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The 2017 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 8 June 2017, two years after the previous general election in 2015. The governing
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...

Conservative Party
remained the largest single party in the House of Commons but lost its small overall majority, resulting in the formation of a Conservative-led
minority government A minority government, minority cabinet, minority administration, or a minority parliament is a and formed in a when a political party or of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the . It is sworn into office, with or without ...
with a
confidence-and-supply In a parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state (polity), s ...
agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreement, between countries * Consensus, a decision-making process * Contract, enforceable in a court of law ** Meeting of ...
with the
Democratic Unionist Party The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP; ga, Páirtí Aontachtach Daonlathach) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland favouring British identity. It was founded in 1971 during the Troubles by Ian Paisley, who led the party for the nex ...
(DUP) of Northern Ireland. The Conservative Party, which had governed as a senior
coalition The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a co ...
partner from
2010 2010 was designated as: *International Year of Biodiversity The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) was a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its importance, taking place internationally in 2010. Coinciding with the dat ...
and as a single-party majority government from
2015 2015 was designated as: * International Year of Light The International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies 2015 or International Year of Light 2015 (IYL 2015) was a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovern ...
, was defending a working majority of 17 seats against the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
, the
official opposition Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster Westminster is a district in central London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the Unite ...
led by
Jeremy Corbyn Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (; born 26 May 1949) is a British politician who served as Leader of the Labour PartyThe title Leader of the Labour Party may refer to: *Leader of the Labour Party (Ireland) *Leader of the Labour Party (Netherlands) *Lea ...

Jeremy Corbyn
. Under the
Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) (FTPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make ...
an election had not been due until May 2020, but
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
's call for a
snap election Snap or SNAP may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Snap'' (film), the original release title for the 2013 film ''Enter the Dangerous Mind'' *''Snap'' (TV series), a CITV programme * ''Stanly News and Press'', a newspaper in Albemarle, North C ...
was ratified by the necessary two-thirds vote in the House of Commons on 19 April 2017. May said that she hoped to secure a larger majority to "strengthen
er
er
hand" in the forthcoming
Brexit Brexit (; a portmanteau of "British exit") was the Withdrawal from the European Union, withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) at 23:00 31 January 2020 Green ...

Brexit
negotiations. Opinion polls had consistently shown strong leads for the Conservatives over Labour. From a 21-point lead, the Conservatives' lead began to diminish in the final weeks of the campaign. In a surprising result, the Conservative Party made a net loss of 13 seats despite winning 42.4% of the vote (its highest share of the vote since
1983 The year 1983 saw both the contested beginning of the Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and d ...
), whereas Labour made a net gain of 30 seats with 40.0% (its highest vote share since
2001 2001 was designated as International Year of Volunteers. Events January * January 1 – Kolkata (in West Bengal, India) officially restores its name from Calcutta. * January 9 – iTunes is launched. * January 10 – The U.S. ...
). It was the first election in which the Tories had a net loss of seats or Labour had a net gain of seats since 1997. This was the closest result between the two major parties since February 1974 and their highest combined vote share since
1970 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of th ...
. The
Scottish National Party The Scottish National Party (SNP; sco, Scots National Pairty, gd, Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba ) is a Scottish nationalist Scottish nationalism promotes the idea that the Scottish people form a cohesive nation and Scottish national iden ...
(SNP) and the Liberal Democrats, the third- and fourth-largest parties, both lost vote share; media coverage characterised the result as a return to two-party politics. The SNP, which had won 56 of the 59 Scottish seats at the previous general election in 2015, lost 21. The Liberal Democrats made a net gain of four seats.
UKIP The UK Independence Party (UKIP ) is a Eurosceptic Euroscepticism, also known as EU-scepticism, means criticism of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Unio ...
, the third-largest party in 2015 by number of votes, saw its share of the vote reduced from 12.6% to 1.8% and lost its only seat. In Wales,
Plaid Cymru Plaid Cymru ( ; ; officially Plaid Cymru – the Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language E ...
gained one seat, giving it a total of four seats. The
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
retained its sole seat, but saw its share of the vote reduced. In Northern Ireland, the
Democratic Unionist Party The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP; ga, Páirtí Aontachtach Daonlathach) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland favouring British identity. It was founded in 1971 during the Troubles by Ian Paisley, who led the party for the nex ...
(DUP) won 10 seats,
Sinn Féin Sinn Féin ( , ; en, "eOurselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active throughout Ireland; both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation wa ...

Sinn Féin
won seven, and
Independent Unionist Independent Unionist has been a label sometimes used by candidates in elections in the United Kingdom, indicating a support for Unionism in the United Kingdom, British unionism (not to be confused with trade unionism). It is most popularly associa ...
Sylvia Hermon Sylvia Eileen, Lady Hermon (née Paisley; born 11 August 1955) is a retired Unionist politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in ...
retained her seat. The
Social Democratic and Labour Party The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) ( ga, Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is a social democracy, social-democratic and Irish nationalism, Irish nationalist list of political parties in Northern Ireland, political party ...
(SDLP) and
Ulster Unionist Party The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist and conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to ...
(UUP) lost all their seats. Negotiation positions following the UK's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union in March 2017 to
leave the EU
leave the EU
were expected to feature significantly in the campaign, but did not. The campaign was interrupted by two major terrorist attacks:
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
and
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, als ...
; thus national security became a prominent issue in its final weeks.


Electoral system

Each
parliamentary constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state Sta ...
of the United Kingdom elects one MP to the House of Commons using the "first past the post" system. If one party obtains a majority of seats, then that party is entitled to form the
Government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
, with its leader as
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. If the election results in no single party having a majority, there is a
hung parliament A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (c ...
. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a
minority government A minority government, minority cabinet, minority administration, or a minority parliament is a and formed in a when a political party or of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the . It is sworn into office, with or without ...
or a
coalition The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a co ...
. The
Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies The Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies, also known as the 2013 Review, 2018 Review, or just boundary changes, was an ultimately unfruitful cycle of the process by which constituencies of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom ...
was not due to report until 2018, and therefore this general election took place under existing boundaries, enabling direct comparisons with the results by constituency in 2015.


Voting eligibility

To vote in the general election, one had to be: *on the
Electoral Register An electoral roll (variously called an electoral register, voters roll, poll book or other description) is a compilation that lists persons who are entitled to vote for particular elections in a particular jurisdiction. The list is usually broken ...
; *aged 18 or over on polling day; *a British,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
or
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
citizen; *a resident at an address in the UK (or a British citizen living abroad who has been registered to vote in the UK in the last 15 years), ''and''; *not legally excluded from voting (for example, a convicted person detained in prison or a mental hospital, or unlawfully at large if he/she would otherwise have been detained, or a person found guilty of certain corrupt or illegal practices) or disqualified from voting ( peers sitting in the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
). Individuals had to be registered to vote by midnight twelve working days before polling day (22 May).Electoral Commission: Deadline for registration ahead of an election
Note that 29 May 2017 is a bank holiday.
Anyone who qualified as an
anonymous elector An anonymous elector is generally a registered voter whose safety would be at risk if their details were available on a public electoral register. Australia In Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign ...

anonymous elector
had until midnight on 31 May to register. A person who has two homes (such as a university student with a term-time address but lives at home during holidays) may be registered to vote at both addresses, as long as they are not in the same electoral area, but can vote in only one
constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state St ...
at the general election. On 18 May, ''
The Independent ''The Independent'' is a British online newspaper An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the electronic publishing, online version of a newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online ver ...
'' reported that more than 1.1 million people between 18 and 35 had registered to vote since the election was announced on 18 April. Of those, 591,730 were under the age of 25.


Date and cost of the election

The
Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) (FTPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make ...
introduced fixed-term Parliaments to the United Kingdom, with elections scheduled every five years since the
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
on 7 May 2015. This removed the power of the Prime Minister, using the
royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi- ...
, to dissolve Parliament before its five-year maximum length. The Act permits early dissolution if the House of Commons votes by a
supermajority A supermajority, supra-majority, qualified majority, or special majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a majority A majority, also calle ...
of two-thirds of the entire membership of the House. On 18 April 2017, Prime Minister
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
announced she would seek an election on 8 June, despite previously ruling out an early election. A
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...

House of Commons
motion to allow this was passed on 19 April, with 522 votes for and 13 against, a majority of 509. The motion was supported by the Conservatives, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Greens, while the SNP abstained. Nine Labour MPs, one SDLP MP and three independents (
Sylvia Hermon Sylvia Eileen, Lady Hermon (née Paisley; born 11 August 1955) is a retired Unionist politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in ...
and two former SNP MPs,
Natalie McGarry Natalie McGarry (born 7 September 1981) is a former Scottish politician who served as the Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Glasgow East (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow East from 2015 to 2017. She was elect ...
and Michelle Thomson) voted against the motion. Labour leader
Jeremy Corbyn Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (; born 26 May 1949) is a British politician who served as Leader of the Labour PartyThe title Leader of the Labour Party may refer to: *Leader of the Labour Party (Ireland) *Leader of the Labour Party (Netherlands) *Lea ...

Jeremy Corbyn
supported the early election, as did Liberal Democrat leader
Tim Farron Timothy James Farron (born 27 May 1970) is a British politician who was Leader of the Liberal Democrats The Liberal Democrats are a political party in the United Kingdom. Party members elect the Leader of the Liberal Democrats. The Leader of t ...
and the
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
. The SNP stated that it was in favour of fixed-term parliaments, and would abstain in the House of Commons vote. UKIP leader
Paul Nuttall Paul Andrew Nuttall (born 30 November 1976) is a British politician who served as Leader of the UK Independence Party The UK Independence Party (UKIP ) is a Eurosceptic, right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom. The party ...

Paul Nuttall
and
First Minister of Wales The first minister of Wales ( cy, prif weinidog Cymru) is the leader of the Welsh Government and keeper of the Welsh Seal. The first minister chairs the Welsh Cabinet and is primarily responsible for the formulation, development and presentati ...
Carwyn Jones Carwyn Howell Jones (born 21 March 1967) is a Welsh politician who served as First Minister of Wales The First Minister of Wales ( cy, Prif Weinidog Cymru) is the Leader of the Welsh Government. The First Minister chairs the Welsh Cabinet ...

Carwyn Jones
criticised May for being opportunistic in the timing of the election, motivated by the then strong position of the Conservative Party in the opinion polls. On 25 April, the election date was confirmed as 8 June, with
dissolution Dissolution may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books * Dissolution (Forgotten Realms novel), ''Dissolution'' (''Forgotten Realms'' novel), a 2002 fantasy novel by Richard Lee Byers * Dissolution (Sansom novel), ''Dissolution'' (Sansom novel), a 2 ...
on 3 May. The government announced that it intended for the next parliament to assemble on 13 June, with the state opening on 19 June.


Timetable

The key dates are listed below (all times are BST):


Cost

The cost of organising the election was around £140 million – slightly less than the EU referendum, of which £98 million was spent on administrative costs, and £42.5 million was spent on campaign costs.


