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January

*
January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. __TO ...
** The
Czechoslovak Legion The Czechoslovak Legion (Czech language, Czech: ''Československé legie''; Slovak language, Slovak: ''Československé légie'') were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs and Slovaks fighting on the side of the Allies of World ...
s occupy much of the self-proclaimed "free city" of
Pressburg
Pressburg
(now Bratislava), enforcing its incorporation into the new republic of
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Rep ...

Czechoslovakia
. ** HMY ''Iolaire'' sinks off the coast of the Hebrides; 201 people, mostly servicemen returning home to Lewis and Harris, are killed. **
Edsel Ford Edsel Bryant Ford (November 6, 1893 – May 26, 1943) was an American business executive and philanthropist who was the son of pioneering industrialist Henry Ford and his wife, Clara Bryant Ford, Clara Jane Bryant Ford. He was the president of Fo ...
succeeds his father as head of the
Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company (commonly known as Ford) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple c ...
. *
January 2 Events Pre-1600 *AD 69, 69 – The Roman legions in Germania Superior refuse to swear loyalty to Galba. They rebel and proclaim Vitellius as emperor. * 366 – The Alemanni cross the frozen Rhine in large numbers, invading the Roman Em ...
22
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
's
Caspian-Caucasian FrontThe Caspian-Caucasian Front () was a front of the Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of ...
begins the Northern Caucasus Operation against the
White Army The White Army or White Armies, also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, ''Belaya Gvardiya''), Whites, or White Guardsmen (Бѣлогвардейцы/Белогвардейцы, ''Belogvardeytsi''), wa ...
, but fails to make progress. *
January 3 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – The Roman legions on the Rhine refuse to declare their allegiance to Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpicius Galba; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January AD 69) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of t ...
– The
Faisal–Weizmann Agreement The Faisal–Weizmann Agreement was a 3 January 1919 agreement between Emir Faisal, the third son of Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi Hussein bin Ali Al-Hashimi ( ar, الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, ''al-Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī al-Hāshimī''; ...
is signed by
Emir Faisal
Emir Faisal
(representing the Arab
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East (modern-day western Saudi Arabia), the western portion of ...
) and
Zionist was the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 pamphlet ''Der Judenstaat ''Der Judenstaat'' ( German, literally ''The Jews' State'', commonly rendered as ''The Jewish State'') is a pamphlet written by Theodor Herzl and publishe ...
leader
Chaim Weizmann Chaim Azriel Weizmann ( he, חיים עזריאל ויצמן ', russian: Хаим Евзорович Вейцман, ''Khaim Evzorovich Veytsman''; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Russian-born biochemist, Zionist was the foun ...
, for Arab–Jewish cooperation in the development of a Jewish homeland in
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
, and an Arab nation in a large part of the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
. *
January 5 Events Pre-1600 *1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is defeated and killed in a conflict with René II, Duke of Lorraine; Duchy of Burgundy, Burgundy subsequently becomes part of France. 1601–1900 *1675 – Battle of Turckh ...
– In Germany: **
Spartacist uprising The Spartacist uprising (german: Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (''Januaraufstand''), was a (and the armed battles accompanying it) in from 5 to 12 January 1919. Germany was in the middle of a , and two of the perceiv ...
in Berlin: The Marxist
Spartacus League The Spartacus League (german: Spartakusbund) was a Marxism, Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during World War I. The League was named after Spartacus, leader of the Third Servile War, largest slave rebellion of the Roman Republ ...
, with the newly formed
Communist Party of Germany The Communist Party of Germany (german: Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, ; german: KPD, ) was a major political party in the Weimar Republic between 1918 and 1933, an underground resistance movement A resistance movement is an organized eff ...

Communist Party of Germany
and the Independent Social Democratic Party, begin mass demonstrations, which will be suppressed by armed force within a week. ** The
German Workers' Party The German Workers' Party (german: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political s ...
(''Deutsche Arbeiterpartei'', DAP), predecessor of the
Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, ...
, is formed by the merger of
Anton Drexler Anton Drexler (13 June 1884 – 24 February 1942) was a German far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum than the sta ...

