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The 19th (nineteenth) century began on January 1, 1801 ( MDCCCI), and ended on December 31, 1900 ( MCM). The 19th century was the ninth century of the 2nd millennium. The 19th century saw much social change;
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
was abolished, and the
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and
Second Industrial Revolution The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus ...
s (which also overlap with the
18th 18 (eighteen) is the natural number following 17 (number), 17 and preceding 19 (number), 19. In mathematics * Eighteen is a composite number, its divisors being 1 (number), 1, 2 (number), 2, 3 (number), 3, 6 (number), 6 and 9 (number), 9. Three ...
and
20th 20 (twenty; Roman numeral XX) is the natural number following 19 (number), 19 and preceding 21 (number), 21. A group of twenty units may also be referred to as a score. In mathematics *20 is a pronic number. *20 is a tetrahedral number as 1, ...
centuries, respectively) led to massive
urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographi ...
and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity. The Islamic gunpowder empires were formally dissolved and European
imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power Hard power is the use of military and economics, economi ...

imperialism
brought much of
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
,
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
and almost all of Africa under
colonial rule Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of colonisation, colonisers may impose their religio ...
. It was marked by the collapse of the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
,
Zulu Kingdom The Zulu Kingdom (, ), sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is one of several larg ...
, First French, Holy Roman and
Mughal Mughal or Moghul may refer to: * The Mughal Empire of South Asia ** Mughal dynasty ** Mughal emperors ** Mughal people, a social group of South Asia ** Mughal Army, the Army of Mughal Empire * Cultural influences of the Mughal Empire ** Mughal arc ...
empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
(essentially replacing the Holy Roman Empire), the
Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire, ), was the 18-year Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, Cali ...

Second French Empire
, the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
and
Meiji Japan The is an era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the hi ...

Meiji Japan
, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the
French Empire#REDIRECT French Empire {{Redirect shell , {{R from ambiguous page {{R from other capitalisation ...
, and its
Indian allies Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...

Indian allies
in the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
, central and far eastern Asia. The
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
went through a period of
westernization Westernization ( US) or Westernisation ( UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation Europeanisation (or Europeanization, see British and American spelling differences, spelling differences) refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of ch ...
and reform known as the
Tanzimat The Tanzimat (; ota, تنظيمات, translit=Tanzimāt, lit=Reorganization, ''see'' nizām) was a period of reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word i ...
, vastly increasing their control over their core territories in
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
and the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
. Despite this, the
sick man of Europe "Sick man of Europe" is a label given to a nation which is located in some part of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any stri ...
remained in a period of decline, losing territory in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
,
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
, and
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. The remaining powers in the Indian subcontinent such as the
Kingdom of Mysore The Kingdom of Mysore was a realm in southern India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of count ...
and its French allies,
Nawabs of Bengal Nawab ( ar, نواب; bn, নবাব/নওয়াব; hi, नवाब; Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab ...
,
Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji Shivaji Bhonsale I (; 19 ...

Maratha Empire
,
Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), also known as the Punjab Empire, was a state originating in the Indian ...

Sikh Empire
and the princely states of the
Nizam of Hyderabad 230px, Mir Osman Ali Khan The Nizams were the rulers of Hyderabad from 18th-through-20th-century. Nizam of Hyderabad (Niẓām ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was the title of the monarch of the Hyderabad State Hyderabad State (), ...
, suffered a massive decline, and their dissatisfaction with British
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
's rule led to the
Indian Rebellion of 1857 The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion ...

Indian Rebellion of 1857
, marking its dissolution, however, it was later ruled directly by the
British Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territorie ...

British Crown
through the establishment of the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
. The British Empire grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one-quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the
Pax Britannica ''Pax Britannica'' (Latin for "British Peace", modelled after ''Pax Romana 400px, AR Antoninianus of Gordian III, struck Antioch">Gordian_III.html" ;"title="Antoninianus of Gordian III">Antoninianus of Gordian III, struck Antioch 243– ...
, which had ushered in unprecedented
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
and economic integration on a massive scale.


Overview

The first
electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than ...
appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the
telegraph Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus flag semaphore Flag semaphore (from the Ancient ...

telegraph
and its
Morse code Morse code is a method used in telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: ...
protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876, and the first functional
light bulb An electric light is a device that produces visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum ...

light bulb
in 1878. The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating
scientific discovery Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to sciences Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic br ...
and
invention An invention is a unique or novelty (patent), novel machine, device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or p ...

invention
, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century. The
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The
Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteenth century with the Treaty of Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict
social norm Social norms are shared standards of acceptable Acceptability is the characteristic of a thing being subject to acceptance for some purpose. A thing is acceptable if it is sufficient to serve the purpose for which it is provided, even if it is f ...
s regarding modesty and gender roles. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
, before defeating China, under the
Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, in the
First Sino-Japanese War The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese lan ...

First Sino-Japanese War
. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating
population growth Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size ...
in the
western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. The introduction of
railroads Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transport, transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on Track (rail transport), tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehic ...

railroads
provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fuelling major
urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographi ...
movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
and
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
, were explored during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s.
Liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals ...

Liberalism
became the pre-eminent
reform movement A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is Volition (psych ...
in Europe.
Slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful
slave revolt in Haiti
slave revolt in Haiti
,
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
and France stepped up the battle against the
Barbary pirates The Barbary pirates, or Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God) is an Abrahamic religio ...
and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's
Slavery Abolition Act The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) provided for the immediate abolition of slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an en ...
charged the British
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
with ending the global
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
abolished slavery there in 1865, and in
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
slavery was abolished in 1888 (see
Abolitionism Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end . In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the and liberate the enslaved people. The British abolitionist movement star ...
). Similarly,
serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems. It was a condition of debt bondage and indentured servitude with similarities to and differences from slavery, which developed ...
was abolished in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
in 1861. The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century.
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire respectively by the end of the century. In the 19th century, approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States. The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development, and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States.
Association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain ...
,
rugby union Rugby union, commonly known simply as rugby, is a Contact sport#Terminology, close-contact team sport that originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the Comparison of rugby league and rugby union, two codes of rugby f ...
,
baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action starts when the defending team throws a ball at ...

baseball
and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...

cricket
to many different parts of the world. Also, women's fashion was a very sensitive topic during this time, as women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous. It also marks the fall of the
Ottoman rule Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman ( ar, عُثْمان, ‘uthmān). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empire The Ott ...
of the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
which led to the creation of
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
and
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
as a result of the
second Russo-Turkish War
second Russo-Turkish War
, which in itself followed the great
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
.


Eras

*
Industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
*
European imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending the rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power, especially military force, but also soft power In p ...
*
British Regency The Regency in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state that existed between 1801 and 1922. It was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingd ...
,
Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteenth century with the Treaty of Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
(UK,
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
) *
Bourbon RestorationBourbon Restoration may refer to: * Bourbon Restoration in France The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the ...
,
July Monarchy The July Monarchy (french: Monarchie de juillet, officially the Kingdom of France, french: Royaume de France) was a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberal ...
,
French Second Republic The French Second Republic (french: Deuxième République Française or ), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was the republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of p ...
,
Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire, ), was the 18-year Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, Cali ...

Second French Empire
,
French Third Republic The French Third Republic (french: Troisième République, sometimes written as ) was the system of government adopted in History of France, France from 4 September 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, ...
(
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
) *
Belle Époque The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (; French language, French for "Beautiful Epoch") is the term often given to a period of History of France, French and European history, usually dated to between 1871–80 and the outbreak of World War I ...
(Europe) *
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
,
Meiji period The is an era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the hi ...
(Japan) *
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
(China) *
Joseon Joseon (also transcribed as Chosŏn, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was the last dynastic kingdom of Korea. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye Taejo of Joseon ...
dynasty (Korea) *
Zulu Kingdom The Zulu Kingdom (, ), sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is one of several larg ...
(South Africa) *
Tanzimat The Tanzimat (; ota, تنظيمات, translit=Tanzimāt, lit=Reorganization, ''see'' nizām) was a period of reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word i ...
,
First Constitutional Era The First Constitutional Era ( ota, مشروطيت; tr, Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; fren ...
(
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
) *
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
*
American Manifest Destiny
American Manifest Destiny
, The Gilded Age,
Wild West The American frontier, also known as the Old West or the Wild West, includes the geography, history, folklore, and culture in the forward wave of American expansion that began with European colonial settlements in the early 17th century and e ...


Wars


Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1803 to 1815 pitting the
French Empire#REDIRECT French Empire {{Redirect shell , {{R from ambiguous page {{R from other capitalisation ...
and its allies, led by
Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led Napoleon Bonaparte's battle record, several successful campaigns during the French Rev ...

Napoleon I
, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. In the aftermath of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
,
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
gained power in France in 1799. In 1804, he crowned himself
Emperor of the French Emperor of the French (French: ''Empereur des Français'') was the title of the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foake ...
. In 1805, the French victory over an Austrian-Russian army at the
Battle of Austerlitz The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV French Republican Calendar, FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. In what is widely regard ...

Battle of Austerlitz
ended the
War of the Third Coalition The War of the Third Coalition) * In French historiography, it is known as the Austrian campaign of 1805 (french: Campagne d'Autriche de 1805) or the German campaign of 1805 (french: Campagne d'Allemagne de 1805) was a European conflict spanning ...
. As a result of the Treaty of Pressburg, the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
was dissolved. Later efforts were less successful. In the
Peninsular War The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurg ...

Peninsular War
, France unsuccessfully attempted to establish
Joseph Bonaparte it, Giuseppe-Napoleone Buonaparte es, José Napoleón Bonaparte , house = House of Bonaparte, Bonaparte , father = Carlo Buonaparte , mother = Letizia Ramolino , birth_date = 7 January 1768 , birth_place = Corte, Cors ...