Parties and candidates

Most candidates were representatives of a political party registered with the
Electoral Commission An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of electioneering process of any country. The formal names of election commissions vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and may be styled an electoral commission, a cen ...
. Candidates not belonging to a registered party could use an "independent" label, or no label at all. The leader of the party commanding a majority of support in the House of Commons is the person who is called on by the monarch to form a government as Prime Minister, while the leader of the largest party not in government becomes the
Leader of the Opposition The leader of the opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the Opposition (parliamentary), largest party not in government in a parliamentary democracy. The leader of the opposition is seen as the alternative prime minister, premi ...
. Other parties also form shadow ministerial teams. The leaders of the SNP, Plaid Cymru and the DUP are not MPs; hence, they appoint separate leaders in the House of Commons.


Great Britain

The
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...

Conservative Party
and the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
have been the two biggest parties since
1922 Events January * January – The year begins with the British Empire at its largest extent, covering a quarter of the world and ruling over one in four people on Earth. * January 2 – The Chilean Communist Party is founded. * January 7 ...
, and have supplied all
Prime Ministers A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
since 1935. Both parties changed their leader after the 2015 election.
David Cameron David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician, businessman, Lobbying, lobbyist, and author who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016. He was Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Memb ...
, who had been the leader of the Conservative Party since
2005 2005 was designated as the International Year for Sport and Physical Education and the International Year of MicrocreditImage:YOmicrocredit2005.jpg, right International Year of Microcredit is a special event of the United Nations which took pl ...
and Prime Minister since
2010 2010 was designated as: *International Year of Biodiversity The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) was a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its importance, taking place internationally in 2010. Coinciding with the dat ...
, was replaced in July 2016 by
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
following the referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union.
Jeremy Corbyn Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (; born 26 May 1949) is a British politician who served as Leader of the Labour PartyThe title Leader of the Labour Party may refer to: *Leader of the Labour Party (Ireland) *Leader of the Labour Party (Netherlands) *Lea ...

Jeremy Corbyn
replaced
Ed Miliband Edward Samuel Miliband (born 24 December 1969) is a British politician serving as Shadow Secretary of State for Climate Change and Net Zero since 2021. He has been the Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Donca ...

Ed Miliband
as
Leader of the Labour PartyThe title Leader of the Labour Party may refer to: *Leader of the Labour Party (Ireland) *Leader of the Labour Party (Netherlands) *Leader of the Labour Party (UK) **Leader of the Scottish Labour Party *Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party See als ...
and
Leader of the Opposition The leader of the opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the Opposition (parliamentary), largest party not in government in a parliamentary democracy. The leader of the opposition is seen as the alternative prime minister, premi ...
in September 2015, and was re-elected leader in September 2016. While the Liberal Democrats and their predecessors had long been the third-largest party in British politics, they returned only 8 MPs in 2015 (having been part of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition from 2010 until 2015)—49 fewer than at the previous election and the fewest in their modern history.
Tim Farron Timothy James Farron (born 27 May 1970) is a British politician who was Leader of the Liberal Democrats The Liberal Democrats are a political party in the United Kingdom. Party members elect the Leader of the Liberal Democrats. The Leader of t ...
became the Liberal Democrat leader in July 2015, following the resignation of
Nick Clegg Sir Nicholas William Peter Clegg (born 7 January 1967) is a British media executive and former politician who has been VicePresident for Global Affairs and Communications at Meta Platforms since 2018, having previously served as Deputy Prime ...

Nick Clegg
. Led by
First Minister of Scotland The first minister of Scotland ( sco, heid meinister o Scotland; gd, prìomh mhinistear na h-Alba ) is the leader of the Scottish Government The Scottish Government ( gd, Riaghaltas na h-Alba, ) is the ...
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014. She is the first woman to hold either position. She has been a member of t ...

Nicola Sturgeon
, the SNP stands only in Scotland; it won 56 of the 59 Scottish seats in 2015. UKIP, then led by
Nigel Farage Nigel Paul Farage (; born 3 April 1964) is a British broadcaster and former politician who was Leader of the UK Independence Party The UK Independence Party (UKIP ) is a Eurosceptic, right-wing populist political party in the United Ki ...

Nigel Farage
, who was later replaced by
Diane James Diane Martine James (born 20 November 1959) is a British politician who was a Reform UK Reform UK is a populist political party in the United Kingdom. It was founded as the Brexit Party in November 2018, and was renamed on 6 January 2021. T ...
and then by
Paul Nuttall Paul Andrew Nuttall (born 30 November 1976) is a British politician who served as Leader of the UK Independence Party The UK Independence Party (UKIP ) is a Eurosceptic, right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom. The party ...

Paul Nuttall
in 2016, won 12.7% of the vote in 2015 but gained only one MP,
Douglas Carswell John Douglas Wilson Carswell (born 3 May 1971) is a British former politician who served as Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameral ...

Douglas Carswell
, who left the party in March 2017 to sit as an independent. After securing 3.8% of the vote and one MP in the previous general election, Green Party leader
Natalie Bennett Natalie Louise Bennett, Baroness Bennett of Manor Castle (born 10 February 1966) is a British politician and journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to ...

Natalie Bennett
was succeeded by joint leaders
Caroline Lucas Caroline Patricia Lucas (born 9 December 1960) is a British politician who has twice led the Green Party of England and Wales The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW; cy, Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr, often simply the Green Party or Gre ...

Caroline Lucas
and
Jonathan Bartley Jonathan Charles Bartley (born 16 October 1971) is a British politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms ...
in September 2016. Smaller parties that contested the 2015 election and chose not to put forward candidates in 2017 included
Mebyon Kernow Mebyon Kernow – The Party for Cornwall (, MK; Cornish language, Cornish for ''Sons of Cornwall'') is a Cornish nationalism, Cornish nationalist, Left-wing politics, centre-left political party in Cornwall, in southwestern Britain. It currently ...
, the
Communist Party of Britain The Communist Party of Britain (CPB) is a communist political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar i ...
, the
Scottish Socialist Party The Scottish Socialist Party (SSP; gd, Pàrtaidh Sòisealach na h-Alba; sco, Scots Socialist Pairtie) is a left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a schoo ...
, and the
National FrontNational Front or Front National can refer to the following political parties and coalitions: Africa * Botswana National Front * National Front for the Salvation of Libya * Namibia National Front * Front National (South Africa) , a Boer-Afrikaner po ...
. The
Respect Party The Respect Party was a left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equal ...
, which had previously held seats, was dissolved in 2016; its former MP
George Galloway George Galloway (born 16 August 1954) is a British politician, broadcaster, and writer serving as the leader of the Workers Party of Britain The Workers Party of Britain (WPB) is a Minor party, minor List of political parties in the United ...

George Galloway
stood and lost in the 2017 election as an independent in Manchester Gorton.


Northern Ireland

In
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
, the
Democratic Unionist Party The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP; ga, Páirtí Aontachtach Daonlathach) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland favouring British identity. It was founded in 1971 during the Troubles by Ian Paisley, who led the party for the nex ...
(DUP),
Sinn Féin Sinn Féin ( , ; en, "eOurselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active throughout Ireland; both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation wa ...

Sinn Féin
, the
Social Democratic and Labour Party The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) ( ga, Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is a social democracy, social-democratic and Irish nationalism, Irish nationalist list of political parties in Northern Ireland, political party ...
(SDLP), the
Ulster Unionist Party The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist and conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to ...
(UUP), the
Green Party of Northern Ireland The Green Party Northern Ireland is a green Green is the color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''categories'', with names such a ...
and the Alliance Party contested the 2017 election. Sinn Féin maintained its
abstentionist Abstentionism is standing for election to a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a meeting of members Member may refer to: * Military jury, referred to as "Members" in military jargon * Element (mathematics), an object that belon ...

abstentionist
policy. The DUP, Sinn Féin, SDLP, UUP and APNI were all led by new party leaders, changed since the 2015 election. The Conservatives, Greens, and four other minor parties also stood. Despite contesting 10 seats last time, UKIP did not stand in Northern Ireland.


Candidates

3,304 candidates stood for election, down from 3,631 in the previous general election. The Conservatives stood in 637 seats, Labour in 631 (including jointly with the
Co-operative Party The Co-operative Party is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...
in 50) and the Liberal Democrats in 629. UKIP stood in 377 constituencies, down from 624 in 2015, while the Greens stood in 468, down from 573. The SNP contested all 59 Scottish seats and Plaid Cymru stood in all 40 Welsh seats. In Great Britain, 183 candidates stood as independents; minor parties included the
Christian Peoples Alliance The Christian Peoples Alliance (CPA) is a Christian democratic political party in the United Kingdom. The party was founded in its present form in 1999, having grown out of a cross-party advocacy group called the Movement for Christian Democracy. ...
which contested 31 seats, the
Yorkshire Party The Yorkshire Party is a political party in Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a Historic counties of England, historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because ...
which stood in 21, the
Official Monster Raving Loony Party The Official Monster Raving Loony Party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas abou ...
in 12, the
British National Party The British National Party (BNP) is a Far-right politics, far-right, Fascism, fascist list of political parties in the United Kingdom, political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Wigton, Cumbria, and its current leader is Ada ...
in 10, the
Pirate Party Pirate Party is a label adopted by Political party, political parties around the world. Pirate parties support Civil and political rights, civil rights, direct democracy (including e-democracy) or alternatively Participatory democracy, partici ...
in 10, the
English Democrats The English Democrats is a right-wing Right-wing politics embraces the view that certain social orders and Social stratification, hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of ...
in 7, the
Women's Equality Party The Women's Equality Party (WEP) is a feminist political party set up in the United Kingdom in 2015. The idea was conceived by Catherine Mayer Catherine Mayer (born 24 January 1961) is an American-born British author and journalist, and the ...

Women's Equality Party
in 7, the
Social Democratic Party The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by many Political party, political parties in various countries around the world. Such parties are most commonly aligned to social democracy as their Ideologies of parties, pol ...
in 6, the
National Health Action Party The National Health Action Party (NHA) is a political party in the United Kingdom. The party grew out of the movement opposing the 2012 Health and Social Care Act 2012, Health and Social Care Act. It campaigns for renationalisation of the Natio ...
in 5 and the Workers Revolutionary Party in 5, while an additional 79 candidates stood for 46 other registered political parties. In Wales, 213 candidates stood for election. Labour, Conservatives, Plaid Cymru, and Liberal Democrats contested all forty seats and there were 32 UKIP and 10 Green candidates. In Scotland, the SNP, the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats stood in all 59 seats while UKIP contested 10 seats and the Greens only 3. Of the 109 candidates in Northern Ireland, Sinn Féin, the SDLP and the Alliance contested all 18 seats; the DUP stood in 17, the UUP in 14 and the
Conservatives Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the traditional values or practices of the culture Culture () is an umbrella term w ...
and
Greens Greens may refer to: *Leaf vegetable Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. Althou ...
stood in 7 each.
People Before Profit People Before Profit ( ga, Pobal Roimh Bhrabús, PBP) is a socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, economic and social systems ...
and the
Workers' Party Workers' Party is a name used by several political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
contested two seats while
Traditional Unionist Voice The Traditional Unionist Voice (TUV) is a unionist political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar id ...
and the new Citizens Independent Social Thought Alliance stood in one each; four independents including incumbent
Sylvia Hermon Sylvia Eileen, Lady Hermon (née Paisley; born 11 August 1955) is a retired Unionist politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in ...
also stood.