Anton Drexler
's Committee of Independent Workmen with journalist
Karl Harrer Karl Harrer (8 October 1890 – 5 September 1926) was a German journalist and politician, one of the founding members of the ''Deutsche Arbeiterpartei'' ( German Workers' Party, DAP) in January 1919, the predecessor to the ''Nationalsozialistische ...
's Political Workers' Circle. *
January 6 Events Pre-1600 *1066 1066 (Roman numerals, MLXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. Events By place England * January 5 – Edward the Confessor dies after a 24-year reign at London. The Witena ...
Danone Danone S.A. () is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereig ...
, a well-known
dairy brand
dairy brand
worldwide, is founded in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. *
January 7 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC __NOTOC__ Year 49 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Lentulus and Marcellus (or, less frequently, year 705 ''Ab urbe condita 300px, Antoni ...
** The Tragic Week in
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
, an
anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. Its top ...
uprising in
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, begins; it is later suppressed by official forces. **
Estonian War of Independence The Estonian War of Independence ( et, Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army The Estonian Land Forces ( et, Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the E ...
: With
Soviet Russia The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
n forces just 40 km of the capital
Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biol ...

Tallinn
,
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
n forces start a general and successful counter-offensive against the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
. *
January 8 Events Pre-1600 *307 __NOTOC__ Year 307 ( CCCVII) was a common year starting on WednesdayA common year starting on Wednesday is any non- leap year (a year with 365 days) that begins on Wednesday Wednesday is the day of the week betwee ...
– The funeral of
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or his initials T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president o ...

Theodore Roosevelt
, 26th
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch, executive branch of the Federal gover ...

President of the United States
, is held at Christ Church Oyster Bay, Long Island; Roosevelt had died in his sleep at the age of 60, two days earlier. *
January 8 Events Pre-1600 *307 __NOTOC__ Year 307 ( CCCVII) was a common year starting on WednesdayA common year starting on Wednesday is any non- leap year (a year with 365 days) that begins on Wednesday Wednesday is the day of the week betwee ...
22
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front: The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
attacks and defeat the White
Don Army The Don Army (russian: Донская армия, ) was the military of the short lived Don Republic and a part of the White movement in the Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof ...
under
Pyotr Krasnov Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov ( rus, Пётр Николаевич Краснов; 22 September (Adoption of the Gregorian calendar#Adoption in Eastern Europe, old style: 10 September) 1869 – 17 January 1947), sometimes referred to in English lang ...
in the Voronezh–Povorino Operation. *
January 9 Events Pre-1600 * 681 – Twelfth Council of ToledoThe Twelfth Council of Toledo was initiated on 9 January 681 by the new King Erwig. One of its first actions was to release the population from the laws of Wamba and recognise Erwig, a ...
Friedrich Ebert Friedrich Ebert (; 4 February 187128 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic pol ...

Friedrich Ebert
orders the
Freikorps (, usually translated to "Free Corps Corps (; plural ''corps'' ; from French , from the Latin "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organization. A military innovation by Napoleon, the formation was first named as such ...
into action in Berlin. *
January 10 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC __NOTOC__ Year 49 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Lentulus and Marcellus (or, less frequently, year 705 ''Ab urbe condita 300px, Antonin ...
12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin. *
January 11 Events Pre-1600 *532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different Chariot racing, chariot teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the Hippodrome of Constantinople, Hippodrome escalates into violence. *630 &ndas ...
**
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
annexes
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western ...

Transylvania
. **The
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...

Georgian
genocide occurs in
Alagir Alagir (russian: Алаги́р; os, Алагир) is an industrial town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerabl ...
. *
January 12 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubikon at the head of the 13th Legion. Civil war between the former allies, Caesar and Pompey, is now inevitable. *475 – List of Byzantine emperors, Byzantine Emperor Zeno (emper ...
May 19 Events Pre-1600 * 639 – Ashina Jiesheshuai and his tribesmen assaulted Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Taizong at Jiucheng Palace. * 715 – Pope Gregory II is elected. *1051 – Henry I of France marries the Kievan Rus', Rus ...
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: On the Southern Front, the
Armed Forces of South Russia The Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR) () were the unified military forces of the White movement in southern Russia between 1919 and 1920. The Armed Forces of South Russia were formed on 8 January 1919, incorporating the Volunteer Army (which ...
under General
Anton Denikin Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Russian: Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин, IPA: nˈton ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ dʲɪˈnʲikʲɪn 16 December Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S._4_December.html" ;"title="Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ...