Joseph Bonaparte
as King of Spain. In 1812, the
French invasion of Russia The French invasion of Russia, also known as the Russian Campaign, the Second Polish War, the Second Polish Campaign, the Patriotic War of 1812 , and the War of 1812, was begun by Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – ...
had massive French casualties, and was a turning point in the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
. In 1814, after defeat in the
War of the Sixth Coalition In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austrian Empire, Austria, Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia, Russian Empire, Russia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
, Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
. Later that year, he escaped exile and began the
Hundred Days The Hundred Days (french: les Cent-Jours ), also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose ...
before finally being defeated at the
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo Waterloo most commonly refers to: * Battle of Waterloo, a battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat :* Waterloo, Belgium, a municipality in Belgium fr ...

Battle of Waterloo
and exiled to
Saint Helena Saint Helena () is a British possession in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote volcanic tropical island west of the coast of south-western Africa, and east of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (; ;), or simply Rio, is the List of larges ...

Saint Helena
, an island in the South Atlantic Ocean. After Napoleon's defeat, the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
was held to determine new national borders. The
Concert of Europe The Concert of Europe refers to a general consensus among the Great Powers of 19th Century Europe to maintain the European balance of power and the integrity of territorial boundaries. Never a consensus, and subject to disputes and jockeying fo ...
attempted to preserve this settlement was established to preserve these borders, with limited impact.


Latin American independence

Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
and the majority of the countries in
Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or ...

Central America
and
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
obtained independence from
colonial Colonial or The Colonial may refer to: * Colonial, of, relating to, or characteristic of a colony or colony (biology) Architecture * American colonial architecture * French Colonial * Spanish Colonial architecture Automobiles * Colonial (1920 auto ...

colonial
overlords during the 19th century. In 1804,
Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and J ...

Haiti
gained independence from France. In
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
, the
Mexican War of Independence The Mexican War of Independence ( es, Guerra de Independencia de México, links=no, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, c ...
was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in 1821. Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal relocated to Brazil from 1808 to 1821, leading to Brazil having a separate monarchy from Portugal. The
Federal Republic of Central America The Federal Republic of Central America ( es, República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America ( es, Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in ...
gained independence from Spain in 1821 and from Mexico in 1823. After several rebellions, by 1841 the federation had dissolved into the independent countries of
Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Am ...

Guatemala
,
El Salvador , national_anthem = '' Himno Nacional de El Salvador''( en, "National Anthem of El Salvador") , image_map = El Salvador (orthographic projection).svg , image_map2 = , capital = San Salvador , coordinates = , largest_city = San Salvador ...

El Salvador
,
Honduras Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America. The republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean ...

Honduras
,
Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (), is the largest Sovereign state, country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and th ...

Nicaragua
, and
Costa Rica Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( es, República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Amer ...

Costa Rica
. In 1830, the post-colonial nation of
Gran Colombia Gran Colombia (, "Great Colombia"), also known as the Greater Colombia, and at the time known as the Republic of Colombia (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espa ...

Gran Colombia
dissolved and the nations of
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
(including modern-day Panama),
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...

Ecuador
, and
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
took its place.


Revolutions of 1848

The
Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
were a series of
political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch of Marxism developed by Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Trotsky self-identified as an Orthodox Marxism, orthodox Marxist and Bolsheviks, Bolshevik–L ...
s throughout
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
in 1848. The revolutions were essentially
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...

democratic
and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old
monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political legitimacy and authority of the monarch may vary from restricted and large ...
structures and creating independent nation states. The first revolution began in January in Sicily. Revolutions then spread across Europe after a separate revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. According to Evans and von Strandmann (2000), some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, and the regrouping of established government forces.


Abolition and the American Civil War

The
abolitionism Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end . In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the and liberate the enslaved people. The British abolitionist movement star ...
movement achieved success in the 19th century. The
Atlantic slave trade The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** ...
was abolished in 1808, and by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery. The
Slavery Abolition Act The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) provided for the immediate abolition of slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an en ...
of 1833 banned slavery throughout the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, and the
Lei Áurea
Lei Áurea
abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888.
Abolitionism in the United States Abolitionism in the United States was a movement which sought to end slavery in the United States Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and t ...
continued until the end of the American Civil War. Among others
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 1817 or 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively ...

Frederick Douglass
, and
Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross, March 10, 1913) was an American abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that ...

Harriet Tubman
, were two of many American Abolitionists who helped win the fight against slavery. Douglass was an articulate orator and incisive antislavery writer; while Tubman's efforts was by using a network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the
Underground Railroad#REDIRECT Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
. The American Civil War took place from 1861 to 1865. Eleven
southern states Southern States may refer to: *The independent states of the Southern hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ...
seceded from the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, largely over concerns related to slavery. In 1863, President
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of governme ...

Abraham Lincoln
issued the
Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation The text of presidential proclamation 9552 of December 9, 2016 regarding the lowering of flags because of the death of John Glenn, as published in the Feder ...

Emancipation Proclamation
. Lincoln issued a preliminary on September 22, 1862 warning that in all states still in rebellion (
Confederacy Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...

Confederacy
) on January 1, 1863, he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free." The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country. Five days after
Robert E. Lee Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American Confederate general best known for his service to the Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Co ...

Robert E. Lee
surrendered at
Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia The Appomattox Courthouse is the current courthouse A courthouse or court house is a building that is home to a local court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjud ...
, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and
Confederate Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...

Confederate
sympathiser
John Wilkes Booth John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American stage actor who assassinated Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of g ...

John Wilkes Booth
.


Decline of the Ottoman Empire

In 1830,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
became the first country to break away from the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
after the
Greek War of Independence The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821 or Greek Revolution ( el, Ελληνική Επανάσταση, ''Elliniki Epanastasi''; referred to by Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''É ...
. In 1831, the Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred. In 1817, the
Principality of Serbia The Principality of Serbia ( sr, Кнежевина Србија, Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe i ...
became
suzerain Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity controls the foreign policy and relations of a tributary state, while allowing the tributary state to have internal autonomy. The dominant state is called the "suzerain." Suzeraint ...
from the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, and in 1867, it passed a
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

Constitution
which defined its independence from the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. In 1876,
Bulgarians Bulgarians ( bg, българи, Bǎlgari, ) are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Le ...
instigate the
April Uprising The April Uprising ( bg, Априлско въстание, ''Aprilsko vǎstanie''), called the Bulgarian Horrors or Bulgarian atrocities in Britain, was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April to May 1876, ...

April Uprising
against
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
rule. Following the
Russo-Turkish War The Russo-Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of twelve wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in History of Europe ...

Russo-Turkish War
, the Treaty of Berlin recognized the formal independence of the
Principality of Serbia The Principality of Serbia ( sr, Кнежевина Србија, Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe i ...
,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
and
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
.
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
becomes autonomous.


China: Taiping Rebellion

The
Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an ...
was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century, leading to the deaths of around 20-30 million people. Its leader,
Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan (1 January 1814 – 1 June 1864), born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka people, Hakka Chinese revolutionary who was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty. He established the Taip ...

Hong Xiuquan
, declared himself the younger brother of
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
and developed a new Chinese religion known as the
God Worshipping Society The God Worshipping Society () was a religious movement founded and led by Hong Xiuquan which drew on his own unique interpretation of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on t ...
. After proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1851, the Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
in 1853. In 1864, after the death of Hong Xiuquan,
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
forces recaptured Nanjing and ended the rebellion.


Japan: Meiji Restoration

During the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
largely pursued an
isolationist foreign policy Isolationism is a category of foreign policy, foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible motivation for limiting intern ...
. In 1853, United States Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry threatened the Japanese capital
Edo Edo ( ja, , , "bay-entrance" or "estuary"), also Romanization of Japanese, romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the geographical renaming, former name of Tokyo. Edo, formerly a ''jōkamachi'' (castle town) centered on Edo Castle located in Musas ...

Edo
with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan and foreign countries, with the policy of
Sakoku was the isolationist Isolationism is a category of foreign policy, foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible mot ...
formally ended in 1854. By 1872, the Japanese government under
Emperor Meiji also called or was the 122nd emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch and the head of the Imperial House of Japan, Imperial Family of Japan. Under the Constitution of Japan, he is defined as the symbol of the Japanese state a ...
had eliminated the ''daimyō'' system and established a strong central government. Further reforms included the abolishment of the
samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century to their abolition in 1876. They were the well-paid retainer ...

samurai
class, rapid industrialization and modernization of government, closely following European models.


Colonialism

In 1862, France gained its first foothold in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, and in 1863
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
annexes
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
. *
1803 Events * January 1 – The first edition of Alexandre Balthazar Laurent Grimod de La Reynière's ''Almanach des gourmands'', the first guide to restaurant cooking, is published in Paris. * January 5 – William Symington demonstrates his '' ...
: The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out France's territorial claims in North America via the
Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase (french: Vente de la Louisiane, translation=Sale of Louisiana) was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United St ...

Louisiana Purchase
. This begins the U.S.'s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its
Manifest Destiny Manifest destiny was a widely held cultural belief in the 19th century in the United States, 19th-century United States that American settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny: * T ...

Manifest Destiny
which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans. *
1823 Events January–March * January 22 – By secret treaty signed at the Congress of Verona The Congress of Verona met at Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, northern Italy, Italy, ...
1887 Events January–March * January 11 Events Pre-1600 * – in : A quarrel between supporters of different teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the escalates into violence. * – : The prophet and his followers conque ...
: The British Empire annexed
Burma Myanmar (; my, မြန်မာ ) or Burma ( my, ဗမာ ), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos a ...