Party selection processes

Unlike in previous elections, the timetable of the snap election required parties to select candidates in just under three weeks, to meet the 11 May deadline. For the Conservatives, local associations in target seats were offered a choice of three candidates by the from an existing list of candidates, without inviting applications; candidates in non-target seats were to be appointed directly by central party offices; and successful MPs were to be confirmed by a meeting of their local parties. This was controversial with local associations. The Labour Party required sitting MPs to express their intention to stand, automatically re-selecting those who did; and it advertised for applications from party members for all remaining seats by 23 April. Having devolved selections to its Scottish and Welsh parties, Labour's National Executive Committee endorsed all parliamentary candidates on 3 May except for
Rochdale Rochdale is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Ma ...
, the seat of suspended MP
Simon Danczuk Simon Christopher Danczuk (; born 24 October 1966) is a British former politician and Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, b ...
. On 7 May,
Steve Rotheram Steven Philip Rotheram (born 4 November 1961) is a British Labour Party politician who is the Metro Mayor of the Liverpool City Region. He previously served as the MP for Liverpool Walton from 2010 to 2017. Rotheram was born in Liverpool an ...
announced he was standing down as MP for Liverpool Walton following his election as Liverpool City Region mayor, leaving five days to appoint a candidate by close of nominations. The SNP confirmed on 22 April that its 54 sitting MPs would be re-selected and that its suspended members
Natalie McGarry Natalie McGarry (born 7 September 1981) is a former Scottish politician who served as the Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Glasgow East (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow East from 2015 to 2017. She was elect ...
and Michelle Thomson would not be nominated as SNP candidates; the party subsequently selected candidates for McGarry's and Thomson's former seats, as well as for the three Scottish constituencies it did not win in 2015. The Liberal Democrats had already selected 326 candidates in 2016 and over 70 in 2017 before the election was called. Meetings of local party members from UKIP, the Greens and Plaid Cymru selected their candidates. Parties in Northern Ireland were not believed to have already selected candidates due to the Assembly elections in March.


High-profile candidates


=Conservative

= Former employment minister Esther McVey was selected to contest Tatton (UK Parliament constituency), Tatton. Zac Goldsmith was adopted as the candidate for Richmond Park (UK Parliament constituency), Richmond Park, having lost the 2016 Richmond Park by-election, 2016 by-election as an independent in protest against the form of the Government's chosen expert's recommended Heathrow expansion. He had served as the seat's Conservative MP between 2010 and 2016. Kenneth Clarke, the Father of the House (United Kingdom), Father of the House of Commons, had said he would retire in 2020 and so stood again in the 2017 election, leaving it open for him to retire possibly in 2022 (he eventually retired in 2019 when 2019 United Kingdom general election, that year's national election was called).


=Labour

= Tony Lloyd, a former Labour MP for Manchester Central (UK Parliament constituency), Manchester Central who served as Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner from 2012 and interim Mayor of Greater Manchester since 2015 stood in
Rochdale Rochdale is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boroughs: Ma ...
. Eli Aldridge was just 18 years old when he challenged then Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron in his Westmorland and Lonsdale constituency. News coverage showed Aldridge balancing campaigning with revision for his A-level examinations, even missing the start of his end-of-year ball to speak at a hustings in Kendal.


=Liberal Democrats

= Those ministers defeated in 2015 who stood for election in their former seats included Vince Cable in Twickenham (UK Parliament constituency), Twickenham, Ed Davey in Kingston and Surbiton (UK Parliament constituency), Kingston and Surbiton, Jo Swinson in East Dunbartonshire (UK Parliament constituency), East Dunbartonshire, and Simon Hughes in Bermondsey and Old Southwark (UK Parliament constituency), Bermondsey and Old Southwark.


=UKIP leader

= After coming second in the 2017 Stoke-on-Trent Central by-election, Stoke-on-Trent Central by-election earlier in 2017, UKIP leader
Paul Nuttall Paul Andrew Nuttall (born 30 November 1976) is a British politician who served as Leader of the UK Independence Party The UK Independence Party (UKIP ) is a Eurosceptic, right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom. The party ...

Paul Nuttall
contested Boston and Skegness (UK Parliament constituency), Boston and Skegness.


=MPs rejected by their parties

= Former Labour MP
Simon Danczuk Simon Christopher Danczuk (; born 24 October 1966) is a British former politician and Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, b ...
stood as an independent candidate, after being rejected from standing with that party and then withdrawing his party membership. After the Liberal Democrats rejected David Ward (British politician), David Ward, the former MP for Bradford East (UK Parliament constituency), Bradford East, for Antisemitism, anti-semitism, he contested that seat as an independent.


Electoral alliances and arrangements

Ahead of the general election, crowdfunding groups such as More United and Open Britain were formed to promote candidates of similar views standing for election, and a "Progressive alliance (UK), progressive alliance" was proposed. Former UKIP donor Arron Banks suggested a "patriotic alliance" movement. A Tactical voting spreadsheet to keep the Conservatives out of government went viral on social media. Gina Miller, who took the government to court over United Kingdom invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, Article 50, set out plans to tour marginal constituencies in support of pro-EU candidates. Within a few days of the election being announced, the Green Party of England and Wales and the SNP each proposed to collaborate with Labour and the Liberal Democrats to prevent a Conservative majority government. Liberal Democrat leader
Tim Farron Timothy James Farron (born 27 May 1970) is a British politician who was Leader of the Liberal Democrats The Liberal Democrats are a political party in the United Kingdom. Party members elect the Leader of the Liberal Democrats. The Leader of t ...
quickly reaffirmed his party's opposition to an electoral pact or coalition with Labour, citing "electorally toxic" Corbyn and concerns over Labour's position on Brexit. On 22 April the Liberal Democrats also ruled out a coalition deal with the Conservatives and SNP. Labour ruled out an electoral pact with the SNP, Liberal Democrats and Greens. Notwithstanding national arrangements, the Liberal Democrats, the Greens, and UKIP indicated they might not stand in every constituency. The Green Party of England and Wales chose not to contest 22 seats explicitly "to increase the chance of a progressive candidate beating the Conservatives", including South West Surrey (UK Parliament constituency), South West Surrey, the seat of Secretary of State for Health, Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt, in favour of the
National Health Action Party The National Health Action Party (NHA) is a political party in the United Kingdom. The party grew out of the movement opposing the 2012 Health and Social Care Act 2012, Health and Social Care Act. It campaigns for renationalisation of the Natio ...
candidate. The Scottish Green Party contested just three constituencies. The Liberal Democrats agreed to stand down in Brighton Pavilion (UK Parliament constituency), Brighton Pavilion. After indicating it might not nominate candidates in seats held by strongly pro-Brexit Conservative MPs, UKIP nominated 377 candidates; it was suggested this would help the Conservatives in marginal seats. In Northern Ireland, there were talks between the Democratic Unionist Party, DUP and Ulster Unionist Party, UUP. Rather than engaging in a formal pact, the DUP agreed not to contest Fermanagh and South Tyrone (UK Parliament constituency), Fermanagh and South Tyrone, while the UUP chose not to stand in four constituencies. Talks took place between Sinn Féin, the SDLP and the Green Party in Northern Ireland about an anti-Brexit agreement (the Alliance Party were approached but declined to be involved) but no agreement was reached; the Greens said there was "too much distance" between the parties, Sinn Féin's abstentionist policy was criticised, and the SDLP admitted an agreement was unlikely. On 8 May, the SDLP rejected Sinn Féin's call for them to stand aside in some seats.


Campaign


Background

Prior to the calling of the general election, the Liberal Democrats gained Richmond Park from the Conservatives in a 2016 Richmond Park by-election, by-election, a seat characterised by its high Remain vote in the 2016 EU referendum. The Conservatives held the safe seat of 2016 Sleaford and North Hykeham by-election, Sleaford and North Hykeham in December 2016. In by-elections on 23 February 2017, Labour held 2017 Stoke-on-Trent Central by-election, Stoke-on-Trent Central but lost 2017 Copeland by-election, Copeland to the Conservatives, the first time a governing party had gained a seat in a by-election since the Tories took Mitcham and Morden (UK Parliament constituency), Mitcham and Morden in 1982 Mitcham and Morden by-election, 1982. The general election came soon after the Northern Ireland 2017 Northern Ireland Assembly election, Assembly election on 2 March. Talks on power-sharing between the DUP and Sinn Féin had failed to reach a conclusion, with Northern Ireland thus facing either another Assembly election, or the imposition of Direct rule over Northern Ireland, direct rule. The deadline was subsequently extended to 29 June. 2017 United Kingdom local elections, Local elections in England, Scotland and Wales took place on 4 May. These saw large gains by the Conservatives, and large losses by Labour and UKIP. Notably, the Conservatives won metro mayor elections in 2017 Tees Valley mayoral election, Tees Valley and the 2017 West Midlands mayoral election, West Midlands, areas traditionally seen as Labour heartlands. Initially scheduled for 4 May, a 2017 Manchester Gorton by-election, by-election in Manchester Gorton was cancelled; the seat was contested on 8 June along with all the other seats. On 6 May, a letter from Church of England Archbishops Justin Welby and John Sentamu stressed the importance of education, housing, communities and health. All parties suspended campaigning for a time in the wake of the Manchester Arena bombing on 22 May. The SNP had been scheduled to release their manifesto for the election but this was delayed. Campaigning resumed on 25 May. Major political parties also suspended campaigning for a second time on 4 June, following the 2017 London Bridge attack, London Bridge attack. UKIP chose to continue campaigning. There were unsuccessful calls for polling day to be postponed.


Issues


Brexit

The Brexit, UK's withdrawal from the European Union was expected to be a key issue in the campaign, but featured less than expected. May said she called the snap election to secure a majority for her Brexit negotiations.
UKIP The UK Independence Party (UKIP ) is a Eurosceptic Euroscepticism, also known as EU-scepticism, means criticism of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Unio ...
supported a "clean, quick and efficient Brexit" and, launching his party's election campaign, Nuttall stated that Brexit was a "job half done" and UKIP MPs were needed to "see this through to the end". Labour had supported Brexit in the previous parliament - Corbyn did not vote against the triggering of Article 50. Corbyn's actions in the previous parliament therefore dispelled the doubts of Labour voters who had voted to leave the EU. However, his vision for Brexit prioritised different plans for the UK outside the EU. He wanted to Britain to still maintain the benefits of the single market and the custom union. The Liberal Democrats and Greens called for a deal to keep the UK in the European Single Market, single market and a referendum on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, second referendum on any deal proposed between the EU and the UK. The Conservative manifesto committed the party to leaving the single market and European Union Customs Union, customs union, but sought a "deep and special partnership" through a comprehensive free trade and customs agreement. It proposed seeking to remain part of some EU programmes where it would "be reasonable that we make a contribution", staying as a signatory of the European Convention on Human Rights over the next parliament, and maintaining the Human Rights Act 1998, Human Rights Act during Brexit negotiations. Parliament would be able to amend or repeal EU legislation once converted into UK law, and have a vote on the final agreement.


