HistoryThe original format for sound reproduction was the , first available in the United States in the late 1940s, but too expensive and bulky to be practical for amateur home use until well into the 1950s. Loading a reel of tape onto the machine and threading it through the various guides and rollers proved daunting to some casual users—certainly, it was more difficult than putting an LP record on a record player and flicking a switch. Because in early years, each tape had to be dubbed from the master tape in real-time to maintain good sound quality, prerecorded tapes were more expensive to manufacture, and costlier to buy, than which could be stamped much more quickly than their own playing time. To eliminate the nuisance of tape-threading, various manufacturers introduced cartridges that held the tape inside a metal or plastic housing to eliminate handling. Most were intended only for low-fidelity voice recording in dictation machines. The first tape cartridge designed for general consumer use, including music reproduction, was the Sound Tape or Magazine Loading Tape Cartridge (), introduced in 1958 by RCA. Prerecorded music cartridges were available, and blank cartridges could be used to make recordings at home, but the format failed to gain popularity.
Development of tape cartridgesThe was first designed in 1952 by Bernard Cousino around a single reel carrying a continuous loop of standard 1/4-inch, plastic, oxide-coated recording tape running at per second. Program starts and stops were signaled by a one-inch-long metal foil that activates the track-change sensor. Inventor George Eash invented a cartridge design in 1953, called the cartridge. The Eash cartridge was later licensed by manufacturers, notably the Collins Radio Company, which first introduced a cartridge system for broadcasting at the National Association of Broadcasters 1959 annual show. Fidelipac cartridges (nicknamed "carts" by DJs and radio engineers) were used by many radio stations for commercials, jingles, and other short items. Eash later formed Fidelipac Corporation to manufacture and market tapes and recorders, as did several others, including Audio-Pak (Audio Devices Corp.). There were several attempts to sell music systems for cars, beginning with the Chrysler of the late 1950s (which used discs). Entrepreneur, marketer and television set dealer of , however, saw a potential in these "broadcast carts" for an automobile music system. In 1962, he introduced his four-track cartridge stereo system and tapes, mostly in and . The four tracks were divided into two "programs", typically corresponding to the two sides of an , with each program comprising two tracks read simultaneously for stereo (two channel) sound playback. He licensed popular music albums from the major record companies and duplicated them on these four-track cartridges, or "CARtridges", as they were first advertised.
Introduction of Stereo 8The Lear Jet Stereo 8 cartridge was designed by Richard Kraus while working under Bill Lear for his Lear Jet Corporation in 1963. The major change was to incorporate a neoprene rubber and nylon pinch roller into the cartridge itself, rather than to make the pinch roller a part of the tape player, reducing mechanical complexity. Lear also eliminated some of the internal parts of the Eash cartridge, such as the tape-tensioning mechanism and an interlock that prevented tape slippage. By doubling the number of tracks from 4 to 8, the recording length doubled to 80 minutes. In 1964, Lear's aircraft company constructed 100 demonstration Stereo 8 players for distribution to executives at RCA and the auto companies.