Burma
(now also called Myanmar) after three
Anglo-Burmese Wars The Anglo-Burmese Wars were a clash between two expanding empires, the British Empire against the Konbaung Dynasty The Konbaung dynasty ( my, ကုန်းဘောင်ခေတ်, ), also known as Third Burmese Empire and formerly know ...
. *
1867 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifi ...
: The United States
purchases Alaska
purchases Alaska
from
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
.


Africa

In Africa, European exploration and technology led to the colonization of almost the entire continent by 1898. New medicines such as
quinine Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced sympto ...

quinine
and more advanced
firearms A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a designed to use a shooting tube () to launch typically solid s, but can also project pressurized (e.g. s/s, s for or , , and technically also s), (e.g. ) or even s (e.g. ). Solid projectiles ...

firearms
allowed European nations to conquer native populations. Motivations for the
Scramble for Africa The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonisation of Africa, colonization of most of Africa by seven Western Europe, Western European powers during a ...
included national pride, desire for raw materials, and Christian missionary activity. Britain seized control of Egypt to ensure control of the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
. France, Belgium, Portugal, and Germany also had substantial colonies. The
Berlin Conference The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference (german: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (), regulated European colonization The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the gl ...
of 1884–1885 attempted to reach agreement on colonial borders in Africa, but disputes continued, both amongst European powers and in resistance by the native population. In 1867,
diamonds Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, room temperature and pressure, another solid form of c ...

diamonds
were discovered in the
Kimberley Kimberly or Kimberley may refer to: Places and historical events Australia * Kimberley (Western Australia) ** Roman Catholic Diocese of Kimberley * Kimberley Warm Springs, Tasmania * Kimberley, Tasmania a small town * County of Kimberley, a ca ...
region of South Africa. In 1886, gold was discovered in
TransvaalTransvaal is a historical geographic term associated with land north of (''i.e.'', beyond) the Vaal River in South Africa. A number of states and administrative divisions have carried the name Transvaal. * South African Republic (1856–1902; af, Z ...
. This led to colonization in Southern Africa by the British and business interests, led by
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or ...
.


Other wars

* 1801
1815 Events January * January 2 – Lord Byron George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, ( el, Λόρδος Βύρωνας, translit=Lórdos Výronas, translit-std=ISO; 22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), simply known as Lord Byron, ...
: the
First Barbary War The First Barbary War (1801–1805), also known as the Tripolitan War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars The Barbary Wars were a series of two wars fought by the United States, Sweden, and the Kingdom of Sicily agai ...
and the
Second Barbary War The Second Barbary War (1815) or the U.S.–Algerian War was fought between the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primar ...
between the United States and the
Barbary States The terms Barbary Coast, Barbary, Berbery or Berber Coast were used in English-language sources (similarly to equivalent terms in other languages) from the 16th century to the early 19th to refer to the coastal regions of North Africa or Maghreb ...
of
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. *
1804 Events January–March * January 1 – Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles a ...
1810 Events January–March * January 1 – Major-General Lachlan Macquarie Major-general (United Kingdom), Major General Lachlan Macquarie, Companion of the Order of the Bath, CB (; gd, Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824 ...
:
Fulani Jihad The Fulani War of 1804–1808, also known as the Fulani Jihad or Jihad of Usman dan Fodio, was a military conflict in present-day Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It borders Nig ...
in
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
. *
1804 Events January–March * January 1 – Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles a ...
1813 Events January–March * January 18–23 – War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America and its Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous allies against ...
:
Russo-Persian War The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of conflicts between 1651 and 1828, concerning Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is th ...
. *
1806 Events January–March * January 1 ** The French Republican Calendar The French Republican calendar (french: calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar (), was a calendar A calend ...
1812:
Russo-Turkish War The Russo-Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of twelve wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in History of Europe ...
,
Treaty of BucharestTreaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest: * Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish war * Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bu ...
. *
1808 Events January–March * January 1 ** The importation of slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by ...

1808
1809 Events January–March * January 5 – The Treaty of the Dardanelles, between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Ottoman Empire, is concluded. * January 10 – Peninsular War – French Marshal Jean L ...

1809
: Russia conquers Finland from Sweden in the
Finnish War The Finnish War ( sv, Finska kriget, russian: Финляндская война, fi, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden (1721–1809), Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from 21 February 1808 to 17 September 1809. As a r ...
. *
1810 Events January–March * January 1 – Major-General Lachlan Macquarie Major-general (United Kingdom), Major General Lachlan Macquarie, Companion of the Order of the Bath, CB (; gd, Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824 ...
: The
Grito de Dolores The Cry of Dolores ( es, Grito de Dolores, links=no, region=MX) occurred in Dolores, Mexico, on 16 September 1810, when Roman Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Francisco Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga M ...
begins the
Mexican War of Independence The Mexican War of Independence ( es, Guerra de Independencia de México, links=no, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, c ...
. *
1810s File:1810s collage.jpg, 420x420px, From top left, clockwise: The Battle of Waterloo signified the end of Napoleon's Napoleonic Wars, conquests, as it sealed the downfall of First French Empire, his empire and brought his campaigns to an end; The F ...

1810s
1820s File:1820s collage.jpg, 420x420px, From top left, clockwise: Beethoven's music career took off and peaked at this era. The 1820s was the decade where Beethoven composed and published his iconic Symphony No. 9 – now part of UNESCO The United ...

1820s
: Punjab War between the
Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), also known as the Punjab Empire, was a state originating in the Indian ...

Sikh Empire
and
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. * 1812–1815:
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
between the United States and Britain; ends in a draw, except that Native Americans lose power. *
1813 Events January–March * January 18–23 – War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America and its Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous allies against ...
1837 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modificat ...
: Afghan–Sikh Wars. *
1814 Events January February 1: Cagsawa Church The Cagsawa Ruins (also spelled as Kagsawa, historically spelt as Cagsaua) are the remnants of a 16th-century Franciscan The Franciscans are a group of related Mendicant orders, mendicant Chr ...
–16:
Anglo-Nepalese War The Anglo-Nepalese War (1 November 1814 – 4 March 1816), also known as the Gurkha War, was fought between the Gurkha The Gurkhas or Gorkhas (), with endonym Gorkhali ( ne, गोरखाली, ), are soldiers native to South Asia o ...
between
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
(Gurkha Empire) and
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. *
1817 Events January–March * January 1 – Sailing through the Sandwich Islands, Otto von Kotzebue Otto von Kotzebue (russian: О́тто Евста́фьевич Коцебу́, Romanization of Russian, tr. ;  – ) was a Russian of ...

1817
: First
Seminole War The Seminole Wars (also known as the Florida Wars) were three related military conflicts in Florida between the United States Army and the Seminole, a Native Americans in the United States, Native American group which had coalesced in Spanish Flor ...
begins in Florida. *
1817 Events January–March * January 1 – Sailing through the Sandwich Islands, Otto von Kotzebue Otto von Kotzebue (russian: О́тто Евста́фьевич Коцебу́, Romanization of Russian, tr. ;  – ) was a Russian of ...

1817
: Russia commences its conquest of the Caucasus. *
1820 Events January–March *January 1 – Nominal beginning of the Trienio Liberal in History of Spain (1814–73), Spain: A constitutionalist military insurrection at Cádiz leads to the summoning of the Spanish Parliament (March 7). *Janu ...

1820
:
Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions during the 1820s included revolutions in Russia (Decembrist revolt), Spain, Portugal, and Italy for constitutional monarchies, and for Greek War of Independence, independence from Ottoman rule in Greece. Unlike the revolutionary wave i ...
in Southern Europe *
1825 Events January–March * January 4 – King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies dies in Naples and is succeeded by his son, Francis I of the Two Sicilies, Francis. * February 3 – Vendsyssel-Thy, once part of the Jutland peninsula forming we ...
1830 It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830. It included two "Romantic nationalism, romantic nationalist" revolu ...

1830
:
Java War The Java War ( jv, ꦥꦼꦫꦁꦗꦮ) or Diponegoro War () was fought in central Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southea ...
. *
1826 Events January–March * January 15 – The French newspaper ''Le Figaro ''Le Figaro'' () is a French daily morning newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a ...
1828 Events January–March * January 4 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac Jean-Baptiste Sylvère Gay, 1st Viscount of Martignac (20 June 1778 3 April 1832) was a moderate royalist French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration ...
: After the final
Russo-Persian War The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of conflicts between 1651 and 1828, concerning Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is th ...
, the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...
took back territory lost to Russia from the previous war. *
1828 Events January–March * January 4 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac Jean-Baptiste Sylvère Gay, 1st Viscount of Martignac (20 June 1778 3 April 1832) was a moderate royalist French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration ...
1832 Events January–March * January 6 Events Pre-1600 *1066 – Following the death of Edward the Confessor on the previous day, the Witan meets to confirm Harold Godwinson as the new King of England; Harold is crowned the same day ...
:
Black War The Black War was the period of violent conflict between British colonists and Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as ...
in
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
leads to the near extinction of the
Tasmanian aborigines The Aboriginal Tasmanians ( Palawa kani: ''Palawa'' or ''Pakana'') are the Aboriginal people of the Australian island of Tasmania Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz, Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an is ...
*
1830 It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830. It included two "Romantic nationalism, romantic nationalist" revolu ...

1830
:
November Uprising The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland Partition may refer to: Computing Hardware * Disk partitioning 272x ...

November Uprising
in
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
against
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
. *
1830 It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830. It included two "Romantic nationalism, romantic nationalist" revolu ...