Security

Two major terrorist attacks took place during the election campaign, with parties arguing about the best way to prevent such events. May, after the second attack, focused on global co-operation to tackle Islamist ideology and tackling the use of the internet by terrorist groups. After the first attack, Labour criticised cuts in police numbers under the Conservative government. Corbyn also linked the Manchester attack to British foreign policy. The Conservatives stated that spending on counter-terrorism for both the police and other agencies had risen. Former Conservative strategist Steve Hilton said Theresa May should be "resigning not seeking re-election", because her police cuts and security failures had led to the attacks. Corbyn backed calls for May to resign, but said she should be removed by voters. May said that police budgets for counter-terrorism had been maintained and that Corbyn had voted against counter-terrorism legislation. The Conservative manifesto proposed more Internet censorship in the United Kingdom, government control and regulation of the Internet in the United Kingdom, Internet, including forcing Internet companies to restrict access to extremist and adult content. After the London attack, Theresa May called for international agreements to regulate the internet. The Conservative stance on regulation of the internet and social media was criticised by Farron and the Open Rights Group. On 6 June, May promised longer prison sentences for people convicted of terrorism and restrictions on the Freedom of movement#United Kingdom, freedom of movement or UK immigration enforcement#Deportation, deportation of militant suspects when it is thought they present a threat but there is not enough evidence to prosecute them, stating that she would change Human rights in the United Kingdom, human rights laws to do so if necessary. The UK's nuclear weapons, including the renewal of Trident nuclear programme, the Trident system, also featured in the campaign. The Conservatives and Liberal Democrats favoured Trident renewal. Labour's manifesto committed to Trident renewal; Corbyn confirmed renewal would take place under Labour, but declined to explicitly speak in favour. He also declined to answer whether as prime minister he would use nuclear weapons if the UK was under imminent nuclear threat.


Social care

Social care became a major election issue after the Conservative Party's manifesto included new proposals, which were subsequently altered after criticism. The previous coalition government had commissioned a review by Andrew Dilnot into how to fund social care. Measures that were seen to disadvantage pensioners were also in the Conservative manifesto: eliminating the State Pension (United Kingdom)#Pensions Act 2007, pension triple lock and Winter Fuel Payments for all pensioners.


Scottish independence and the future of the UK

The question of a proposed Scottish independence referendum was also thought likely to influence the campaign in Scotland. On 28 March 2017, the Scottish Parliament approved a motion requesting that Westminster pass a Section 30 order giving the Parliament the authority to hold a second independence referendum, suggesting that there had been a "material change of circumstances" since the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, independence referendum in 2014 as a result of Britain's vote to leave the EU and Scotland's vote to remain. The SNP hoped to hold a second independence referendum once the Brexit terms a were clear but before Britain left the EU; May said her government would not approve an independence referendum before Brexit negotiations had finished. After the final results were announced the SNP had lost 13% of the Scottish vote and one third of their seats - leading Sturgeon to conclude that, “Undoubtedly the issue of an independence referendum was a factor in this election result, but I think there were other factors as well”.


University tuition fees

Labour was thought to have attracted a significant number of student voters with its pledge to abolish tuition fees, which stands at £9,250 a year in England, and bring back student grants.


Possible coalitions

Although Labour and the Liberal Democrats both rejected election pacts with each other and with the Greens and the SNP, and although the Liberal Democrats ruled out a coalition deal with the Conservatives, the Conservatives campaigned on the proposition that such deals might nevertheless occur, using the phrase "coalition of chaos". Similar messages against a potential Lib–Lab pact were credited with securing a Conservative win in the 1992 United Kingdom general election, 1992 and
2015 2015 was designated as: * International Year of Light The International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies 2015 or International Year of Light 2015 (IYL 2015) was a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovern ...
elections. On 19 April, May warned against a Labour–SNP–Lib Dem pact that would "divide our country". After the hung result led the Conservatives to seek DUP support for a minority government, this rhetoric was mocked by opponents.


Party campaigns


Conservatives

May launched the Conservative campaign with a focus on Brexit, lower domestic taxes and avoiding a Labour–SNP-Lib Dem "coalition of chaos", but she refused to commit not to raise taxes. On 30 April, May stated that it was her intention to lower taxes if the Conservatives won the general election, but only explicitly ruled out raising VAT. May reiterated her commitment to spending 0.7% of Gross national income, GNI on foreign aid. May hired Lynton Crosby, the campaign manager for the Conservatives in the 2015 general election, as well as former President of the United States Barack Obama's 2012 United States presidential election, 2012 2012 Barack Obama presidential campaign, campaign manager, Jim Messina (political staffer), Jim Messina. The Conservative campaign was noted for the use of targeted adverts on social media, in particular attacking Corbyn. The repeated use of the phrase "strong and stable" in the Conservatives' campaigning attracted attention and criticism. Some expressed concern that the party may have restricted media access to the prime minister. While some speculated that an investigation into United Kingdom general election, 2015 party spending investigation, campaign spending by the Conservatives in the 2015 general election was a factor behind the snap election, on 10 May the Crown Prosecution Service said that despite evidence of inaccurate spending returns, no further action was required. On 7 May the Conservatives promised to replace the Mental Health Act 1983, 1983 Mental Health Act, to employ an additional 10,000 NHS mental health workers by 2020 and to tackle discrimination against those with mental health problems. May indicated that the Conservatives would maintain their net immigration target, and promised to implement a cap on "rip-off energy prices", a policy that appeared in Labour's 2015 manifesto. May indicated she would permit a free vote among Conservative MPs on repealing the Hunting Act 2004, ban on fox hunting in England and Wales. On 11 May the Conservatives promised above-inflation increases in defence spending alongside its NATO commitment to spend at least 2% of GDP on defence. In a speech in Tynemouth the next day, May said Labour had "deserted" working-class voters, criticised Labour's policy proposals and said Britain's future depended on making a success of Brexit. On 14 May the Conservatives proposed a "new generation" of Public housing in the United Kingdom, social housing, paid from the existing capital budget, offering funding to local authorities and changing Compulsory purchase in England and Wales, compulsory purchase rules. The following day May promised "a new deal for workers" that would maintain United Kingdom labour law, workers' rights currently protected by the EU after Brexit, put worker representation on company boards, introduce a statutory right to Leave of absence, unpaid leave to care for a relative and increase the National Living Wage in line with average earnings until 2022. The proposals were characterised as an "unabashed pitch for Labour voters"; however Labour and the GMB (trade union), GMB trade union criticised the government's past record on workers' rights. Unveiling the Conservative manifesto in Halifax, West Yorkshire, Halifax on 18 May, May promised a "mainstream government that would deliver for mainstream Britain". It proposed to balance the budget by 2025, raise spending on the NHS by £8bn per year and on schools by £4bn per year by 2022, remove the ban on grammar schools, Means-tested benefit, means-test the Winter Fuel Payment, winter fuel allowance, replace the State Pension (United Kingdom), state pension "triple lock" with a "double lock" and require executive pay to be approved by a vote of shareholders. It dropped the 2015 pledge to not raise income tax or national insurance contributions but maintained a commitment to freeze Value-added tax, VAT. New sovereign wealth funds for infrastructure, rules to prevent foreign takeovers of "critical national infrastructure" and Institute of technology, institutes of technology were also proposed. The manifesto was noted for its intervention in industry, lack of tax cuts and increased spending commitments on public services. On Brexit it committed to leaving the single market and European Union Customs Union, customs union while seeking a "deep and special partnership" and promised a vote in parliament on the final agreement. The manifesto was noted for containing similar policies to those found in Labour's 2015 general election manifesto. The manifesto also proposed reforms to social care in England that would raise the threshold for free care from £23,250 to £100,000, while including property in the means test and permitting deferred payment after death. After attracting substantial media attention, four days after the manifesto launch, May stated that the proposed social care reforms would now include an "absolute limit" on costs in contrast to the rejection of a cap in the manifesto. She criticised the "fake" portrayal of the policy in recent days by Labour and other critics, who had termed it a "dementia tax". ''London Evening Standard, Evening Standard'' editor and former Conservative Chancellor George Osborne called the policy change a "U-turn". The Conservative Party manifesto at the 2017 general election proposed repealing the
Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) (FTPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make ...
.


Labour

Corbyn launched the Labour campaign focusing on public spending, and argued that services were being underfunded, particularly education. Labour's Shadow Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, shadow Brexit secretary, Keir Starmer, stated that the party would replace the existing Brexit white paper with new negotiating priorities that emphasise the benefits of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, single market and European Union Customs Union, customs union, that the residence rights of EU nationals would be guaranteed and that the principle of Freedom of movement, free movement would have to end. Corbyn emphasised Labour's support for a "jobs-first Brexit" that "safeguards the future of Britain's vital industries". Labour proposed the creation of four new bank holidays, marking the Calendar of saints, feast days of the patron saints of the United Kingdom's constituent nations. On 27 April the party pledged to build 1 million new homes over five years. Labour's proposal to employ 10,000 new police officers was overshadowed when Shadow Home Secretary Diane Abbott cited incorrect figures in a widely publicised gaffe in an LBC interview on 2 May on how it would be funded. Labour later stated that the £300 million cost would be funded by reversing cuts to capital gains taxes, although it was noted that the party had also pledged some of those savings towards other expenditure plans. On 7 May, Shadow Chancellor John McDonnell ruled out rises in VAT and in income tax and employee national insurance contributions for those with earnings below £80,000 per year. The following day Labour outlined plans to ban junk food TV adverts and parking charges at NHS hospitals. Labour promised an additional £4.8 billion for education, funded by raising United Kingdom corporation tax, corporation tax from 19% to 26%. A draft copy of Labour's manifesto was leaked to the ''Daily Mirror'' and ''The Daily Telegraph'' on 10 May. It included pledges to renationalise the National Grid plc, National Grid, railways, and the Royal Mail and create publicly owned energy companies. The draft was noted for including commitments to workers' rights, a ban on fracking, and the abolition of university tuition fees in England. The draft manifesto included a commitment to the Trident nuclear programme, Trident nuclear deterrent, but suggested a future government would be "extremely cautious" about using it. The next day Labour's Clause V meeting endorsed the manifesto after amendments from shadow cabinet members and trade unions present. In a speech at Chatham House on 12 May, Corbyn set out his foreign policy, saying he would reshape Britain's foreign relations, avoid the use of nuclear weapons, and while Labour supported Trident renewal he would initiate a defence review in government. Corbyn stated that he would halt all weapons sales from the Saudi Arabia–United Kingdom relations, UK to Saudi Arabia citing the Human rights violations during the Yemeni Civil War (2015-present)#Saudi Arabian involvement in civil war, violations of human rights in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. After the 2017 London Bridge attack, Corbyn said that a conversation should take place "with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states that have funded and fuelled extremist ideology". On 14 May, Labour revealed plans to extend Stamp duty in the United Kingdom, stamp duty by introducing a Financial transaction tax, financial transactions tax, which McDonnell claimed would raise up to £5.6bn per year. The next day Corbyn set out plans to spend £37bn on the National Health Service (England), NHS in England over a five-year parliament, including £10bn on IT upgrades and building repairs. Launching its manifesto officially on 16 May, Labour revealed it would nationalise the United Kingdom water companies, water industry, provide 30 hours per week of free Child care in the United Kingdom, childcare for two- to four-year-olds, charge companies a levy on annual earnings above £330,000, lower the 45p income Taxation in the United Kingdom, tax rate threshold to £80,000 per year, and reintroduce the 50p tax rate for those earning more than £123,000 per year. Labour said it would raise an additional £48.6bn in tax revenue per year and insisted its policies were fully costed, though it was noted no costings were provided for its nationalisation pledges. Compared to the leaked draft, the manifesto was noted for toughening Labour's position on defence and Trident, confirming that outside the EU free movement would have to end, qualifying support for airport expansion, and clarifying the party's stance on Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Israel-Palestine, as well as other changes. After initial confusion, Labour clarified it would not reverse the government's freeze on most working-age benefits. In an interview following the manifesto launch, Unite the Union, Unite general secretary Len McCluskey said victory for Labour in the general election would be "extraordinary" and that winning just 200 seats (compared to 229 seats held at the time) would be a "successful" result; the following morning he clarified he was now "optimistic" about Labour's chances.