Anton Denikin
fight against the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
for the possession of the strategic region of the
Donbass The Donbas or Donbass (, ; uk, Донба́с ; russian: Донба́сс) is a historical, cultural, and economic region in south-eastern Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the List of ...
. *
January 13 Events Pre-1600 *27BC – Augustus, Octavian transfers the state to the free disposal of the Senate and the people. He receives Spain, Gaul, and Syria as his province for ten years. *532 – The Nika riots break out, during the racing ...
– Workers' councils in Berlin end the
general strike A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour (economics), labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers ...
; the Spartacist uprising is over. *
January 14 Events Pre-1600 *1236 – King Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence. *1301 – Andrew III of Hungary dies, ending the Árpád dynasty in Hungary. 1601–1900 *1639 – The "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, Fundamenta ...
Estonian War of Independence The Estonian War of Independence ( et, Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army The Estonian Land Forces ( et, Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the E ...
:
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
n forces liberate
Tartu Tartu (, South Estonian: ''Tarto'') is the second-largest city in Estonia, after the political and financial capital, Tallinn. It is southeast of Tallinn and 245 kilometres (152 miles) northeast of Riga, the capital of Latvia. Tartu lies on th ...

Tartu
from the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
. *
January 15 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – Otho Marcus Otho (; born Marcus Salvius Otho; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69) was for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the . A member of a noble family, Otho was initi ...
**
Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (; pl, Róża Luksemburg; also ''Rozalia Luksenburg''; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxism, Marxist, Philosophy, philosopher, economist, Anti-war movement, anti-war activist and Revolutionary socialism, revolut ...

Rosa Luxemburg
and
Karl Liebknecht Karl Paul August Friedrich Liebknecht (; 13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, ...

Karl Liebknecht
are murdered following the Spartacist uprising. ** Great Molasses Flood: A wave of
molasses Molasses () or black treacle Treacle () is any uncrystallised syrup In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from ar, شراب; ''sharāb'', beverage, wine and la, sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous The viscosity of a fluid ...

molasses
released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
, Massachusetts, killing 21 people and injuring 150. *
January 16 Events Pre-1600 *27 BCE __NOTOC__ Year 27 BC was either a common year starting on Sunday A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a cale ...
** The
Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution established the Prohibition in the United States, prohibition of alcohol in the United States. The amendment was proposed by Congress on December 18, 1917, and was rat ...
, authorizing
Prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture Manufacturing is the production of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that st ...
, is ratified. ** Pianist
Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski (;  – 29 June 1941) was a Poland, Polish pianist and composer who became a spokesman for Polish independence. In 1919, he was the new nation's List of Prime Ministers of Poland, Prime Minister and foreign minister dur ...

Ignacy Jan Paderewski
becomes the second
Prime Minister of Poland The President of the Council of Ministers (Polish language, Polish: ''Prezes Rady Ministrów''), colloquially referred to as the prime minister (Polish language, Polish: ''premier''), is the leader of the Cabinet of Poland, cabinet and the head o ...
. *
January 18 Events Pre-1600 *474 __NOTOC__ Year 474 ( CDLXXIV) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 Decemb ...
**
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
: The Paris Peace Conference opens in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, with delegates from 27 nations attending for meetings at the
Palace of Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...

Palace of Versailles
. **
Estonian War of Independence The Estonian War of Independence ( et, Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army The Estonian Land Forces ( et, Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the E ...
:
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
n forces liberate
Narva Narva () is a municipality and city in Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in . It is bordered to the north by the across from , to the west by the across from , ...

Narva
, expelling the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
from Northern Estonia. **
Bentley Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of Luxury vehicle, luxury cars and Sport utility vehicle, SUVs, and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998. Headquartered in Crewe, England, the company was founded as B ...