Commercial successThe popularity of both four-track and eight-track cartridges grew from the booming automobile industry. In September 1965, the introduced factory-installed and dealer-installed eight-track tape players as an option on three of its 1966 models (the sporty , luxurious , and high-end ), and RCA Victor introduced 175 Stereo-8 Cartridges from its RCA Victor and RCA Camden labels of recording artists catalogs. By the 1967 model year, all of Ford's vehicles offered this tape player upgrade option. Most of the initial factory installations were separate players from the radio (such as shown in the image), but mounted 8-track units were offered in combination with an AM radio, as well as with AM/FM receivers. Muntz, and a few other manufacturers, also offered 4/8 or "12-track" players that were capable of playing cartridges of either format, 4-track or 8-track. With the backing of the U.S. automakers, the eight-track format quickly won out over the four-track format, with Muntz abandoning it completely by late 1970. The 8-track format gained steadily in popularity because of its convenience and portability. Home players were introduced in 1966 that allowed consumers to share tapes between their homes and portable systems. By the late 1960s, the 8-track segment was the largest in the consumer electronics market and the popularity of 8-track systems for cars helped generate demand for home units. "Boombox" type portable players were also popular but eight-track player/recorders failed to gain wide popularity and few manufacturers offered them except for manufacturer Tandy Corporation (for its electronics stores). With the availability of cartridge systems for the home, consumers started thinking of eight-tracks as a viable alternative to 33 rpm album style s, not only as a convenience for the car. Also by the late 1960s, prerecorded releases on the 8-track tape format began to arrive within a month of the vinyl release. The 8-track format became by far the most popular and offered the largest music library of all the tape systems. Eight-track players were fitted as standard equipment in most and cars of the period for sale in and worldwide. Optional 8-track players were available in many cars and trucks through the early 1980s. Ampex, based in , set up a European operation (Ampex Stereo Tapes) in London, England, in 1970 to promote 8-track product and in and Europe, but it struggled and folded in 1974. GRT Corporation, of Sunnyvale, California, was another large manufacturer which duplicated many tapes for smaller record labels; it went out of business in 1979. sound on eight-track cartridges was announced by RCA in April 1970. It employed four-channel receiver/amplifiers that balanced the sound via sliders or a joystick. Ford was particularly eager to promote in-car quadraphonic players as a pricey option, being the only "Big Four" American automotive company to do so. The format enjoyed moderate success in the early 1970s but faded by mid-decade. Quadraphonic cartridges provided four channels of discrete sound, unlike formats such as SQ, which / used for their quadraphonic sound vinyl records.
Early karaoke machinesinvented the first karaoke machine in 1971 called the Juke-8.
Nature and operationAn 8-track cartridge provides four pairs of stereo tracks, whereas the later quadraphonic cartridges had two sets of four tracks. The ends of the tape were spliced with a thin strip of metal that would trigger a solenoid that would cause the playback heads to automatically jump to the next set of channels. Both types of players also provided a button for manually changing channels. Due to the design of the endless loop tape, which fed from the reel in only one direction, there was no rewind control. Due to the mechanical stress on the tape, few machines offered a fast-forward control.
Quad 8 and Q8The process for 4 channel is different than for stereo versions of the same album. Some producers opted for full separation between channels and this was regularly used for popular music. Others chose a style in which there is only surround sound ambience or "echo" heard in the rear speakers. This type of sound, which can realistically reproduce a live concert hall experience, was commonly used for classical music. However, mixing engineers could also aim for more of a hybrid effect. In some situations sounds can even move in rotation around a three dimensional space. While rarely heard, the 4 channel effect can be quite spectacular. Quadrophonic recordings are often highly regarded among music collectors and some quad 8 tracks have become highly collectible. Beginning in the 1990s many such 4 channel recordings have been re-issued on modern digital formats such as .
Other use's (MB) was an electronic quiz machine game first released in 1980, similar to ' or later , using 8-track tapes for playback analog audio for questions, instructions and answers as well as digital signals in on remaining tracks to load the right answer for counting the score. In 1978, the launched the toy robot, which utilized the tracks for determining right from wrong answers. In 1977, the Scottish company GR International released the Bandmaster Powerhouse, a drum machine that played back custom-made 8-track cartridges containing drum and percussion rhythms loops recorded with real instruments. These could be subjected to a degree of processing using the drum machine's controls, which included tempo and instrument balance.
Decline and demise1978 was the peak of 8-track sales in the United States, with sales declining year on year since then. Eight-track players became less common in homes and vehicles in the late 1970s. The arrived in 1963, and by the late 1970s the eight-track cartridges had greatly diminished in popularity. In some n countries as well as European, the format was abandoned in the mid-1970s in favor of the smaller which was one-third the size. In the U.S., eight-track cartridges were phased out of retail stores by late 1982 and into early 1983. Some titles were still available as eight-track tapes through and (BMG) Music Service ''Record Clubs'' until late 1988. (Tandy Corporation) continued to sell blank eight-track cartridges and players for home recording use under its brand until 1990. The professional broadcast cart format survived for more than another decade for jingles, advertisements, station identifications, and limited music content at most local radio stations, before being replaced by computer-generated sound in the 1990s. It persisted for relatively short sound loops where starting from the beginning was more important than other criteria. The endless loop tape concept continued to be used in newer s, though their tape spool is actively rotated and not drawn by tension on the film. That technology is now being supplanted by .
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