SNP

The SNP, keen to maintain its position as the third-largest party in the House of Commons, made the need to protect Scotland's interests in the Brexit negotiations a central part of its campaign. The SNP manifesto called for a vote on independence to be held "at the end of the Brexit process", set out "anti-austerity" plans to invest £118bn in UK public services over the next five years, pledged to increase the minimum wage to £10 an hour and called for Scotland to have control over immigration and to remain in the EU single market after Brexit. With the polls closing, Nicola Sturgeon told the Today (BBC Radio 4), Today programme that the SNP could support a Labour government "on an issue-by-issue basis" in the event of a hung parliament and she would be open to forming a "progressive alternative to a Conservative government".


Liberal Democrats

Central themes of the Liberal Democrat campaign were an offer of a referendum on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, referendum on any eventual Brexit deal and a desire for the UK to stay in the single market. The party reportedly targeted seats which had voted to remain in the EU, such as Twickenham (UK Parliament constituency), Twickenham, Oxford West and Abingdon (UK Parliament constituency), Oxford West and Abingdon, and Vauxhall (UK Parliament constituency), Vauxhall. Bob Marshall-Andrews, a Labour MP from 1997 to 2010, announced he would support the Liberal Democrats. The party reported a surge in membership after the election was called, passing 100,000 on 24 April, having grown by 12,500 in the preceding week. The party also reported raising £500,000 in donations in the first 48 hours after May's announcement of an early election. An early issue raised in the campaign was Tim Farron's views, as a Christian, regarding gay sex and LGBT rights. After declining to state whether he thought gay sex was a Christian views on sin, sin, Farron affirmed that he believed neither being gay nor having gay sex are sinful.Initial refusal: * * Subsequent explanation: * * The party proposed raising income tax by 1p to fund the NHS and maintaining the triple-lock on the State Pension (United Kingdom)#Pensions Act 2007, state pension. The Liberal Democrats also promised an additional £7 billion to protect per-pupil funding in education; they said it would be partly funded by remaining in the EU single market. The party pledged on 11 May to accept 50,000 Syrian refugee crisis, refugees from Syria over five years, with Farron saying that the £4.3 billion costs would over time be repaid in taxes by those refugees that settle in Britain. On 12 May the party revealed plans to Legality of cannabis, legalise cannabis and extend paid Parental leave, paternity leave. Farron proposed financial incentives for graduates joining the British Armed Forces, armed forces and committed to NATO's 2% of GDP defence spending target. The next day the Liberal Democrats promised to end the cap on public-sector pay increases and repeal the Investigatory Powers Act 2016, Investigatory Powers Act. On 16 May the Liberal Democrats proposed an entrepreneurs' allowance, to review Rates in the United Kingdom, business rates and to increase access to credit. Policies emphasised during their manifesto launch on 17 May included a second referendum on a Brexit deal with the option to remain a member of the EU, discounted bus passes for 16- to 21-year-olds, the reinstatement of Housing Benefit for 18- to 21-year-olds, a £3bn plan to build 300,000 new houses a year by 2022 and support for renters to build up Home equity, equity in their rented properties.


UKIP

Paul Nuttall announced that UKIP's manifesto would seek to Islamic dress in Europe, ban the burqa, outlaw sharia law, impose a temporary Moratorium (law), moratorium on new Madrasa, Islamic schools and require annual checks against female genital mutilation (FGM) for high-risk girls. In response to the proposed burqa ban UKIP's foreign affairs spokesperson James Carver resigned, labelling the policy "misguided". Despite losing all 145 of the seats it was defending in the 2017 United Kingdom local elections, 2017 local elections (but gaining one from Labour in Burnley), Nuttall insisted voters would return to UKIP in the general election. On 8 May UKIP proposed a Net migration rate, net migration target of zero within five years.


Television debates

Within hours of the election being announced, Corbyn, Farron and Sturgeon called for televised debates. The Prime Minister's Office (United Kingdom), Prime Minister's office initially opposed the idea. On 19 April, the BBC and ITV (TV network), ITV announced they planned to host leaders' debates, as they had done in the 2010 and 2015 elections, whether or not May took part. Labour subsequently ruled out Corbyn taking part in television debates without May. Broadcaster Andrew Neil separately interviewed the party leaders in ''The Andrew Neil Interviews'' on BBC One, starting on 22 May with
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
. The Manchester Arena bombing led to interviews with Nuttall, Farron, Sturgeon and Corbyn to be rescheduled. ITV Tonight also ran a series of programmes with the major party leaders. Sky News and Channel 4 hosted an election programme on 29 May where May and Corbyn were individually interviewed by Jeremy Paxman after taking questions from a studio audience. The BBC held two debates to which all seven main party leaders were invited, on 31 May in Cambridge and 6 June in Manchester; both May and Corbyn stated they would not attend the 31 May debate. May said that she had already debated Corbyn many times in parliament, and that she would be meeting the public instead. Corbyn announced on the day that he would attend the debate in Cambridge, calling on May to do the same. Instead Amber Rudd appeared for the Conservatives. The BBC hosted separate debates for the English regions, and for both Scotland and Wales, and also a ''Question Time (TV series), Question Time'' special with May and Corbyn separately answering questions from voters on 2 June, chaired by David Dimbleby. Sturgeon and Farron were expected to do the same on 4 June, but after the 2017 London Bridge attack it was rescheduled to 5 June and instead presented by Nick Robinson (journalist), Nick Robinson. The BBC also hosted two back-to-back episodes of a special election programme titled ''Election Questions'' on 4 June, the first in Bristol with
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
co-leader
Jonathan Bartley Jonathan Charles Bartley (born 16 October 1971) is a British politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms ...
followed by Nuttall, and the second in Swansea with
Plaid Cymru Plaid Cymru ( ; ; officially Plaid Cymru – the Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language E ...
leader Leanne Wood. The party leaders were individually questioned by a studio audience. STV (TV channel), STV planned to host a live TV debate in Glasgow with four Scottish party leaders on 24 May, but it was postponed, owing to the Manchester Arena bombing. The debate was rescheduled for Tuesday 6 June.


Campaign costs

In the 12 months leading up to the election, the Conservatives spent £18.5m, Labour spent £11m and the Liberal Democrats spent £6.8m.


Endorsements

Newspapers, organisations and individuals endorsed parties or individual candidates for the election. For example, the main national newspapers gave the following endorsements:


National daily newspapers

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National Sunday newspapers


Media coverage

In contrast to the 2015 United Kingdom general election, 2015 general election, in which smaller parties received more media coverage than usual, coverage during the 2017 election focused on the two main political parties, Labour and the ConservativesS. Cushion, 'Conventional wisdom distorted TV news coverage of campaign' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
(84% of the politicians featured in newspapers, and 67% on TV, were Conservative or Labour), with Conservatives sources receiving the most coverage and quotation, particularly in the print media (the margin of difference between Conservative and Labour sources was 2.1 points on TV and 9.6 points in newspapers).D. Deacon et al.,
National News Media Coverage of the 2017 General Election: Report 4: 5 May—7 June 2017
' (2017). Centre for Research in Communication and Culture, Loughborough University
The five most prominent politicians were
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
(Cons) (30.1% of news appearanced),
Jeremy Corbyn Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (; born 26 May 1949) is a British politician who served as Leader of the Labour PartyThe title Leader of the Labour Party may refer to: *Leader of the Labour Party (Ireland) *Leader of the Labour Party (Netherlands) *Lea ...

Jeremy Corbyn
(Lab) (26.7%),
Tim Farron Timothy James Farron (born 27 May 1970) is a British politician who was Leader of the Liberal Democrats The Liberal Democrats are a political party in the United Kingdom. Party members elect the Leader of the Liberal Democrats. The Leader of t ...
(Lib Dem) (6.8%),
Nicola Sturgeon Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014. She is the first woman to hold either position. She has been a member of t ...

Nicola Sturgeon
(SNP) (3.7%), and Boris Johnson (Cons) (3.6%). The
Democratic Unionist Party The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP; ga, Páirtí Aontachtach Daonlathach) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland favouring British identity. It was founded in 1971 during the Troubles by Ian Paisley, who led the party for the nex ...
(DUP) received next to no coverage during the campaign (0.4% of appearances) but were prominent in coverage after the election. Newspapers were Partisan (politics), partisan in their coverage and generally took an attacking editorial line, providing negative coverage of one or more parties they opposed rather than advocating for the party they endorsed, with Labour receiving the most negative coverage. Mick Temple, professor of Journalism and Politics at Staffordshire University, characterised the negativity Corbyn and Labour received during this election as more hostile than that which
Ed Miliband Edward Samuel Miliband (born 24 December 1969) is a British politician serving as Shadow Secretary of State for Climate Change and Net Zero since 2021. He has been the Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Donca ...