1830
: End of the Diponegoro war. The whole area of Yogyakarta and Surakarta Manca nagara Dutch seized. 27 September, Klaten Agreement determines a fixed boundary between Surakarta and Yogyakarta and permanently divide the kingdom of Mataram was signed by Sasradiningrat, Pepatih Dalem Surakarta, and Danurejo, Pepatih Dalem Yogyakarta. Mataram is a de facto and de yure controlled by the Dutch East Indies. * 1831:
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
French rule in Algeria, invades and occupies Algeria. * 1831–1833: Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833), Egyptian–Ottoman War. *
1832 Events January–March * January 6 Events Pre-1600 *1066 – Following the death of Edward the Confessor on the previous day, the Witan meets to confirm Harold Godwinson as the new King of England; Harold is crowned the same day ...
–1875: Regimental Rebellions of Brazil * 1846–1848: The Mexican–American War leads to Mexico's cession of much of the modern-day Southwestern United States. * 1853–1856:
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
between France, the United Kingdom, the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and Russia. * 1857: Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian Mutiny against the Company Raj. After this the power of the
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
is transferred to the British Raj, British Crown. * 1861–1865: American Civil War between the Union (American Civil War), Union and seceding
Confederacy Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...

Confederacy
. * 1861–
1867 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifi ...
: French intervention in Mexico and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire, ruled by Maximilian I of Mexico and his consort Carlota of Mexico. * 1863–1865: January Uprising, Polish uprising against the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
. * 1864–1870: The Paraguayan War ends Paraguayan ambitions for expansion and destroys much of the Paraguayan population. * 1866: Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation and the Austria-Hungary, Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. * 1868-1869: Boshin War results in end of the shogunate and the founding the Japanese Empire. * 1868–1878: Ten Years' War between Cuba and Kingdom of Spain, Spain. * 1870–1871: The Franco-Prussian War results in the Unification of Germany, unifications of Germany Italian unification, and Italy, the collapse of the
Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire, ), was the 18-year Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, Cali ...

Second French Empire
and the emergence of a New Imperialism. * 1879: Anglo-Zulu War results in British victory and the annexation of the
Zulu Kingdom The Zulu Kingdom (, ), sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is one of several larg ...
. * 1879–1880: Little War (Cuba), Little War against Spanish rule in Cuba leads to rebel defeat. * 1879–1883: Chile battles with Peru and Bolivia over Andean territory in the War of the Pacific. * 1880–1881: the First Boer War. * 1881–1899: The Mahdist War in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Sudan. * 1882: The Anglo-Egyptian War British invasion and subsequent occupation of Khedivate of Egypt, Egypt * 1894–1895: After the
First Sino-Japanese War The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese lan ...

First Sino-Japanese War
, China cedes Taiwan to Japan and grants Japan a free hand in Korea. * 1895: Taiwan is ceded to the Empire of Japan as a result of the
First Sino-Japanese War The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese lan ...

First Sino-Japanese War
. * 1895–1896: Ethiopian Empire, Abyssinia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War. * 1895–1898: Cuban War for Independence results in Cuban independence from Spanish Empire, Spain. * 1896-1898: Philippine Revolution results Filipino victory. * 1898: The Spanish–American War results in independence of Cuba. * 1899–1901: The Boxer Rebellion in China is suppressed by an Eight-Nation Alliance. * 1899–1902: The Thousand Days' War in
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
breaks out between the "Liberalism, Liberales" and "Conservatism, Conservadores", culminating with the loss of Panama in 1903. * 1899–1902: Second Boer War begins. * 1899–1902: Philippine–American War begins.


Science and technology

The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell, which soon replaced the older term of (natural) philosopher. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin (alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace), who in 1859 published the book ''The Origin of Species'', which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease. Following this, Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the optical isomerism, asymmetry of crystals. In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev, following the atomic theory of John Dalton, created the first periodic table of Chemical element, elements. In physics, the experiments, theories and discoveries of Michael Faraday, André-Marie Ampère, James Clerk Maxwell, and their contemporaries led to the creation of electromagnetism as a new branch of science. Thermodynamics led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry – and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered. In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of Function of a real variable, real and complex variables. It also saw rise to Non-Euclidean geometry, new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation. But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about including a rapid spread in the use of electric illumination and power in the last two decades of the century and radio wave communication at the end of the 1890s. * 1807: Potassium and Sodium are individually isolated by Sir Humphry Davy. * 1831–1836: Charles Darwin's journey on . * 1859: Charles Darwin publishes ''On the Origin of Species''. * 1861: James Clerk Maxwell publishes ''On Physical Lines of Force'', formulating the four Maxwell's equations. * 1865: Gregor Mendel formulates his laws of inheritance. * 1869: Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic table. * 1873: Maxwell's ''A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism'' published. * 1877: Asaph Hall discovers the moons of Mars * 1896: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity; J. J. Thomson identifies the electron, though not by name.


Medicine

*
1804 Events January–March * January 1 – Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles a ...
: Morphine first isolated. * 1842: Anesthesia used for the first time. * 1847: Chloroform invented for the first time, given to Queen Victoria at the birth of her eighth child, Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, Prince Leopold in 1853 * 1855: Cocaine is isolated by Friedrich Gaedcke. * 1885: Louis Pasteur creates the first successful vaccine against rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog. * 1889: Aspirin patented.


Inventions

*
1804 Events January–March * January 1 – Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles a ...
: First steam locomotive begins operation. * 1816: Dandy horse, Laufmaschine invented by Karl von Drais. *
1825 Events January–March * January 4 – King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies dies in Naples and is succeeded by his son, Francis I of the Two Sicilies, Francis. * February 3 – Vendsyssel-Thy, once part of the Jutland peninsula forming we ...
: Erie Canal opened connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. *
1825 Events January–March * January 4 – King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies dies in Naples and is succeeded by his son, Francis I of the Two Sicilies, Francis. * February 3 – Vendsyssel-Thy, once part of the Jutland peninsula forming we ...
: First isolation of aluminum, aluminium. *
1825 Events January–March * January 4 – King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies dies in Naples and is succeeded by his son, Francis I of the Two Sicilies, Francis. * February 3 – Vendsyssel-Thy, once part of the Jutland peninsula forming we ...
: The Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway in the world, is opened. *
1826 Events January–March * January 15 – The French newspaper ''Le Figaro ''Le Figaro'' () is a French daily morning newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a ...
: Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine. * 1829: First electric motor built. *
1837 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modificat ...
: Telegraphy patented. * 1841: The word "dinosaur" is coined by Richard Owen * 1844: First publicly funded
telegraph Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus flag semaphore Flag semaphore (from the Ancient ...

telegraph
line in the world—between Baltimore and Washington—sends demonstration message on 24 May, ushering in the age of the telegraph. This message read "What hath God wrought?" (Bible, Numbers 23:23) * 1849: The safety pin and the gas mask are invented. * 1855: Bessemer process enables steel to be mass-produced. * 1856: World's first oil refinery in
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
* 1858: Invention of the phonautograph, the first true device for recorded sound, recording sound. * 1860: Benjamin Tyler Henry invents the 16 - shot Henry Rifle * 1861: Richard Gatling invents the Gatling Gun, first modern machine gun used notably in the battles of Cold Harbor and Petersburg, Virginia, Petersburg * 1862: First meeting in combat of ironclad warships, and , during the American Civil War. * 1863: First section of the London Underground opens. * 1866: Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier attempt in 1858. *
1867 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifi ...
: Alfred Nobel invents dynamite. * 1868: Safety bicycle invented. * 1869: First Transcontinental Railroad completed in United States on 10 May. * 1870: Rasmus Malling-Hansen's invention the Hansen Writing Ball becomes the first commercially sold typewriter. * 1873: Jeans, Blue jeans and barbed wire are invented. * 1877: Thomas Edison invents the phonograph * 1878: First commercial telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut. * c. 1875/1880: Introduction of the widespread use of electric lighting. These included early crude systems in France and the UK and the introduction of large scale outdoor Arc lamp, arc lighting systems by 1880. * 1879: Thomas Edison patents a practical incandescent light bulb. * 1882: Introduction of large scale Electric power industry, electric power utilities with the Edison Holborn Viaduct power station, Holborn Viaduct (London) and Pearl Street Station, Pearl Street (New York) power stations supplying indoor electric lighting using Edison's incandescent bulb. * 1884: Sir Hiram Maxim invents the first self-powered Machine gun. * 1885: Singer Manufacturing Company, Singer begins production of the 'Singer Model 27 and 127, Vibrating Shuttle'. which would become the most popular model of sewing machine. * 1886: Karl Benz sells the first commercial automobile. * 1890: The cardboard box is invented. * 1892: John Froelich develops and constructs the first gasoline/petrol-powered tractor. * 1894: Karl Elsener (inventor), Karl Elsener invents the Swiss Army knife. * 1894: First gramophone record. * 1895: Wilhelm Röntgen identifies x-rays.


Religion

* 1818: The first permanent Reform Judaism congregation, the Hamburg Temple, Neuer Israelitischer Tempel, is founded in Hamburg on October 18. *
1830 It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830. It included two "Romantic nationalism, romantic nationalist" revolu ...

1830
: The Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is established on 6 April 1830. * 1844: Persian Prophet the Báb announces his revelation on 23 May, founding Bábism. He announced to the world of the coming of "He whom God shall make manifest". He is considered the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith. * 1848: The Christadelphians founded by John Thomas (Christadelphian). * 1871–1878: In Germany, Otto von Bismarck challenged the Catholic Church in the ''Kulturkampf'' ("Culture War") * 1879: Mary Baker Eddy founds the Church of Christ, Scientist. * 1879: first issue of "The Watchtower", a religious magazine currently published and distributed by the Jehovah's Witnesses * 1889: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad establishes the Ahmadiyya, Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, a reform sect of Islam. * 1891: Pope Leo XIII launches the encyclical ''Rerum novarum'', the first major Catholic document on social justice


Culture

*
1808 Events January–March * January 1 ** The importation of slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by ...