Bentley
Motors Limited is founded in England. *
January 19 Events Pre-1600 *379 – Emperor Gratian elevates Theodosius I, Flavius Theodosius at Sirmium to ''Augustus (honorific), Augustus'', and gives him authority over all the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. *649 – Conquest of Kucha: ...
28
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
begin the counter offensive in the Perm area against the White forces. *
January 19 Events Pre-1600 *379 – Emperor Gratian elevates Theodosius I, Flavius Theodosius at Sirmium to ''Augustus (honorific), Augustus'', and gives him authority over all the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. *649 – Conquest of Kucha: ...
** The
Monarchy of the North The Monarchy of the North ( pt, Monarquia do Norte), officially the Kingdom of Portugal ( pt, Reino de Portugal), was a short-lived revolution and monarchist government that occurred in the Norte Region, Portugal, North of Portugal, in early 1919. ...
is established in Northern Portugal. **
1919 German federal election Federal elections were held in Germany on 19 January 1919,Dieter Nohlen Dieter Nohlen (born 6 November 1939 in Oberhausen Oberhausen (, ) is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area The Ruhr ( ; german: Ruhrgebiet ), also referred to a ...
, first under the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
and the first in Germany with
female suffrage Women's suffrage is the women's rights, right of women to Suffrage, vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sou ...
. *
January 21 Events Pre-1600 *763 – Following the Alid revolt of 762–763, Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa, the Alid rebellion ends with the death of Ibrahim, brother of Isa ibn Musa. *1525 – The Switzerland, Swiss Anab ...
Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community i ...
meets for the first time in the
Mansion House, Dublin The Mansion House ( ga, Teach an Ard-Mhéara) on Dawson Street, Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the ...
. It comprises
Sinn Féin Sinn Féin ( , ; en, "eOurselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active throughout Ireland; both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation wa ...

Sinn Féin
members elected in the 1918 general election who have, in accordance with their
manifesto A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a ...
, not taken their seats in the
Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
, but chosen to declare an independent
Irish Republic The Irish Republic ( ga, Poblacht na hÉireann or ) was an unrecognised revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the Unite ...

Irish Republic
. In the first shots of the
Anglo-Irish War The Irish War of Independence ( ga, Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a name used by various paramilitary ...
, two
Royal Irish Constabulary The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC, ga, Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police force in Ireland from 1822 until 1922, when the country was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain an ...
(RIC) men are killed in an ambush at Soloheadbeg in
Tipperary
Tipperary
. *
January 23 Events Pre-1600 * 393 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the ...
Khotyn Uprising: partisans capture the city of
Khotyn Khotyn ( uk, Хотин, ; ro, Hotin; see #Name, other names) is a city in Dnistrovskyi Raion, Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine and is located south-west of Kamianets-Podilskyi. It hosts the administration of Khotyn urban hromada, one of ...
in Romania. *
January 25 Events Pre-1600 * 41 – After a night of negotiation, Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fourth Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ru ...
– The
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
is founded in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. *
January 31 Events Pre-1600 *314 __NOTOC__ Year 314 ( CCCXIV) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that con ...
Battle of George Square The Battle of George Square was a violent confrontation in Glasgow, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island ...
: The
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
is called in to deal with riots, during negotiations over working hours in
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
, Scotland.


February

*
February 1 Events Pre-1600 *1327 Year 1327 (Roman numerals, MCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events January–December * January 25 – The 14-year-old Edw ...
Estonian War of Independence The Estonian War of Independence ( et, Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army The Estonian Land Forces ( et, Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the E ...
:
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
n forces liberate Valga and
Võru Võru (; vro, Võro) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. ...
, expelling the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
from the entire territory of
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
. *
February 3 Events Pre-1600 *1112 Year 1112 ( MCXII) was a leap year starting on Monday A leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday Monday is the between and . According to the ...
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: Soviet troops occupy
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. *
February 4 This day marks the approximate midpoint of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and of summer in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the December solstice). Events Pre–1600 *211 Year 211 ( CCXI) was a common year starting on T ...
- 5 – Pressburg (
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the off ...

Bratislava
) becomes the capital of
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
. *
February 5 Events Pre-1600 * 62 – Earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth Earth is the third planet from t ...
**
United Artists United Artists Corporation (UA), currently doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American digital production company. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin Jr. (16 April ...
(UA) is incorporated by
D. W. Griffith David Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American film director. Widely considered as the most important filmmaker of his generation, he pioneered financing of the feature-length movie. His film ''The Birth of a Nation ...
,
Charlie Chaplin Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin Jr. (16 April 188925 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. He became a worldwide icon through his screen persona, the Tramp, and is consider ...