Ed Miliband
and Labour 2015 United Kingdom general election#Media coverage, received during the 2015 general election.M. Temple, 'It's the Sun wot lost it' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
Jeremy Corbyn was portrayed as a coward, and he and his closest allies were accused of being terrorist sympathizers.S. Banaji, 'Young people and propaganda in the wake of the 2017 election' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
During the election period, BBC ''Question Time (TV programme), Question Time'' host David Dimbleby said Jeremy Corbyn had not had 'a fair deal at the hands of the press' and that he was more popular than the media made him out to be. An exception, when the Conservative Party received more negative coverage than Labour, was during the third week of the campaign, when the Conservatives released their manifesto, proposed a controversial Welfare, social welfare policy (which became known as the "dementia tax") and subsequently made a Flip-flop (politics), U-turn on the proposal. When List of newspapers in the United Kingdom by circulation, newspaper circulation size is accounted for, the Conservative Party was the only party to receive a positive evaluation overall from the press. It was endorsed by newspapers that had an 80% share of the national Sunday press audience (the five Sunday newspapers endorsing the Conservatives had a daily circulation of more than 4 million)F. Mayhew,
General election 2017 press endorsements: Tories backed by 80 per cent of UK national Sunday newspaper market
(05/06/17) in Press Gazette
and 57% of the national Daily paper, daily press (a combined circulation of 4,429,460). One national Sunday newspaper (the ''Sunday Mirror''), endorsed Labour, with two others endorsing tactical voting against the Conservative (these three titles, with a daily circulation of under 1 million, had a share of 20% of the Sunday press audience), and 11% of the national daily pressD. Freedman, 'Media bias hits a wall' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
(namely, ''The Guardian'' and the ''Daily Mirror''; a combined circulation of 841,010). On this metric, 'Conservative partisanship was the most salient voice in the British national press'. When newspapers' Article (publishing), articles were measured by their positivity and negativity towards and against the parties running in the election, ''The Sun (United Kingdom), The Sun'', ''The Daily Telegraph'', the ''Daily Express'' and the ''Daily Mail'' provided support for the Conservatives and ''The Guardian'' and the ''Daily Mirror'' provided support for the Labour party. However, few ''Guardian'' or ''Mirror'' election-related editorials called for a vote for Labour, and even fewer endorsed Corbyn – many articles in left-wing papers criticised him, or he was ignored.J. Firmstone, 'Newspapers’ editorial opinions: stuck between a rock and a hard place' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
While the collective voice of the right-wing papers were (four times) stronger in their support for the Conservatives than the left-wing were of Labour, on the whole they were similar to the left in their negativity towards, or avoidance of, the leader of their endorsed party. Only the ''Daily Express'' gave Theresa May unreserved support. After the election, the press turned on Theresa May, who had run on a campaign that Party platform, platformed her as a 'strong and stable' leader, and they described her as 'weak and wobbly', 'robotic', the 'zombie prime minister', and a 'dead woman walking'. Broadcasting, Broadcast media, by giving airtime directly to Jeremy Corbyn and his policy ideas, was seen as playing a significant role during the election in presenting him as someone less frightening that the newspapers had presented him and more engaging than Theresa May.C. Beckett, 'Did broadcast stage-management create a vacuum for social media?' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
The BBC has been criticised for its coverage during the election campaign. For example, right-wing papers ''The Sun'' and the ''Daily Mail'' complained that the audience at the BBC run leaders' debate was pro-Corbyn, and the ''Daily Mail'' asked why the topic of Modern immigration to the United Kingdom, immigration, one of the Conservatives favoured issues, was barely mentioned; and right-wing websites Breitbart London and Westmonster said BBC coverage on
Brexit Brexit (; a portmanteau of "British exit") was the Withdrawal from the European Union, withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) at 23:00 31 January 2020 Green ...

Brexit
was pro-EU. Left-wing websites, like The Canary (website), The Canary, The Skwawkbox and Another Angry Voice complained that the BBC was pro-Tory and anti-Corbyn. According to analysts, a bias was evident during Jeremy Paxman's leaders debates, with 54% of airtime devoted to Conservative issues and 31% to Labour's. In an episode of ''Have I Got News for You'' aired during the campaign period, Ian Hislop, editor of ''Private Eye'', suggested the BBC was biased in favour of the Conservatives. The BBC's political editor Laura Kuenssberg particularly received criticism for her election coverage. During the election the BBC circulated a 2015 report of Kuenssberg's (on Corbyn's views on 'shoot to kill' policy) that Laura Kuenssberg#Bias allegations, had been censured by the BBC Trust for its Fake news, misleading editing; on the final day of the election the BBC acknowledged that the Video clip, clip was subject to a Consumer complaint, complaint that had been upheld by the Trust. As during the 2015 election, although less than then (−12.5%), most media coverage (32.9%) was given to the workings of the electoral process itself (e.g., electoral events, Opinion polling for the 2017 United Kingdom general election, opinion polls, Horse race journalism, 'horse race' coverage, campaign mishaps). During the first two weeks of campaigning, members of the public, interviewed in Vox populi, vox pops, made up a fifth to almost a half of all sources in broadcast news. While in the first two weeks of the election period policy made up less than half of all broadcast coverage, over the whole campaign policy received more coverage in all media than during the previous election, particularly after manifestos were published in the third week, when close to eight in ten broadcast news items were primarily about policy issues. Policy around Brexit and the EU receiving most coverage overall (10.9%), and national events that happened during the campaign period (namely, the terrorist attacks on Manchester Arena bombing, Manchester Arena and in the area of
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, als ...
), along with #Security, controversies over Trident, brought policy issues around Military policy, defence and Security policy, security to the fore (7.2%).E. Thorsen, D. Jackson, D. Lilleker, 'Introduction' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
From the start of the campaign, commentators predicted a landslide victory for the Conservatives. After the results were in and the Conservatives had won by a much smaller margin, on air Channel 4's Jon Snow (journalist), Jon Snow said, "I know nothing, we the media, the pundits and experts, know nothing". A number of newspaper columnists expressed similar sentiments. Some analysts and commentators have suggested the gap between the newspapers' strong support, and the public's marginal support, for the Conservatives in this election indicates a decline in the influence of print media, and/or that in 2017's election social media played a decisive role (perhaps being the first election in which this was the case).Aljosha Karim Schapals, 'The UK digisphere and the 2017 election' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
A. Ridge-Newman, Strong and stable' to 'weak and wobbly': Tory campaign, media reaction and GE2017' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
E. Harmer and R. Southern, 'Process, personalities and polls: online news coverage of the UK General Election 2017' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
Peter Preston,
This election proves that media bias no longer matters
(11/06/17) on The Guardian
Some website and blog content (media), content, like that produced by The Canary (website), The Canary and Another Angry Voice, gained as much web traffic, traffic as many mainstream media articles and went more viral phenomenon, viral than mainstream political journalism.M. Moore and G. Ramsay, 'Caught in the middle: the BBC's impossible impartiality dilemma' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
The London Economic had the most shared election-related article online during the campaign. Others urge caution,S. Barnett, 'Is our national press a fading dinosaur? Don't bank on it' in
UK Election Analysis 2017: Media, Voters and the Campaign
' (June 2017). The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, Bournemouth University
stressing that the Old media, traditional press still have an importance influence on how people Voting, vote.A. Gibbs,
UK election: How influential are newspaper endorsements in today's digital age?
(07/06/17) on CNBC
In a YouGov poll, 42% of the general public said that TV was most influential in helping them choose, or confirming their choice in, whom to vote for; 32% said newspapers and magazines; 26%, social media; and 25%, radio.F. Mayhew,
Survey reveals extent to which newspapers and social media influenced voting decisions at 2017 general election
(31/07/17) in Press Gazette
58% of people surveyed also thought that the social media had diminished the influence of newspapers.


Politicians not standing


Members of Parliament who did not stand for re-election


Other politicians

Former UKIP leader
Nigel Farage Nigel Paul Farage (; born 3 April 1964) is a British broadcaster and former politician who was Leader of the UK Independence Party The UK Independence Party (UKIP ) is a Eurosceptic, right-wing populist political party in the United Ki ...

Nigel Farage
announced that he would not stand, saying he could be more effective as an Member of the European Parliament, MEP. UKIP major donor Arron Banks, who had earlier indicated his intention to stand in Clacton (UK Parliament constituency), Clacton to defeat Douglas Carswell, withdrew in favour of the UKIP candidate after Carswell announced he would be standing down. Plaid Cymru leader Leanne Wood chose not to contest a Westminster seat, nor did former Labour MP and shadow chancellor Ed Balls.


Opinion polling and seat projections

In the 2015 general election, polling companies underestimated the Conservative Party vote and overestimated the Labour Party vote and so failed to predict the result accurately. Afterwards they started making changes to polling practices; recommendations from a review by the British Polling Council are likely to result in further changes. Almost all polls and predictions were for seats in Great Britain only, with Northern Irish parties being either absent from the totals or counted as "other". The Spreadex columns below cover bets on the number of seats each party will win with the midpoint between asking and selling price.


Predictions three weeks before the vote

The first-past-the-post voting, first-past-the-post system used in UK general elections means that the number of seats won is not directly related to vote share. Thus, several approaches are used to convert polling data and other information into seat predictions. The table below lists some of the predictions.


Predictions two weeks before the vote


Predictions one week before the vote


Predictions on polling day

The UK's First-past-the-post voting, first-past-the-post electoral system means that national shares of the vote do not give an exact indicator of how the various parties will be represented in Parliament. Different commentators and pollsters currently provide a number of predictions, based on polls and other data, as to how the parties will be represented in Parliament: *Michael Ashcroft#UK electoral polling, Lord Ashcroft Polls announced an estimate for the election result. He updated it at intervals on his website. *Electoral Calculus maintained a running projection of seats according to latest polls on its website. It also maintained a seat-by-seat projection for Scotland. *Election Forecast also maintained a projection of seats based on current opinion poll averages on their website. *Elections Etc. issued regular forecasts based on current opinion poll averages, Betting Markets, expert predictions and other sources on their website. *YouGov issued daily seat estimates using their aggregated statistical election model. *Britain Elects maintained a 'nowcast' – a projection showing what the result would be if held today – of seats based on historical data as well as national and regional polling.


Exit poll

An exit poll, conducted by GfK and Ipsos MORI on behalf of the BBC, ITN, ITV and Sky News, was published at the end of voting at 10 pm, predicting the number of seats for each party, with the Conservatives being the largest party, but short of an overall majority: Actual results were close to the prediction.