1808
: Beethoven composes Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven), Fifth Symphony *
1813 Events January–March * January 18–23 – War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America and its Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous allies against ...
: Jane Austen publishes ''Pride and Prejudice'' * 1818: Mary Shelley publishes ''Frankenstein''. * 1819: John Keats writes his John Keats's 1819 odes, odes of 1819. * 1819: Théodore Géricault paints his masterpiece ''The Raft of the Medusa'', and exhibits it in the French Salon of 1819 at the The Louvre, Louvre. * 1824: Premiere of Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven's ''Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven), Ninth Symphony''. * 1829: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's ''Goethe's Faust, Faust'' premieres. *
1837 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modificat ...
: Charles Dickens publishes ''Oliver Twist''. * 1841: Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes ''Self-Reliance''. * 1845:
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 1817 or 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively ...

Frederick Douglass
publishes ''Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave''. * 1847: The Brontë sisters publish ''Jane Eyre'', ''Wuthering Heights'' and ''Agnes Grey''. * 1849: Josiah Henson publishes The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself. * 1851: Herman Melville publishes Moby-Dick. * 1851: Sojourner Truth delivers the speech Ain't I a Woman?. * 1852: Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin. * 1855: Walt Whitman publishes the first edition of ''Leaves of Grass''. * 1855:
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 1817 or 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively ...

Frederick Douglass
publishes the first edition of ''My Bondage and My Freedom''. * 1862: Victor Hugo publishes ''Les Misérables''. * 1865: Lewis Carroll publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. * 1869: Leo Tolstoy publishes ''War and Peace''. * 1875: Georges Bizet's opera Carmen premiers in Paris. * 1876: Richard Wagner's ''Ring Cycle'' is first performed in its entirety. * 1883: Robert Louis Stevenson's ''Treasure Island'' is published. * 1884: Mark Twain publishes the ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn''. * 1886: "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" by Robert Louis Stevenson is published. *
1887 Events January–March * January 11 Events Pre-1600 * – in : A quarrel between supporters of different teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the escalates into violence. * – : The prophet and his followers conque ...
: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle publishes his first Sherlock Holmes story, ''A Study in Scarlet''. * 1889: Vincent van Gogh paints ''The Starry Night''. * 1889: Moulin Rouge opens in Paris. * 1892: Tchaikovsky's ''Nutcracker Suite'' premières in St Petersberg. * 1894: Rudyard Kipling's ''The Jungle Book'' is published * 1895: Trial of Oscar Wilde and premiere of his play ''The Importance of Being Earnest''. * 1897: Bram Stoker writes Dracula. * 1900: L. Frank Baum publishes The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.


Literature

On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German ''Sturm und Drang'' spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. French arts had been hampered by the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began. The Goncourts and Émile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott and Arthur Conan Doyle (creator of the character Sherlock Holmes); the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas and Charles Baudelaire. Some American literary writers, poets and novelists were: Walt Whitman, Mark Twain, Harriet Ann Jacobs, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville,
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 1817 or 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively ...

Frederick Douglass
, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Joel Chandler Harris, and Emily Dickinson to name a few.


Photography

*Ottomar Anschütz, chronophotographer *Mathew Brady, documented the American Civil War *Edward S. Curtis, documented the American West notably Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans *Louis Daguerre, inventor of daguerreotype process of photography, chemist *Thomas Eakins, pioneer motion photographer *George Eastman, inventor of Photographic film, roll film *Hércules Florence, pioneer inventor of photography *Auguste and Louis Lumière, pioneer film-makers, inventors *Étienne-Jules Marey, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer *Eadweard Muybridge, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer *Nadar (photographer), Nadar a.k.a. Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, portrait photographer *Nicéphore Niépce, pioneer inventor of photography *Louis Le Prince, motion picture inventor and pioneer film-maker *Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, chemist and photographer *William Fox Talbot, inventor of the negative / positive photographic process.


Visual artists, painters, sculptors

The realism (visual arts), Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters included: *Ivan Aivazovsky *Léon Bakst *Albert Bierstadt *William Blake *Arnold Böcklin *Rosa Bonheur *William Burges *Mary Cassatt *Camille Claudel *Paul Cézanne *Frederic Edwin Church *Thomas Cole *Jan Matejko *John Constable *Camille Corot *Gustave Courbet *Honoré Daumier *Edgar Degas *Eugène Delacroix *Thomas Eakins *Caspar David Friedrich *Paul Gauguin *Théodore Géricault *Vincent van Gogh *William Morris *Francisco Goya *Andō Hiroshige *Hokusai *Winslow Homer *Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres *Isaac Levitan *Édouard Manet *Claude Monet *Gustave Moreau *Berthe Morisot *Edvard Munch *Mikhail Nesterov *Camille Pissarro *Augustus Pugin *Pierre-Auguste Renoir *Ilya Repin *Auguste Rodin *Albert Pinkham Ryder *John Singer Sargent *Valentin Serov *Georges Seurat *Ivan Shishkin *Vasily Surikov *James Tissot *Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec *J. M. W. Turner, Joseph Mallord William Turner *Viktor Vasnetsov *Eugène Viollet-le-Duc *Mikhail Vrubel *James Abbott McNeill Whistler *Tsukioka Yoshitoshi


Music

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic music, Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes: *Mily Balakirev *Ludwig van Beethoven *Hector Berlioz *Georges Bizet *Alexander Borodin *Johannes Brahms *Anton Bruckner *Frédéric Chopin *Claude Debussy *Antonín Dvořák *Mikhail Glinka *Edvard Grieg *Scott Joplin *Alexandre Levy *Franz Liszt *Gustav Mahler *Felix Mendelssohn *Modest Mussorgsky *Jacques Offenbach *Niccolò Paganini *Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov *Gioachino Rossini *Anton Rubinstein *Camille Saint-Saëns *Antonio Salieri *Franz Schubert *Robert Schumann *Alexander Scriabin *Arthur Sullivan *Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky *Giuseppe Verdi *Richard Wagner


Sports

*
1867 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifi ...
: The Marquess of Queensberry Rules for boxing are published. * 1872: The first recognised international soccer match, between England and Scotland, is played. * 1877: The first test cricket match, between England and Australia, is played. * 1891: Basketball is invented by James Naismith. * 1895: Volleyball is invented. * 1896: Olympic Games#Revival, Olympic Games revived in Athens.


Events


1801–1850

* 1801: The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merge to form the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. * 1802: The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State Wahhabi sack of Karbala, sack Karbala. *
1803 Events * January 1 – The first edition of Alexandre Balthazar Laurent Grimod de La Reynière's ''Almanach des gourmands'', the first guide to restaurant cooking, is published in Paris. * January 5 – William Symington demonstrates his '' ...
: William Symington demonstrates his ''Charlotte Dundas'', the "first practical steamboat". *
1803 Events * January 1 – The first edition of Alexandre Balthazar Laurent Grimod de La Reynière's ''Almanach des gourmands'', the first guide to restaurant cooking, is published in Paris. * January 5 – William Symington demonstrates his '' ...
: The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina. *
1804 Events January–March * January 1 – Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles a ...
: Austrian Empire founded by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I. *
1804 Events January–March * January 1 – Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles a ...
: World population reaches 1 billion. * 1805: The Battle of Trafalgar eliminates the French and Spanish naval fleets and allows for British dominance of the seas, a major factor for the success of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
later in the century. * 1805–1848: Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muhammad Ali modernizes
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
. *
1810 Events January–March * January 1 – Major-General Lachlan Macquarie Major-general (United Kingdom), Major General Lachlan Macquarie, Companion of the Order of the Bath, CB (; gd, Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824 ...
: The Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Berlin was founded. Among its students and faculty are Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Hegel, Karl Marx, Marx, and Otto von Bismarck, Bismarck. The German university reform proves to be so successful that its model is copied around the world (see History of European research universities#European university models in the 19th and 20th centuries, History of European research universities). *
1814 Events January February 1: Cagsawa Church The Cagsawa Ruins (also spelled as Kagsawa, historically spelt as Cagsaua) are the remnants of a 16th-century Franciscan The Franciscans are a group of related Mendicant orders, mendicant Chr ...
: Elisha Collier invents the Flintlock Revolver. *
1814 Events January February 1: Cagsawa Church The Cagsawa Ruins (also spelled as Kagsawa, historically spelt as Cagsaua) are the remnants of a 16th-century Franciscan The Franciscans are a group of related Mendicant orders, mendicant Chr ...
: February 1 Eruption of Mayon Volcano *
1815 Events January * January 2 – Lord Byron George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, ( el, Λόρδος Βύρωνας, translit=Lórdos Výronas, translit-std=ISO; 22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), simply known as Lord Byron, ...
: April, Mount Tambora in Sumbawa island erupts, becoming the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history, destroying Tambora culture, and killing at least 71,000 people, including its aftermath. The eruption created global climate anomalies known as "volcanic winter". * 1816: Year Without a Summer: Unusually cold conditions wreak havoc throughout the Northern Hemisphere, likely influenced by the 1815 explosion of Mount Tambora. * 1816–
1828 Events January–March * January 4 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac Jean-Baptiste Sylvère Gay, 1st Viscount of Martignac (20 June 1778 3 April 1832) was a moderate royalist French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration ...
: Shaka's
Zulu Kingdom The Zulu Kingdom (, ), sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is one of several larg ...
becomes the largest in Southern Africa. * 1819: The modern city of Singapore is established by the British East India Company. *
1820 Events January–March *January 1 – Nominal beginning of the Trienio Liberal in History of Spain (1814–73), Spain: A constitutionalist military insurrection at Cádiz leads to the summoning of the Spanish Parliament (March 7). *Janu ...

1820
: Discovery of Antarctica. *
1820 Events January–March *January 1 – Nominal beginning of the Trienio Liberal in History of Spain (1814–73), Spain: A constitutionalist military insurrection at Cádiz leads to the summoning of the Spanish Parliament (March 7). *Janu ...

