan ( , ; N'Ko script, N’ko: ߊߓߌߖߊ߲߬) is the economic capital of Ivory Coast, Côte d'Ivoire and one of the most populous French-speaking cities in Africa. According to the 2014 census, Abidjan's population was 4.7 million, whi ...

Abidjan
,
Côte d'Ivoire Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Côte d'Ivoire's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its largest ...
on 30 November 1996 to try to bring an end to the
Sierra Leone Civil War The Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002), or the Sierra Leonean Civil War, was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or count ...
(1991–2002). (document download required) The two main signatories were President
Ahmad Tejan Kabbah Alhaji Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (February 16, 1932 – March 13, 2014) was a politician who served twice as the 3rd , from 1996 to 1997 and again from 1998 to 2007. An and by profession, Kabbah spent many years working for the . He retired from th ...
of
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone (, also , ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 co ...

Sierra Leone
and
Foday Sankoh Foday Saybana Sankoh (17 October 1937 – 29 July 2003) was the founder of the Sierra Leone rebel group Revolutionary United Front (RUF), which was supported by Charles Taylor (Liberian politician), Charles Taylor-led National Patriotic Fron ...
, leader of the
Revolutionary United Front The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was a rebel army that fought a failed eleven-year war in Sierra Leone Sierra Leone (, also , ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Af ...
(RUF) rebel group. However, Sankoh refused to honour the terms of the agreement, and Kabbah was forced into exile by a May 1997 military coup (though he regained power the following year), so the Accord failed to bring about peace. Full text availabl
here
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Background

The civil war began on 23 March 1991, when the RUF attempted to overthrow the government of President
Joseph Saidu Momoh Major General Joseph Saidu Momoh, Order of the Rokel, OOR, OBE (January 26, 1937 – August 3, 2003) served as President of Sierra Leone from November 1985 to April 29, 1992. Early life and education Joseph Saidu Momoh was born on January 26, ...
. A 1992 military coup saw Captain
Valentine Strasser Valentine Esegragbo Melvine Strasser (born 26 April 1967) is an ex-military leader who served as head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the conte ...
, barely 25 years old, seize power, but the fighting continued. Strasser himself would be ousted by
Julius Maada Bio Julius Maada Wonie Bio (born 12 May 1964) is a Sierra Leonean Sierra Leone (, also , ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the ...
in 1996. Peace negotiations were pursued intermittently through the regime changes. On 25 February 1996, delegations from both sides, along with United Nations Special Envoy Berhanu Dinka and representatives of the Organisation of African Unity and the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth, met in Abidjan for four days. On 25–26 March, Bio and Sankoh met face-to-face for talks in Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast, under the auspices of that country's president, Henri Konan Bédié. Days later,
Ahmad Tejan Kabbah Alhaji Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (February 16, 1932 – March 13, 2014) was a politician who served twice as the 3rd , from 1996 to 1997 and again from 1998 to 2007. An and by profession, Kabbah spent many years working for the . He retired from th ...
was elected President of Sierra Leone. Kabba and Sankoh met on 22–23 April in Yamoussoukro and agreed to a ceasefire. Talks continued, though both sides accused the other of breaching the ceasefire. In October or November, Kabba again met with Sankoh, this time in Abidjan. Finally, on 22 November, the Abidjan Peace Accord was signed, the government having made concessions and the RUF having suffered severe military defeats.


Goals

The accord had a broad range of goals, the main ones being: * The armed conflict between the two main signatories was to end "with immediate effect." * A National Commission for the Consolidation of Peace was to be established within two weeks of the signing. * A Neutral Monitoring Group would consist of monitors drawn from the "international community". * All RUF combatants would disarm, and amnesty would be granted them. * Efforts would be made to reintegrate RUF rebels into society. * The government-hired Executive Outcomes and other foreign troops would leave the country after the establishment of the monitoring group.


Signatories

*Alhaji Dr. Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, President of the Republic of
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone (, also , ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 co ...

Sierra Leone
*Corporal Foday Saybana Sankoh, leader of the Revolutionary United Front *Henri Konan Bédié, President of the Republic of
Côte d'Ivoire Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Côte d'Ivoire's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its largest ...
* Berhanu Dinka, Special Envoy of the United Nations Secretary-General for Sierra Leone *Adwoa Coleman, representative of the Organization of African Unity *Moses Anafu, representative of the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Organization


Results

The National Commission for the Consolidation of Peace was set up, but accomplished little or nothing. The Neutral Monitoring Group was supposed to number 700, but the RUF objected, proposing it consist of only 120 monitors, and agreement could not be reached. Then RUF spokesmen and supporters of the Commission for the Consolidation of Peace, Fayia Musa, Ibrahim Deen-Jalloh and Philip Palmer, attempted to overthrow Sankoh as leader of the RUF after Sankoh was arrested in Nigeria. The three were captured by RUF forces, and Sankoh consolidated power in the RUF. A military coup on 25 May 1997 by Johnny Paul Koroma, leader of the newly formed Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, resulted in an alliance with the RUF. This was certainly the death knell for any hope of peace stemming from the Abidjan Accord.


References

{{reflist


External links


Text of all peace accords for Sierra Leone
UN Peacemaker Peace treaties 1996 in Sierra Leone Treaties of Sierra Leone Treaties concluded in 1996 Sierra Leone Civil War