Charlie Chaplin
,
Mary Pickford Gladys Marie Smith (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979), known professionally as Mary Pickford, was a Canadian-American film actress and producer with a career that spanned five decades. A pioneer in the American film industry, she co-founded Pic ...

Mary Pickford
and
Douglas Fairbanks Douglas Elton Fairbanks Sr. (born Douglas Elton Thomas Ullman; May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director, and producer. He was best known for his swashbuckling A swashbuckler is a genre Genre () is ...
. **
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: Soviet troops occupy the city of
Kiev Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...

Kiev
after the
Battle of Kiev (January 1919) The Battle of Kiev in January 1919 was one of the three battles in Kiev (Kyiv), capital of Ukraine during the Russian Civil War and Ukrainian–Soviet War. It involved an offensive by elements of the Ukrainian Front of the Red Army to capture Kiev. ...
. *
February 6 Events Pre-1600 *AD 60, 60 – The earliest date for which the day of the week is known. A graffito in Pompeii identifies this day as a ''dies Solis'' (Sunday), by a system in which Sunday corresponds to the day of the week this day would ...
– The
Seattle General Strike
Seattle General Strike
begins in the United States, affecting over 65,000 workers. *
February 10 Events Pre-1600 * – : to the Mongols, bringing the to an end. * – In front of the high altar of Greyfriars Church in , murders , sparking the revolution in the . * – The breaks out in , England, leaving 63 scholars and pe ...
– The
Inter-Allied Women's Conference
Inter-Allied Women's Conference
convenes to compile a list of women's issues to present to the delegates of the Paris Peace Conference. *
February 11 Events Pre-1600 *660 BC The year 660 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) w ...
**
Friedrich Ebert Friedrich Ebert (; 4 February 187128 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic pol ...

Friedrich Ebert
is elected the first
President of Germany The president of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is ', with ' being added in international correspondence; ...
(''Reichspräsident''), by the
Weimar National Assembly The Constituent German National Assembly (german: verfassunggebende Deutsche Nationalversammlung), better known as the Weimar National Assembly (german: Weimarer Nationalversammlung, link=no), was the Constitutional convention (political meeting), ...
. ** The
Seattle General Strike
Seattle General Strike
ends, when
Federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...
troops are summoned by the
State of Washington Washington (), officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States The Western United States (also called the American West, the Far West, and the West) is the List of regions of t ...
's
Attorney General #REDIRECT Attorney general In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinio ...
. *
February 12 Events Pre-1600 *1404 Year 1404 ( MCDIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took e ...
– Ethnic Germans and Hungarian inhabitants of
Pressburg
Pressburg
start a protest against its incorporation into
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Rep ...

Czechoslovakia
, but the
Czechoslovak Legion The Czechoslovak Legion (Czech language, Czech: ''Československé legie''; Slovak language, Slovak: ''Československé légie'') were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs and Slovaks fighting on the side of the Allies of World ...
s open fire on the unarmed demonstrators. *
February 13 Events Pre-1600 * 962 – Emperor Otto I Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was East Francian king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 un ...
– Portugal's "
Monarchy of the North The Monarchy of the North ( pt, Monarquia do Norte), officially the Kingdom of Portugal ( pt, Reino de Portugal), was a short-lived revolution and monarchist government that occurred in the Norte Region, Portugal, North of Portugal, in early 1919. ...
" ends as a result of a revolt in Porto by civilians and National Republican Guard members. *
February 14 Events Pre-1600 *748 __NOTOC__ Year 748 ( DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on MondayA leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Leap year st ...
– The
Polish–Soviet War The Polish–Soviet War (Polish–Bolshevik War, Polish–Soviet War, Polish–Russian War 1919–1921) * russian: Советско-польская война (''Sovetsko-polskaya voyna'', Soviet-Polish War), Польский фронт (' ...
begins, with the
Battle of Bereza Kartuska The Battle of Bereza Kartuska was fought between the Second Polish Republic and Russian SFSR, Soviet Russia around the village Polesie Voivodeship, Bereza Kartuska (now Byaroza, Belarus) first on 14 February 1919, and again between 21 and 26 July 1 ...
. *
February 16 Events Pre-1600 * 1249 – André de Longjumeau, Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khagan of the Mongol Empire. *1270 – Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Livonian Order in ...
- 21
Estonian War of Independence The Estonian War of Independence ( et, Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army The Estonian Land Forces ( et, Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the E ...
: Uniformed peasants in
Saaremaa Saaremaa ( , ) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring . The main island of Saare County, it is located in the Baltic Sea, south of Hiiumaa island and west of Muhu island, and belongs to the West Estonian Archipelago. The capital of the islan ...