1820
: History of Liberia, Liberia founded by the American Colonization Society for freed American slaves. *
1820 Events January–March *January 1 – Nominal beginning of the Trienio Liberal in History of Spain (1814–73), Spain: A constitutionalist military insurrection at Cádiz leads to the summoning of the Spanish Parliament (March 7). *Janu ...

1820
: Dissolution of the
Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji Shivaji Bhonsale I (; 19 ...

Maratha Empire
. * 1821–
1823 Events January–March * January 22 – By secret treaty signed at the Congress of Verona The Congress of Verona met at Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, northern Italy, Italy, ...
: First Mexican Empire, as Mexico's first post-independent government, ruled by Emperor Agustín de Iturbide, Agustín I of Mexico. * 1822: Pedro I of Brazil declared Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September. *
1823 Events January–March * January 22 – By secret treaty signed at the Congress of Verona The Congress of Verona met at Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, northern Italy, Italy, ...
: Monroe Doctrine declared by US President James Monroe. *
1825 Events January–March * January 4 – King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies dies in Naples and is succeeded by his son, Francis I of the Two Sicilies, Francis. * February 3 – Vendsyssel-Thy, once part of the Jutland peninsula forming we ...
: The Decembrist revolt. * 1829: Sir Robert Peel founds the Metropolitan Police Service, the first modern police force. *
1830 It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830. It included two "Romantic nationalism, romantic nationalist" revolu ...

1830
: Anglo-Russian rivalry over Afghanistan, the Great Game, commences and concludes in 1895. * 1831: November Uprising ends with crushing defeat for Poland in the Battle of Warsaw (1831), Battle of Warsaw. *
1832 Events January–March * January 6 Events Pre-1600 *1066 – Following the death of Edward the Confessor on the previous day, the Witan meets to confirm Harold Godwinson as the new King of England; Harold is crowned the same day ...
: The British Parliament passes the Great Reform Act. * 1834–1859: Imam Shamil's rebellion in Russian-occupied
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
. * 1835–1836: The Texas Revolution in Mexico resulted in the short-lived Republic of Texas. * 1836: Samuel Colt popularizes the revolver and sets up a firearms company to manufacture his invention of the Colt Paterson revolver a six bullets firearm shot one by one without reloading manually. *
1837 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modificat ...
–1838: Rebellions of 1837 in Canada. * 1838: By this time, 46,000 Native Americans have been forcibly relocated in the Trail of Tears. * 1839–1860: After the First Opium War, First and Second Opium Wars, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia gain many Treaty ports, trade and associated concessions from China resulting in the start of the decline of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. * 1839–1919: Anglo-Afghan Wars lead to stalemate and the establishment of the Durand line * 1842: Treaty of Nanking cedes Hong Kong to the British. * 1843: The first wagon train sets out from Missouri. * 1844: Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers establish what is considered the first cooperative in the world. * 1845–1849: The Great Famine (Ireland), Great Famine of Ireland leads to the Irish diaspora. * 1848: ''The Communist Manifesto'' published. * 1848: Seneca Falls Convention is the first women's rights convention in the United States and leads to the History of Women's Suffrage in the United States, battle for women's suffrage. * 1848–1855: California Gold Rush. * 1849: Earliest recorded Airstrike, air raid, as Austria employs The Austrian balloons, 200 balloons to deliver ordnance against Venice. * 1850: The Little Ice Age ends around this time. * 1850: Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch establishes the first cooperative banking, cooperative financial institution.


1851–1900

* 1851: The Great Exhibition in London was the world's first international Expo or World's fair, World Fair. * 1852:
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 1817 or 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively ...

Frederick Douglass
delivers his speech "The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro" in Rochester, New York. * 1857: Sir Joseph Whitworth designs the first long-range sniper rifle. * 1857–1858:
Indian Rebellion of 1857 The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion ...

Indian Rebellion of 1857
. The British Empire assumes control of India from the
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
. * 1858: Construction of Big Ben is completed. * 1859–1869:
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
is constructed. * 1860: Giuseppe Garibaldi launches the Expedition of the Thousand. * 1861: Russia Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia, abolishes serfdom. * 1862–1877: Dungan revolt (1862–1877), Muslim Rebellion in north-west China. * 1863: Formation of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Red Cross is followed by the adoption of the First Geneva Convention in 1864. * 1865–1877: Reconstruction era of the United States, Reconstruction in the United States; Slavery is banned in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. * 1868: Michael Barrett (Fenian), Michael Barrett is the last person to be publicly hanged in England. * 1869: The
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
opens linking the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean to the Red Sea. * 1870: Official dismantling of the Cultivation System and beginning of a 'Liberal Period (Dutch East Indies), Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies.Vickers (2005), page xii * 1870–1890: Long Depression in Western Europe and North America. * 1871–1872: List of famines, Famine in Iran, Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million. * 1871: The Paris Commune briefly rules the French capital. * 1872: Yellowstone National Park, the first national park, is created. * 1874: The ''Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs'', better known as the Impressionists, organize and present their first public group exhibition at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar (photographer), Nadar. * 1874: The Home Rule Movement is established in Ireland. * 1875: ''HMS Challenger'' surveys the deepest point in the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep * 1876: Battle of the Little Bighorn leads to the death of General Custer and victory for the alliance of Lakota people, Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Cheyenne and Arapaho * 1876–1914: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the United States is referred to as the Gilded Age. * 1877: Great Railroad Strike in the United States may have been the world's first nationwide Strike action, labour strike. * 1881: Wave of Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire, pogroms begins in the Russian Empire. * 1881–1882: The Jules Ferry laws are passed in French Third Republic, France establishing free, secular education. * 1883: Krakatoa volcano explosion, one of the largest in modern history. * 1883: The quagga is rendered extinct. * 1886: Construction of the Statue of Liberty; Coca-Cola is developed. * 1888: Founding of the shipping line ''Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij'' (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy. * 1888: The Golden Law abolishes slavery in Brazil. * 1889: Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris. * 1889: A republican military coup establishes the First Brazilian Republic. The Empire of Brazil, parliamentary constitutional monarchy is abolished. * 1889-1890: 1889–1890 pandemic kills 1 million people. * 1890: First use of the electric chair as a method of execution. * 1892: The World's Columbian Exposition was held in
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
celebrating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World. * 1892: Fingerprinting is officially adopted for the first time. * 1893: New Zealand becomes the first country to enact women's suffrage. * 1893: The Coremans-de Vriendt law is passed in Belgium, creating legal equality for French language, French and Dutch languages. * 1894: Lombok War The Dutch loot and destroy the Cakranegara palace of Mataram (city), Mataram.Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in ''Colonial collections Revisited'': Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of ''Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde'', Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. . 296 pages. pp. 186–203 J. L. A. Brandes, a Dutch philologist, discovers and secures Nagarakretagama manuscript in Lombok royal library. * 1896: Philippine Revolution ends declaring Philippines free from Spanish rule. * 1898: The United States gains control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the Spanish–American War. * 1898: Empress Dowager Cixi of Qing Dynasty, China engineers a coup d'état, marking the end of the Hundred Days' Reform; the Guangxu Emperor is arrested. * 1900: Exposition Universelle (1900), Exposition Universelle held in Paris, prominently featuring the growing art trend Art Nouveau. * 1900–1901: Eight-Nation Alliance, Eight nations invade China at the same time and ransack Forbidden City.


Significant people


Show business and theatre

*P. T. Barnum, showman *David Belasco, actor, playwright, theatrical producer *Sarah Bernhardt, actress *Edwin Booth, actor *
John Wilkes Booth John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American stage actor who assassinated Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of g ...

John Wilkes Booth
, actor, assassin of
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of governme ...

Abraham Lincoln
*Dion Boucicault, playwright *Mrs Patrick Campbell, actress *Anton Chekhov, playwright *Buffalo Bill Cody, Wild West legend, and showman *Jean-Gaspard Deburau, Baptiste Deburau, Bohemian–French actor and Mime artist, mime. *Sergei Diaghilev, art critic, ballet impresario *Eleonora Duse, actress *Henrik Ibsen, playwright *Edmund Kean, actor *Charles Kean, actor *Olga Knipper, actress *Lillie Langtry, actress, socialite *Frédérick Lemaître, actor *Jenny Lind, opera singer called the ''Swedish Nightingale'' *William Macready, actor * Céleste Mogador, dancer *Lola Montez, exotic dancer *Adelaide Neilson, actress *Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, playwright, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre *Annie Oakley, Wild West, sharp-shooter *Alexander Ostrovsky, playwright *Lillian Russell, singer, actress *George Bernard Shaw, playwright *Mikhail Shchepkin, actor *Konstantin Stanislavski, actor, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre *Edward Askew Sothern, actor *Ellen Terry, actress *Maria Yermolova, actress


Business

*Charles Alderton, creator of Dr Pepper *John Jacob Astor III, Real Estate *Andrew Carnegie, Industrialist, philanthropist *Robert Reed Church, a freedman who became the South's first black millionaire, real estate *Jay Cooke, Finance *Henry Clay Frick, Industrialist, art collector *Jay Gould, Railroad developer *Meyer Guggenheim Family patriarch, mining *Daniel Guggenheim (copper) *E. H. Harriman, Railroads *Henry O. Havemeyer (sugar), art collector *George Hearst, Gold *James J. Hill (railroads) – ''The Empire Builder'' *Thomas Lipton, Scottish merchant and yachtsman known for Lipton tea *Savva Mamontov, Industrialist, philanthropist *Andrew W. Mellon, Industrialist, philanthropist, art collector *J. P. Morgan, Banker, art collector *George Mortimer Pullman (railroads) *Ludvig Nobel, Oil *Charles Pratt Oil, founder of the Pratt Institute *
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or ...
diamonds, mining magnate, founder of De Beers and benefactor of the Rhodes Scholarship. *John D. Rockefeller, Oil, Business tycoon, philanthropist *Levi Strauss, clothing manufacturer *Pavel Tretyakov, Businessman, art collector, philanthropist, founder of Tretyakov Gallery *Cornelius Vanderbilt, Shipping, Railroads *William Chapman Ralston, Businessman, Financier, founder of Bank of California. *Madam C.J. Walker, African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, political and social activist. Eulogized as first female self-made millionaire in America.