Results

Results for all constituencies except Kensington (UK Parliament constituency), Kensington were reported by the morning after the election. The Conservatives remained the largest single party in terms of seats and votes, but were short of a parliamentary majority. The Conservatives won 317 seats with 42.4% of the vote while the Labour Party won 262 seats with 40.0% of the vote. The election resulted in the third
hung parliament A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (c ...
since the Second World War, elections in February 1974 and
2010 2010 was designated as: *International Year of Biodiversity The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) was a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its importance, taking place internationally in 2010. Coinciding with the dat ...
having previously resulted in hung parliaments. YouGov correctly predicted a hung parliament after employing "controversial" methodology. Twenty-nine seats that had changed parties at the 2015 election changed parties again in 2017. Nineteen of these seats returned the candidate from the party that had held the seat in 2010. A third party took ten of these seats: nine were Conservative gains from the SNP in seats that the SNP had won from Labour in 2015, whilst Portsmouth South (UK Parliament constituency), Portsmouth South, which the Conservatives had gained from the Lib Dems in 2015, was then gained by Labour in 2017. In England, Labour made a net gain of 21 seats, taking 25 constituencies from the Conservatives and two from the Liberal Democrats. Its gains were predominantly in university towns and cities and in London, most notably achieving victories in Battersea (UK Parliament constituency), Battersea, Canterbury (UK Parliament constituency), Canterbury, Kensington (UK Parliament constituency), Kensington and Ipswich (UK Parliament constituency), Ipswich from the Conservatives by narrow margins; it also lost five seats to the Conservatives, largely in the Midlands, and did not regain Copeland (UK Parliament constituency), Copeland which had been lost in a 2017 Copeland by-election, February by-election. The Conservatives experienced a net loss of 22 seats, the first time since 1997 that the party suffered a net loss of seats. They gained Clacton (UK Parliament constituency), Clacton from UKIP and Southport (UK Parliament constituency), Southport from the Liberal Democrats in addition to the six gains from Labour. The Liberal Democrats took five seats from the Conservatives, including Twickenham (UK Parliament constituency), Twickenham, won back by Vince Cable, and Kingston and Surbiton (UK Parliament constituency), Kingston and Surbiton, won by Ed Davey, but lost two seats to Labour: Leeds North West (UK Parliament constituency), Leeds North West and Sheffield Hallam (UK Parliament constituency), Sheffield Hallam, the seat of former party leader
Nick Clegg Sir Nicholas William Peter Clegg (born 7 January 1967) is a British media executive and former politician who has been VicePresident for Global Affairs and Communications at Meta Platforms since 2018, having previously served as Deputy Prime ...

Nick Clegg
. Richmond Park (UK Parliament constituency), Richmond Park, which the Liberal Democrats had won in a 2016 by-election, was narrowly lost to the Conservatives.
Caroline Lucas Caroline Patricia Lucas (born 9 December 1960) is a British politician who has twice led the Green Party of England and Wales The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW; cy, Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr, often simply the Green Party or Gre ...

Caroline Lucas
remained the sole Green Party MP, retaining Brighton Pavilion (UK Parliament constituency), Brighton Pavilion. In Scotland, the Conservatives, Labour, and the Liberal Democrats all gained seats from the SNP, whose losses were attributed to opposition to a proposed second Scottish independence referendum, second Scottish independence referendum, contributing to tactical voting for unionist parties. The Conservative Party placed second in Scotland for the first time since 1992 United Kingdom general election, 1992, won its largest number of seats in Scotland since
1983 The year 1983 saw both the contested beginning of the Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and d ...
and recorded its highest share of the vote there since 1979 United Kingdom general election, 1979. With thirteen seats, the Scottish Conservatives became the largest unionist party in Scotland for the first time since 1955 United Kingdom general election, 1955. Labour gained six seats from the SNP, while the Liberal Democrats gained three. Having won 56 of 59 Scottish seats at the last general election, the SNP lost a total of 21 seats, and majorities in its remaining seats were greatly reduced. High-profile losses included SNP Commons leader Angus Robertson in Moray (UK Parliament constituency), Moray and former party leader and ex-First Minister Alex Salmond in Gordon (UK Parliament constituency), Gordon. In Wales, Labour held 25 seats and gained Cardiff North (UK Parliament constituency), Cardiff North, Gower (UK Parliament constituency), Gower and Vale of Clwyd (UK Parliament constituency), Vale of Clwyd from the Conservatives, leaving the Welsh Tories with eight seats. Plaid Cymru retained its three existing seats and gained Ceredigion (UK Parliament constituency), Ceredigion, the Liberal Democrats' only seat in Wales. This was the first ever election at which the Liberal Democrats or one of their ancestral parties failed to win a seat in Wales. In Northern Ireland, the SDLP lost its three seats (Foyle (UK Parliament constituency), Foyle and South Down (UK Parliament constituency), South Down to Sinn Féin and Belfast South (UK Parliament constituency), Belfast South to the DUP), while the UUP lost its two seats (Fermanagh and South Tyrone (UK Parliament constituency), Fermanagh and South Tyrone to Sinn Féin and South Antrim (UK Parliament constituency), South Antrim to the DUP). With the Alliance Party failing to win any seats or regain Belfast East (UK Parliament constituency), Belfast East, this left the DUP with ten seats (up from eight) and Sinn Féin with seven (up from four); independent unionist
Sylvia Hermon Sylvia Eileen, Lady Hermon (née Paisley; born 11 August 1955) is a retired Unionist politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in ...
retained North Down (UK Parliament constituency), North Down. Recording its best result since Partition of Ireland, partition, Sinn Féin confirmed it would continue Abstentionism#Sinn Féin, its abstentionist policy, leaving no Irish nationalism#Northern Ireland, nationalist representation in the House of Commons. UKIP failed to win any seats, its vote share falling from 12.6% at the previous general election to just 1.8%; party leader Paul Nuttall came third in Boston and Skegness (UK Parliament constituency), Boston and Skegness. The Greens' vote share dropped from 3.8% to 1.6%.


Analysis

The result was noted for increased vote shares for Labour (up 9.6 percentage points) and the Conservatives (up 5.5 percentage points), with a combined 82.4% share of the vote, up from 67.3% in 2015. The highest combined share of the vote for the two main parties since
1970 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of th ...
, it was suggested this indicated a return to two-party politics caused by tactical voting which led to the Conservatives having a smaller share of seats despite an increased number of votes. The election was characterised by higher turnout, particularly among younger voters, which may have contributed to Labour's increased vote share. Research company Ipsos MORI considered age to be one of the most significant factors behind the result; compared to the 2015 general election, under-45s tended to opt more for Labour and over-54s for the Conservatives. It found 60% of those aged 18–24 voted Labour while 61% of over-64s voted Conservative. The swing to Labour was high in those seats with large numbers of young people. In seats where the Remain vote was strong there was also evidence of tactical voting against the Conservatives to stop a "hard Brexit", with many voters opting for the non-Conservative candidate with the best chance of winning. In terms of NRS social grade, social grade, Labour increased its share of middle-class voters (defined as ABC1) by 12 percentage points compared to the previous election while the Conservatives increased their share of working-class voters (C2DE) by 12 percentage points. Political scientist John Curtice found that the Conservatives tended to experience a greater increase in vote share in seats with a higher proportion of working-class voters, particularly those that voted Leave in the EU referendum. Many of Labour's most successful results occurred in seats that voted Remain by a large margin in 2016. Compared to previous elections, turnout by Private rented sector, private renters increased (from 51% in 2010 to 65%) and favoured Labour to a greater degree, with the party achieving a 23-point lead over the Conservatives among private renters; the Conservatives maintained a 14-point lead among Owner-occupancy, homeowners. In terms of education, YouGov found that a one-point lead for the Conservatives among university graduates in 2015 had flipped to a 17-point lead for Labour in 2017. For those with low educational qualifications, the Conservatives led by 22 points, up from 8 points in 2015. It was suggested that UKIP's decline boosted both main parties, but tended to help Labour retain seats in the North of England and the Midlands against the Conservatives, though it may have also benefited the Conservatives in predominantly working-class seats. Ipsos Mori found that UKIP's collapse was consistent across all age groups. Published in August 2017, the British Election Study (BES), which surveyed 30,000 voters, found that despite a relatively low profile in the campaign, Brexit was considered to be the single most important issue facing the country by over a third of respondents. It found more than half of UKIP voters in 2015 went to the Conservatives, while 18% went to Labour. Remain voters tended to favour Labour, with the party particularly gaining among Remain voters who previously supported other parties, despite perceived uncertainty over its position on the European Single Market, single market. There was a strong correlation between those who prioritised controlling immigration and the Conservatives, while the same was true for supporting single market access and those who opted for Labour or the Liberal Democrats. The BES study indicated the importance of the campaign period. A pre-election survey found 41% for the Conservatives and 27% for Labour, but by the election 19% of voters had switched party. Unlike the previous election where both main parties achieved similar shares of late-switchers, Labour won 54% while the Conservatives won 19%. Likeability of party leaders also narrowed over the course of the campaign. Newly elected MPs included Britain's first turbaned Sikh MP, Tanmanjeet Singh Dhesi, Tan Dhesi, the first woman Sikh MP, Preet Gill, and the first MP of Palestinian people, Palestinian descent, Layla Moran. A record number of woman and LGBT+ MPs were elected. 208 woman MPs were elected to Parliament; the first time more than 200 MPs were women and beating the previous high of 196 woman MPs in the last Parliament. For the first time, a majority of MPs were educated at state comprehensive schools. More MPs who are known to be disabled were elected in 2017 than in 2015.


Long-term trends

The results of the 2017 general election indicate the tilting of Britain's political axis, which reflects long-term trends. Looking at information of constituency-level voting in England between 2005 and 2017, patterns of voting confirm the relevance of identifying new categories of social class alongside traditional political divides. Labour has had increased appeal to voters who work in areas central to the modern British economy, and at the same time in larger metropolitan centres and economically dynamic university towns. On the other hand, the Conservative voter base has been seen to increase in less populated, less ethnically diverse areas, where voters are more engaged in industries such as manufacturing.


Overall

File:2017 UK general election constituency map.svg, Election results plotted on a map showing equal-size constituencies, showing winning party in each. File:Minor party only UK 2017.png, Election results showing the best-performing party in each constituency, other than Conservative or Labour.


Summary

After all 650 constituencies had been declared, the results were:


Full results

''All parties with over 400 votes shown.''