Saaremaa
rebel against the government of
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
; the rebellion is crushed by government forces, leaving more than 200 dead. *
February 25 Events Pre-1600 * 138 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rh ...
Oregon Oregon () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington (state), Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of it ...

Oregon
places a one cent per US gallon (0.26¢/liter) tax on
gasoline Gasoline () or petrol () (see the etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated word ...

gasoline
, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a
gasoline tax A fuel tax (also known as a petrol, gasoline or gas tax, or as a fuel duty) is an excise tax file:Lincoln Beer Stamp 1871.JPG, upright=1.2, 1871 U.S. Revenue stamp for 1/6 barrel of beer. Brewers would receive the stamp sheets, cut them into indiv ...
. *
February 26 Events Pre-1600 *740s BC, 747 BC – Epoch (reference date), Epoch (origin) of Ptolemy's Nabonassar Era. *364 – Valentinian I is proclaimed Roman emperor. *1266 – Battle of Benevento: An army led by Charles I of Naples, Charles ...
Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine pub ...

Grand Canyon National Park
: An act of the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
establishes most of the
Grand Canyon The Grand Canyon (, yuf-x-yav, Wi:kaʼi:la, , ) is a steep-sided canyon A canyon (; archaic British English spelling: ''cañon'') or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosion, erosive ...

Grand Canyon
as a
United States National Park The United States has 63 protected areas known as national parks that are operated by the National Park Service, an agency of the United States Department of the Interior, Department of the Interior. National parks must be established by an act ...
. *
February 28 It is the last day of February February is the second month of the year in the and s. The month has 28 days in s or 29 in s, with the 29th day being called the ''leap day''. It is the first of five months not to have 31 days (the other ...
** Amānullāh Khān becomes
King of Afghanistan of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...
. ** An independence mission to the U.S., funded by the Philippine legislature, sets out from Manila to present its case to
United States Secretary of War The secretary of war was a member of the President of the United States, U.S. president's United States Cabinet, Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's Presidency of George Washington, administration. A similar position, called either "Secr ...
Newton D. Baker.


March

*
March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC __NOTOC__ The year 509 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of ...
– The
March 1st Movement The March 1st Movement, also known as the Sam-il (3-1) Movement (Hangul The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (Hangeul), .Hangul may also be written as following South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean, standard Romanization. in So ...

March 1st Movement
against Japanese colonial rule in Korea is formed. *
March 2 Events Pre-1600 * 537 – Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoth The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...
– The Founding Congress of the Comintern opens in Moscow. *
March 3 Events Pre-1600 *473 – Gundobad (nephew of Ricimer) nominates Glycerius as emperor of the Western Roman Empire. *724 – Empress Genshō abdicates the throne in favor of her nephew Emperor Shōmu, Shōmu who becomes emperor of Japan. ...
-
April April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a modification of the Julian calendar, reducing ...
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: Beginning of the Chapan war as peasants of the provinces of
Samara Samara ( rus, Сама́ра, p=sɐˈmarə), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (; ), is the largest city and administrative centre of Samara Oblast. The city is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Samara (Volga), Samara rivers, with ...

Samara
and
Simbirsk Ulyanovsk is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River east of Moscow. The city, founded as Simbirsk (), was the birthplace of Vladimir Lenin (born Ul ...