Anthropology, archaeology, scholars

*Churchill Babington, Archaeology *Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier, Archaeology *Franz Boas, Anthropology *John Burroughs, Naturalist, conservationist, writer *Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, Archaeology *John Muir, Naturalist, writer, Environmental protection, preservationist *Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Ornithology *George Bird Grinnell, Anthropology *Joseph LeConte, Scholar, Conservation biology, preservationist *Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai, Anthropology *Clinton Hart Merriam, Zoology *Lewis H. Morgan, Anthropology *Jules Quicherat, Archaeology *Robert Ridgway, Ornithology *Edward Burnett Tylor, Anthropology *Karl Verner, Linguist


Journalists, missionaries, explorers

*Roald Amundsen, explorer *Samuel Baker, explorer *Thomas Baines, artist, explorer *Heinrich Barth, explorer *Henry Walter Bates, naturalist, explorer *Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, explorer *Jim Bridger, explorer *Richard Francis Burton, explorer *William Clark, explorer *The Lewis and Clark Expedition, exploration *Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, explorer *Percy Fawcett, adventurer, explorer, proto-Indiana Jones (character), Indiana Jones *Vladimir Gilyarovsky, journalist *Horace Greeley, journalist *Peter Jones (missionary), Canadian Methodist minister, and go-between for Christians and his fellow Mississaugas and other Indian tribes. *Adoniram Judson, missionary *Sir John Kirk (explorer), John Kirk, explorer, physician, companion of David Livingston *Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, botanist, explorer, friend of Charles Darwin *Sir William Jackson Hooker, botanist, explorer, father of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker *Otto von Kotzebue, explorer *Pyotr Kozlov, explorer *Mikhail Lazarev, fleet commander, explorer *Meriwether Lewis, explorer *David Livingstone, missionary *Stepan Makarov, explorer, oceanographer *Thomas Nast, journalist, caricaturist and editorial cartoonist *Robert Peary, explorer *Marcelo H. del Pilar, writer, journalist, editor of ''La Solidaridad''. *Nikolai Przhevalsky, explorer *Frederick Selous, explorer *Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, explorer, geographer *John Hanning Speke, explorer *Henry M. Stanley, journalist, explorer *John McDouall Stuart, explorer *John L. O'Sullivan, journalist who coined ''
Manifest Destiny Manifest destiny was a widely held cultural belief in the 19th century in the United States, 19th-century United States that American settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny: * T ...

Manifest Destiny
'' *Shoqan Walikhanov, explorer ethnographer, historian *Carter G. Woodson, African-American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. *Ferdinand von Wrangel, explorer


Philosophy and religion

The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including: *Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Islamic movement in India. *Bahá'u'lláh founded the Baháʼí Faith in Persia *Mikhail Bakunin, anarchist *William Booth, social reformer, founder of the Salvation Army *Auguste Comte, philosopher *Mary Baker Eddy, religious leader, founder of Christian Science *Friedrich Engels, political philosopher *William McKinley, 25th U.S. President *Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, philosopher *Allan Kardec, systematizer of the Spiritism, Spiritist Doctrine *Søren Kierkegaard, philosopher *Peter Kropotkin, anarchist *Karl Marx, political philosopher *Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Mutualism (economic theory), Mutualist anarchist *John Stuart Mill, philosopher *Krste Petkov Misirkov, philosopher and historian *William Morris, social reformer *Friedrich Nietzsche, philosopher *Saint Nikolai of Japan, Nikolai (Nicholas) of Japan, religious leader, introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan *Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Hindu mystic *Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, founder of French socialism *Arthur Schopenhauer, philosopher *Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young, founders of Mormonism *Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher), Vladimir Solovyov, philosopher *Herbert Spencer, "The Great philosopher" *Charles Spurgeon, Baptist preacher and writer *Leo Tolstoy, anarchist *Ayya Vaikundar, initiator of the belief system of Ayyavazhi *Ellen G. White, Ellen White religious author and co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church *Saint St. Thérèse of Lisieux, Thérèse of Lisieux, French discalced Carmelite nun


Politicians, abolitionists and the military

*John Quincy Adams, U.S. congressman, lawyer, and president *Alexander I of Russia *Alexander II of Russia *Alexander III of Russia *
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of governme ...

Abraham Lincoln
, United States President *Bahadur Shah Zafar, last mughal emperor and leader of 1857 mutiny. *Benito Juárez, Mexican President *Giuseppe Garibaldi, was an Italian general and politician, a central figure in the Italian unification, Italian Risorgimento *Susan B. Anthony, U.S. women's rights advocate *Pyotr Bagration, Russian general *Otto von Bismarck, German chancellor *Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom *King Victor Emmanuel II, first King of Italy *William Wilberforce, Abolitionist, Philanthropist *William Wells Brown, American abolitionist, novelist, playwright, and historian *John C. Calhoun, U.S. senator *Baron Haussmann, politician and civic planner *Emilio Aguinaldo, A Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader *Toussaint Louverture, Revolutionary and military leader, central figure of the Haitian Revolution *Henry Clay, U.S. statesman, "The Great Compromiser" *Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America *Louis-Nicolas Davout, French general *Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and politician *
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 1817 or 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively ...

Frederick Douglass
, U.S. abolitionist spokesman *Ferdinand VII of Spain *Kamehameha I, founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii died in May 1819 *Joseph Fouché, French politician *John Brown (abolitionist), *Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor of Austrian Empire, Austria and brother of Maximilian I of Mexico, Mexican Emperor *John C. Frémont, Explorer, Governor of California *Alexander Gorchakov, Russian Chancellor *Isabella II of Spain *Emperor Gwangmu, Gojong of Joseon, Korean people, Korean emperor *William Lloyd Garrison, U.S. abolitionist leader *William Ewart Gladstone, British prime minister *Ulysses S. Grant, U.S. general and president *Theodor Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism *Andrew Jackson, U.S. general and president *Thomas Jefferson, American statesman, philosopher, and president *John Mitchell, Jr., American businessman, newspaper editor, activist, and politician *Ioannis Kapodistrias, Russian and Greek statesman *Davy Crockett, ''King of the wild frontier'', folk hero, Frontier#American frontier, frontiersman, soldier and politician *Jefferson Davis, Confederate States President *Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian governor; leader of the war of independence *Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian general *
Robert E. Lee Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American Confederate general best known for his service to the Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Co ...

Robert E. Lee
,
Confederate Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...

Confederate
general *Libertadores, Latin American liberators *Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada, first Prime Minister of Canada *Klemens von Metternich, Austrian Chancellor *Joachim Murat, King of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Naples and French general *Meiji Emperor of Japan *Napoleon III *Michel Ney, French general *Nicholas I of Russia *Pedro II of Brazil *Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Sikh Empire *Napoleon I of France, Napoleon I, First Consul and Emperor of the French *Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish political leader *Matthew C. Perry, Commodore Perry, U.S. Naval commander, opened the door to Japan *Józef Poniatowski, Polish general *
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or ...
*Shaka kaSenzangakhona, Monarch of the Zulu Kingdom *John Ross Robertson, newspaper publisher and philanthropist *Theodore Roosevelt, explorer, naturalist, and President of the United States *William Tecumseh Sherman, Union (American Civil War), Union general during the American Civil War *Dred Scott, enslaved African American man *Fulwar Skipwith, the first and only president of the short lived Republic of West Florida *Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general *Nikola Karev commander and leader of the Ilinden Uprising in Ottoman-Macedonia. *Leland Stanford, Governor of California, U.S. Senator, entrepreneur *István Széchenyi, aristocrat, leader of the Hungarian reform movement *Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, French politician *
Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross, March 10, 1913) was an American abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that ...

Harriet Tubman
, African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, played a part in the
Underground Railroad#REDIRECT Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
*Sojourner Truth, was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist *William M. Tweed, a.k.a. ''Boss Tweed'', influential New York City politician, head of Tammany Hall *Abdülmecid I, 31st Sultan and 110th Caliph of Islam of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
*Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, British General and prime minister *
Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan (1 January 1814 – 1 June 1864), born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka people, Hakka Chinese revolutionary who was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty. He established the Taip ...