Voter demographics


Ipsos MORI

Ipsos MORI polling after the election suggested the following demographic breakdown:


YouGov

YouGov polling after the election suggested the following demographic breakdown:


Open seats changing hands


Seats which changed allegiance

; Conservative to Labour (28) *Battersea (UK Parliament constituency), Battersea *Bedford (UK Parliament constituency), Bedford *Brighton Kemptown (UK Parliament constituency), Brighton Kemptown *Bristol North West (UK Parliament constituency), Bristol North West *Bury North (UK Parliament constituency), Bury North *Canterbury (UK Parliament constituency), Canterbury *Cardiff North (UK Parliament constituency), Cardiff North *Colne Valley (UK Parliament constituency), Colne Valley *Crewe and Nantwich (UK Parliament constituency), Crewe and Nantwich *Croydon Central (UK Parliament constituency), Croydon Central *Derby North (UK Parliament constituency), Derby North *Enfield Southgate (UK Parliament constituency), Enfield Southgate *Gower (UK Parliament constituency), Gower *High Peak (UK Parliament constituency), High Peak *Ipswich (UK Parliament constituency), Ipswich *Keighley (UK Parliament constituency), Keighley *Kensington (UK Parliament constituency), Kensington *Lincoln (UK Parliament constituency), Lincoln *Peterborough (UK Parliament constituency), Peterborough *Plymouth Sutton and Devonport (UK Parliament constituency), Plymouth Sutton and Devonport *Portsmouth South (UK Parliament constituency), Portsmouth South *Reading East (UK Parliament constituency), Reading East *Stockton South (UK Parliament constituency), Stockton South *Stroud (UK Parliament constituency), Stroud *Vale of Clwyd (UK Parliament constituency), Vale of Clwyd *Warrington South (UK Parliament constituency), Warrington South *Warwick and Leamington (UK Parliament constituency), Warwick and Leamington *Weaver Vale (UK Parliament constituency), Weaver Vale ;SNP to Conservative (12) *Aberdeen South (UK Parliament constituency), Aberdeen South *Aberdeenshire West and Kincardine (UK Parliament constituency), Aberdeenshire West & Kincardine *Angus (UK Parliament constituency), Angus *Ayr, Carrick and Cumnock (UK Parliament constituency), Ayr, Carrick and Cumnock *Banff and Buchan (UK Parliament constituency), Banff and Buchan *Berwickshire, Roxburgh and Selkirk (UK Parliament constituency), Berwickshire, Roxburgh and Selkirk *Dumfries and Galloway (UK Parliament constituency), Dumfries and Galloway *East Renfrewshire (UK Parliament constituency), East Renfrewshire *Gordon (UK Parliament constituency), Gordon *Moray (UK Parliament constituency), Moray *Ochil and South Perthshire (UK Parliament constituency), Ochil and South Perthshire *Stirling (UK Parliament constituency), Stirling ;SNP to Labour (6) *Coatbridge, Chryston and Bellshill (UK Parliament constituency), Coatbridge, Chryston and Bellshill *East Lothian (UK Parliament constituency), East Lothian *Glasgow North East (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow North East *Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath (UK Parliament constituency), Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath *Midlothian (UK Parliament constituency), Midlothian *Rutherglen and Hamilton West (UK Parliament constituency), Rutherglen and Hamilton West ;Labour to Conservative (6) *Copeland (UK Parliament constituency), Copeland *Derbyshire North East (UK Parliament constituency), Derbyshire North East *Mansfield (UK Parliament constituency), Mansfield *Middlesbrough South and Cleveland East (UK Parliament constituency), Middlesbrough South and Cleveland East *Stoke-on-Trent South (UK Parliament constituency), Stoke-on-Trent South *Walsall North (UK Parliament constituency), Walsall North ;Conservative to Liberal Democrat (5) *Bath (UK Parliament constituency), Bath *Eastbourne (UK Parliament constituency), Eastbourne *Kingston and Surbiton (UK Parliament constituency), Kingston and Surbiton *Oxford West and Abingdon (UK Parliament constituency), Oxford West and Abingdon *Twickenham (UK Parliament constituency), Twickenham ;SNP to Liberal Democrat (3) *Caithness, Sutherland and Easter Ross (UK Parliament constituency), Caithness, Sutherland and Easter Ross *East Dunbartonshire (UK Parliament constituency), East Dunbartonshire *Edinburgh West (UK Parliament constituency), Edinburgh West ;Liberal Democrat to Labour (2) *Leeds North West (UK Parliament constituency), Leeds North West *Sheffield Hallam (UK Parliament constituency), Sheffield Hallam ;SDLP to Sinn Féin (2) *Foyle (UK Parliament constituency), Foyle *South Down (UK Parliament constituency), South Down ;Other changes (6) *Belfast South (UK Parliament constituency), Belfast South (SDLP to Democratic Unionist) *Ceredigion (UK Parliament constituency), Ceredigion (Liberal Democrat to Plaid Cymru) *Clacton (UK Parliament constituency), Clacton (UKIP to Conservative) *Fermanagh and South Tyrone (UK Parliament constituency), Fermanagh and South Tyrone (Ulster Unionist to Sinn Féin) *South Antrim (UK Parliament constituency), South Antrim (Ulster Unionist to Democratic Unionist) *Southport (UK Parliament constituency), Southport (Liberal Democrat to Conservative)


Aftermath


Government formation

Corbyn and Farron called on May to resign. On 9 June, May apologised to candidates who lost their seats and confirmed she would continue as party leader and prime minister, with the intention of forming Second May ministry, a minority government with Con–DUP pact, support from the
Democratic Unionist Party The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP; ga, Páirtí Aontachtach Daonlathach) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland favouring British identity. It was founded in 1971 during the Troubles by Ian Paisley, who led the party for the nex ...
to ensure "certainty". May's joint chiefs of staff Nick Timothy and Fiona McLeod Hill, Fiona Hill resigned, replaced by Gavin Barwell, who had lost his seat in the election. On 10 June, a survey of 1,500 Conservative Home, ConservativeHome readers found that almost two-thirds of Conservative Party members wanted Theresa May to resign. A YouGov poll of 1,720 adults for ''The Sunday Times'' had 48% saying Theresa May should resign, with 38% against. A Survation poll of 1,036 adults online for ''The Mail on Sunday'' showed 49% of people wanting her resignation, with 38% against. On 11 June George Osborne, former Chancellor of the Exchequer, described May as a "dead woman walking". In a post-election reshuffle carried out on 11 June, May promoted her close ally Damian Green to become First Secretary of State and brought Michael Gove into the cabinet as Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Secretary, making Andrea Leadsom Leader of the House of Commons. Elizabeth Truss, Liz Truss, David Lidington and David Gauke changed roles, while eleven cabinet members including key figures such as Boris Johnson, Amber Rudd, Michael Fallon, Philip Hammond and David Davis (British politician), David Davis remained in post. Negotiations between the Conservatives and the DUP began on 9 June. On 12 June, it was reported that the State Opening of Parliament, scheduled for 19 June, could be delayed. DUP sources informed the BBC that the Grenfell Tower fire on 14 June would delay finalisation of an agreement. On 15 June, it was announced that the Speech from the throne, Queen's Speech would occur on 21 June. A confidence and supply deal was reached on 26 June, with the DUP backing the Conservatives in key votes in the House of Commons over the course of the parliament. The agreement included additional funding of £1 billion for Northern Ireland, highlighted mutual support for Brexit and national security, expressed commitment to the Good Friday Agreement, and indicated that policies such as the state pension triple lock and Winter Fuel Payments would be maintained. Various commentators suggested this raises problems for the UK government's role as a neutral arbiter in Northern Ireland, as is required under the Good Friday Agreement. In April 2020, Sky News's Tom Rayner and ''
The Independent ''The Independent'' is a British online newspaper An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the electronic publishing, online version of a newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online ver ...
''s Jon Stone reported on an 860-page dossier into the handing of allegations of antisemitism by Labour members and officials. Stone stated that the right-wing of the party weaponised claims of antisemitism—amongst other things—in an active attempt to undermine Corbyn and prevent Labour from winning the 2017 election in the hope that a poor result would trigger a leadership contest to remove Corbyn as leader.


Party leadership changes

After achieving just 1.8% of the popular vote, down from 12.7% in 2015, and failing to win any seats, Paul Nuttall resigned as UKIP leader on 9 June. A 2017 UK Independence Party leadership election, leadership election followed. Ian Blackford became the new SNP leader in Westminster on 14 June, following Angus Robertson's defeat. Also on 14 June, Brian Paddick, Baron Paddick, Brian Paddick resigned as home affairs spokesperson for the Liberal Democrats over concerns about Farron's "views on various issues" during the campaign. Later that day Farron announced his resignation as leader of the Liberal Democrats, citing conflict between his Christian faith and serving as leader. He remained as leader until Sir Vince Cable was 2017 Liberal Democrats leadership election, elected unopposed on 20 July.


Campaign post-mortems

Figures inside and outside the Conservative Party criticised its campaign widely. Points of criticism included the initial decision to call the election (which Lynton Crosby had advised against); the control of the campaign by a small team of May's joint chiefs of staff Nick Timothy and Fiona McLeod Hill, Fiona Hill, who were more experienced with policy work than campaigning; the presidential style of the campaign focusing on the figure of Theresa May, while most of the Cabinet were sidelined (particularly the exclusion of Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond, with reports that May would sack him after the election); and a poorly designed manifesto that offered little hope and the contents of which were not shared with Cabinet members until shortly before its release. In July, Prime Minister Theresa May admitted she had "shed a tear" upon seeing the election exit poll, and suggested the manifesto's lack of appeal to younger voters had played a part in Conservative shortcomings.


Allegations of Russian interference

In 2018, an investigation by Swansea University and ''The Sunday Times'' revealed that 6,500 Russian Twitter accounts, at least many of which were Twitterbot, bots, supported Labour, denigrated Conservatives, and reached millions of voters. Their intention was to swing the elections for Labour. Labour's Shadow Chancellor John McDonnell dismissed the claims as "ludicrous", "farcical" and a "classic ''Sunday Times'' smear campaign" and further said: "If there's an issue here about anything with Russian influence in our society, it's about Russian oligarchs funding the Tory party – let's have an inquiry into that."


Election turnout figures

A January 2018 report in ''The Times'' reported that researchers at Oxford University and the University of Manchester have found that election turnout in June 2017 was actually in the high 70s and could have been as high as 80.3 per cent, partly because those with second homes and students are registered twice, and partly also because of entries there by mistake or because of voter fraud. By overestimating the number of registered voters, official sources underestimated the proportion of the electorate that voted. Turnout in the 2017 election is likely to have been roughly 78 per cent. A spokesman for the Election Commission said officials would "consider this report's findings on the calculation of election turnout figures". The commission "continues to work to improve the accuracy and completeness" of the electoral register, he added.


Donations

Electoral commission data shows that in 2017 Q2, total donations for each major political party, over £7,500, are as follows:


See also

* 2017 United Kingdom general election in England * 2017 United Kingdom general election in Northern Ireland * 2017 United Kingdom general election in Scotland * 2017 United Kingdom general election in Wales * Results breakdown of the 2017 United Kingdom general election * Results of the 2017 United Kingdom general election *2010s in United Kingdom political history


Notes


References


External links


House of Commons Briefings: General Election 2017: Full Results and Analysis


Voting registration


UK Government – Register to voteElectoral Commission – Your Vote Matters


Party manifestos


''Forward, Together: Our Plan for a Stronger Britain and a More Prosperous Future'', Conservative Party''For the Many, Not the Few'', Labour Party''Stronger for Scotland'', SNP''Change Britain's Future'', Liberal Democrats''Standing Strong for Northern Ireland'', DUP''Standing Up for Equality, Rights, Irish Unity'', Sinn Féin''Tarian Cymru (Defending Wales): 2017 Action Plan'', Plaid Cymru''Taking Our Seats, Taking a Stand'', SDLP''For a Stronger, Better Union'', UUP''Britain Together'', UKIP''The Green Party for a Confident and Caring Britain'', Green Party


News sites


BBC News – Politics
{{2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum 2017 United Kingdom general election, 2017 elections in the United Kingdom General elections to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 2017 June 2017 events in the United Kingdom