Simbirsk
rebel against Soviet rule. *
March 4 Events Pre-1600 * AD 51 AD 51 ( LI) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addit ...
** The
Communist International The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third International, was an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable se ...
(Comintern) is founded. **
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: The White forces in Siberia under the command of Admiral
Alexander Kolchak Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (russian: link=no, Александр Васильевич Колчак; – 7 February 1920) was an Russian Empire, Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Na ...
attack the positions of the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
in the
Spring Offensive The 1918 Spring Offensive, or '' Kaiserschlacht'' ("Kaiser's Battle"), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War World War I or the First World War, often ...
. The Whites crush the 5th Red Army under Jan Blumberg, and capture Okhansk, Osa,
Sarapul Sarapul (Udmurt language, Udmurt and russian: Сара́пул) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and a river port in the Udmurt Republic, Russia, located on the right bank of the Kama River, southeast of Izhevsk, the capital of ...
and finally
Ufa is a city in Russia, the capital of the . UFA or Ufa may also refer to: Places *, a river in Russia; a tributary of the Belaya *, an airport in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia *, a town in of Ethiopia *Ufa Urban Okrug, a municipal for ...

Ufa
over the next days. *
March 4 Events Pre-1600 * AD 51 AD 51 ( LI) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addit ...
5Kinmel Park Riots by troops of the Canadian Expeditionary Force awaiting repatriation at Kinmel Camp, Bodelwyddan, in North Wales. Five men are killed, 28 injured, and 25 convicted of mutiny. * March 5 – A. Mitchell Palmer becomes United States Attorney General, through recess appointment. * March 8 ** The Rowlatt Act is passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in London, indefinitely extending the emergency provisions of the Defence of India Act 1915. ** British authorities in Egypt arrest populist leader Saad Zaghloul, exiling him to Malta, triggering the Egyptian Revolution of 1919. * March 11–June 8 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: The Cossacks of the Upper Don rebel against Bolshevik rule in the Vyoshenskaya Uprising and join the White forces. * March 15–March 17, 17 – Members of the American Expeditionary Forces convene in Paris for the first American Legion caucus. * March 17 – Birth of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. * March 21 – The Hungarian Soviet Republic is established by Béla Kun. * March 23 – Benito Mussolini founds his Italian Fascism, Italian Fascist political movement in Milan. * March 23–March 24, 24 – Charles I of Austria, Charles I, the last Emperor of Austria, leaves Austria for exile in Switzerland. * March 26 – Queen of the South F.C. is formed in Dumfries, Scotland. * March 27 – The name
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the off ...

Bratislava
is officially adopted for the city of Pressburg. * March 31 – A
general strike A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour (economics), labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers ...
begins in the Ruhr.


April

* April 5 – Pinsk massacre: 35 Jews are killed without trial, after being accused of Bolshevism. * April 6–April 7, 7 – The Bavarian Soviet Republic is founded. * April 10 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead in Morelos. * April 12 – French serial killer Henri Désiré Landru is arrested. * April 13 ** Amritsar Massacre: British and Gurkha troops Wiktionary:massacre, massacre 379 Sikhs at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, in the Punjab Province (British India). ** Eugene V. Debs enters prison at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia for speaking out against conscription in the United States during World War I. * April 15 – The Save the Children Fund is created in the UK to raise money for the relief of German and Austrian children. * April 20 – The French Army blows up the bridge over the Dniester at Bender, Moldova, to protect the city from the Bolsheviks. * April 22–June 20 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: Counteroffensive of Eastern Front – The Reds go on the offensive on the Siberia Front: General Hayk Bzhishkyan, Gaya Gai defeats the White forces near Orenburg after a 3-day battle. Over the next weeks, the Red Army pushes the Whites behind the Ural mountains. * April 23 – The Estonian Constituent Assembly convenes its first session. * April 25 ** The ''Bauhaus'' architectural and design movement is founded in Weimar, Germany. ** Anzac Day, ANZAC Day is observed for the first time in Australia. ** Pancho Villa takes Parral, Chihuahua, in Mexico, and executes the mayor and his two sons by hanging. * April 30 – First wave of 1919 United States anarchist bombings: several bombs are intercepted.