Hong Xiuquan
, revolutionary, self-proclaimed Son of God *Victoria Woodhull, American politician, suffragette, abolitionist *Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last Japanese ''shōgun'' *Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor, Johore Sultan *Andres Bonifacio, Filipino revolutionary leader


Composers

*Ludwig Van Beethoven *Franz Schubert *George Bridgetower *Gioachino Rossini *Frédéric Chopin *Hector Berlioz *Franz Liszt *Felix Mendelssohn *Robert Schumann *Johannes Brahms *Stephen Foster *Carl Maria von Weber *Johann Strauss *Modest Mussorgsky *Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky *Johann Strauss *Gustav Mahler *Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov *Richard Strauss *Richard Wagner


Health professionals

*Elizabeth Kenny, Australian Nurse and found an Innovative Treatment of Polio *Clara Barton, nurse, pioneer of the American Red Cross *John Snow (physician), Dr. John Snow, the founder of epidemiology *Ignaz Semmelweis, proponent of hygiene, hygienic practices *Florence Nightingale, nursing pioneer


Sportists

*W G Grace, William Gilbert Grace, English cricketer *Fred Spofforth, F R Spofforth, Australian
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...

cricket
er


Others

*Sitting Bull, a leader of the Lakota people, Lakota *Nabi Tajima, last verified surviving person born in the 19th century, died in 2018. *Sacagawea, Important aide to the Lewis and Clark Expedition *Nat Turner, Slave rebellion leader *Chief Joseph, a leader of the Nez Perce tribe, Nez Percé *Ned Kelly, Australian folk hero, and outlaw *Sándor Kőrösi Csoma, explorer of the Tibetan Tibetan culture, culture *Fitz Hugh Ludlow, writer and explorer *José Rizal, Filipino polymath, physician, nationalist, novelist, poet, liberator


Supplementary portrait gallery

File:Carl Friedrich Gauss 1840 by Jensen.jpg, Carl Friedrich Gauss File:Charles Robert Darwin by John Collier cropped.jpg, Charles Darwin File:Kramskoy Mendeleev 01.jpg, Dmitri Mendeleev File:Louis Pasteur.jpg, Louis Pasteur, 1878 File:Mariecurie.jpg, Marie Curie, c. 1898 File:Nikola Tesla by Sarony c1898.jpg, Nikola Tesla File:Jane Austen (chopped) 2.jpg, Jane Austen File:Leo Tolstoy 1897, black and white, 37767u.jpg, Leo Tolstoy c. 1897 File:Edgar Allan Poe 2.jpg, Edgar Allan Poe File:Charles Dickens 3.jpg, Charles Dickens File:Carjat Arthur Rimbaud 1872 n2.jpg, Arthur Rimbaud c. 1872 File:Twain in Tesla's Lab.jpg, Mark Twain, 1894 File:RWEmerson.jpg, Ralph Waldo Emerson File:Benjamin D. Maxham - Henry David Thoreau - Restored - greyscale - straightened.jpg, Henry David Thoreau, August 1861. File:Emile Zola 2.jpg, Émile Zola, c. 1900 File:Chekhov 1903 ArM.jpg, Anton Chekhov File:Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky 1876.jpg, Fyodor Dostoevsky, 1876 File:John L Sullivan.jpg, John L Sullivan in his prime, c. 1882 File:David Livingstone -1.jpg, David Livingstone 1864, left Great Britain, Britain for
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
in 1840 File:Jesse and Frank James.gif, Jesse James, Jesse and Frank James, 1872 File:William Notman studios - Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill (1895) edit.jpg, Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill Cody, Montreal, Quebec, 1885 File:Goyaale.jpg, Geronimo, 1887, prominent leader of the Chiricahua Apache File:Billy the Kid corrected.jpg, William Bonney aka Henry McCarty aka Billy the Kid, c. late 1870s File:Wyatt Earp und Bat Masterson 1876.jpg, Deputies Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp in Dodge City, 1876 File:Mathew Brady 1875 cropped.jpg, Mathew Brady, Self-portrait, c. 1875 File:Alfred Lord Tennyson 1869.jpg, Alfred, Lord Tennyson File:Thomas Nast - Brady-Handy.jpg, Thomas Nast, c. 1860–1875, photo by Mathew Brady or Levin Handy File:Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad2.jpg, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad File:Bakunin.png, Mikhail Bakunin File:Kierkegaard.jpg, Søren Kierkegaard File:Solomon Northup 001 (cropped).jpg, Solomon Northup File:Dred Scott photograph (circa 1857).jpg, Dred Scott File:Madame CJ Walker.gif, Madam C. J. Walker File:Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant.jpg, Claude Monet's ''Impression, Sunrise'', 1872, gave the name to Impressionism File:Paul Cézanne 159.jpg, Paul Cézanne, self-portrait, 1880–1881 File:Scott Joplin.jpg, Scott Joplin File:NiccoloPaganini.jpeg, Niccolò Paganini, c.1819 File:Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 043.jpg, Frédéric Chopin, 1838 File:John D Rockefeller by Oscar White c1900.jpg, John D. Rockefeller


See also

*Timeline of modern history *Long nineteenth century *19th century in film *19th century in games *19th-century philosophy *Capitalism in the nineteenth century *France in the nineteenth century *International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) *List of wars 1800–1899 *Mid-nineteenth-century Spain *Nineteenth-century theatre *Russian history, 1855–1892 *Slavery in the United States *Timeline of 19th-century Muslim history *Timeline of historic inventions#19th century *
Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteenth century with the Treaty of Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...


References


Further reading

* Langer, William. ''An Encyclopedia of World History'' (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of event
online free
* Morris, Richard B. and Graham W. Irwin, eds. ''Harper Encyclopedia of the Modern World: A Concise Reference History from 1760 to the Present'' (1970
online frr
* ''New Cambridge Modern History'' (13 vol 1957–79), old but thorough coverage, mostly of Europe; strong on diplomacy **Bury, J. P. T. ed. ''The New Cambridge Modern History: Vol. 10: the Zenith of European Power, 1830–70'' (1964
online
**Crawley, C. W., ed. ''The New Cambridge Modern History Volume IX War and Peace In An Age of Upheaval 1793–1830'' (1965)
online
**Darby, H. C. and H. Fullard ''The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas'' (1972) **Hinsley, F.H., ed. ''The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 11, Material Progress and World-Wide Problems 1870–1898'' (1979
online


Diplomacy and international relations

* * * Bridge, F. R. & Roger Bullen. ''The Great Powers and the European States System 1814–1914'', 2nd Ed. (2005) * * Herring, George C. ''Years of Peril and Ambition: U.S. Foreign Relations, 1776–1921'' (2017) * Paul Kennedy, Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, ''The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500–2000'' (1987), stress on economic and military factors * Langer, William. ''European Alliances and Alignments 1870–1890'' (1950); advanced histor
online
* Langer, William. ''The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890–1902'' (1950); advanced histor
online
* Mowat, R.B. ''A history of European diplomacy, 1815–1914'' (1922
online free
* * Porter, Andrew, ed. ''The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume III: The Nineteenth Century'' (2001) * Sontag, Raymond. ''European Diplomatic History: 1871–1932'' (1933), basic summary; 425 p
online
* Taylor, A.J.P. ''The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918'' (1954) 638 pp; advanced history and analysis of major diplomacy
online free
* Taylor, A.J.P. "International Relations" in F.H. Hinsley, ed., ''The New Cambridge Modern History: XI: Material Progress and World-Wide Problems, 1870–98'' (1962): 542–66
online
*


Europe

* Anderson, M. S. ''The Ascendancy of Europe: 1815–1914'' (3rd ed. 2003) * Blanning, T. C. W. ed. ''The Nineteenth Century: Europe 1789–1914'' (Short Oxford History of Europe) (2000) 320 pp * Bruun, Geoffrey. ''Europe and the French Imperium, 1799–1814 '' (1938
online
* Cameron, Rondo. ''France and the Economic Development of Europe, 1800–1914: Conquests of Peace and Seeds of War'' (1961), awide-ranging economic and business history. * Evans, Richard J. ''The Pursuit of Power: Europe 1815–1914'' (2016), 934 pp * Gildea, Robert. ''Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800–1914'' (3rd ed. 2003) 544 pp,
online 2nd ed, 1996
* * Mason, David S. ''A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity'' (2011), since 1700 * Merriman, John, and J. M. Winter, eds. ''Europe 1789 to 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire'' (5 vol. 2006) * Steinberg, Jonathan. ''Bismarck: A Life'' (2011) * Salmi, Hannu. ''19th Century Europe: A Cultural History'' (2008).


Asia, Africa

* Ajayi, J. F. Ade, ed. ''UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. VI, Abridged Edition: Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s'' (1998) * * Chamberlain. M.E. ''The Scramble for Africa'' (3rd ed. 2010) * Collins, Robert O. and James M, Burns, eds. ''A History of Sub-Saharan Africa''. *Basil Davidson, Davidson, Basil ''Africa In History, Themes and Outlines''. (2nd ed. 1991). * * Ludden, David. ''India and South Asia: A Short History'' (2013). * McEvedy, Colin. ''The Penguin Atlas of African History'' (2nd ed. 1996)
excerpt
* Mansfield, Peter, and Nicolas Pelham, ''A History of the Middle East'' (4th ed, 2013). * * Pakenham, Thomas. ''The Scramble for Africa: 1876 to 1912'' (1992)


North and South America

*Bakewell, Peter, ''A History of Latin America'' (Blackwell, 1997) * Beezley, William, and Michael Meyer, eds. ''The Oxford History of Mexico'' (2010) * * Black, Conrad. ''Rise to Greatness: The History of Canada From the Vikings to the Present'' (2014) * Burns, E. Bradford, ''Latin America: A Concise Interpretive History'', paperback, PrenticeHall 2001, 7th edition * Howe, Daniel Walker. ''What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848'' (2009), Pulitzer Prize * Kirkland, Edward C. ''A History Of American Economic Life'' (3rd ed. 1960
online
* Lynch, John, ed. ''Latin American revolutions, 1808–1826: old and new world origins'' (University of Oklahoma Press, 1994) * McPherson, James M. ''Battle Cry of Freedom The CIvil War Era'' (1988) Pulitzer Prize for US history * Parry, J.H. ''A Short History of the West Indies'' (1987) * Paxson, Frederic Logan. ''History of the American frontier, 1763–1893'' (1924)
online
Pulitzer Prize * White, Richard. ''The Republic for Which It Stands: The United States during Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, 1865–1896'' (2017)


Primary sources

* de Bary, Wm. Theodore, ed. ''Sources of East Asian Tradition, Vol. 2: The Modern Period'' (2008), 1192 pp * Kertesz, G.A. ed ''Documents in the Political History of the European Continent 1815–1939'' (1968), 507 pp; several hundred short documents


External links

* {{Authority control 19th century, 2nd millennium Centuries Late modern period