May

* May 1 ** A large left-wing demonstration in France leads to a violent confrontation with the police. ** May Day Riots of 1919, May Day Riots break out in Cleveland, Ohio; 2 people are killed, 40 injured, and 116 arrested. * May 2 –
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
troops and the
Freikorps (, usually translated to "Free Corps Corps (; plural ''corps'' ; from French , from the Latin "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organization. A military innovation by Napoleon, the formation was first named as such ...
occupy Munich and crush the Bavarian Soviet Republic. * May 3 – Amānullāh Khān attacks the British government in India. * May 4 ** The May Fourth Movement erupts in China as a result of the decision at the Paris Peace Conference to transfer former German concessions in Jiaozhou Bay to Japan rather than return sovereign authority to China. ** The League of Red Cross Societies is formed in Paris. * May 6 – The Third Anglo-Afghan War begins. * May 8 – Edward George Honey proposes a moment of silence to commemorate the Armistice of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. * May 8–May 27, 27 – United States Navy Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, Curtiss flying boat NC-4, commanded by Albert Cushing Read, makes the first transatlantic flight, from Naval Air Station Rockaway to Lisbon via Trepassey, Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland (departs May 16) and the Azores (arrives May 17). (On May 30–May 31, 31 it flies on to Plymouth in England.) * May 9 – In Belgium, a new electoral law introduces universal manhood suffrage and gives the franchise to certain classes of women. * May 14 – The University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, establishes probably the world's first Chair in International relations, International Politics, endowed by David Davies, 1st Baron Davies, David Davies and his sisters in honour of Woodrow Wilson, with Alfred Eckhard Zimmern as first professor. * May 15 ** Greek landing at Smyrna: The Hellenic Army lands at İzmir, Smyrna assisted by ships of the British Royal Navy. ** A law providing for full women's suffrage in the Netherlands is introduced. ** Winnipeg general strike: Workers in Winnipeg, Canada launch a strike for better wages and working conditions. * May 17 – The Committee of One Thousand forms to oppose the Winnipeg general strike. *
May 19 Events Pre-1600 * 639 – Ashina Jiesheshuai and his tribesmen assaulted Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Taizong at Jiucheng Palace. * 715 – Pope Gregory II is elected. *1051 – Henry I of France marries the Kievan Rus', Rus ...
** Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, marking the start of the Turkish War of Independence. The anniversary of this event is also an official day of Turkish Youth. ** Volcano Kelud erupts in Java, killing about 5,000. * May 23 – The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California#Southern Branch of the University of California (1919-1927), Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). * May 25 –
Estonian War of Independence The Estonian War of Independence ( et, Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army The Estonian Land Forces ( et, Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the E ...
:
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
n forces capture Pskov from the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
, and soon hand it over to the White forces. * May 27 ** Fyodor Raskolnikov is exchanged for 14 British prisoners of war. ** Siege of Spin Boldak (Third Anglo-Afghan War): This is the last time the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
uses an escalade. * May 29 ** Albert Einstein, Einstein's theory of general relativity is tested by Arthur Eddington's observation of the "bending of light" during a total solar eclipse in Príncipe (see Eddington experiment), and by Andrew Crommelin in Sobral, Ceará, Brazil (confirmed November 19). ** The Republic of Prekmurje formally declares independence from Hungarian Soviet Republic, Hungary. * May 30 – By agreement with the United Kingdom, later confirmed by the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
, Belgium is given the League of Nations mandate, mandate over part of German East Africa (Ruanda-Urundi).


June

* June – Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard. * June 2 – 1919 United States anarchist bombings: Eight mail bombs are sent to prominent figures. * June 4 – Women's rights: The
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the states for ratification. * June 5 – Estonian War of Independence, Estonian and Latvian War of Independence, Latvian Wars of Independence: The advancing pro-German ''Baltische Landeswehr'' initiates war against
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
in Northern Latvia. * June 6 – The Hungarian Red Army attacks the Republic of Prekmurje. * June 7 ** ''Sette Giugno'' on Malta: British troops fire on a mob protesting against the colonial government, killing four. **
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: Counteroffensive of Eastern Front: The Reds army capture the city of Birsk from the White forces. * June 9 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: Counteroffensive of Eastern Front: The Reds army recapture the city of
Ufa is a city in Russia, the capital of the . UFA or Ufa may also refer to: Places *, a river in Russia; a tributary of the Belaya *, an airport in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia *, a town in of Ethiopia *Ufa Urban Okrug, a municipal for ...

Ufa
* June 14–June 15, 15 – A Vickers Vimy piloted by John Alcock (RAF officer), John Alcock Distinguished Service Cross (United Kingdom), DSC, with navigator Arthur Whitten Brown, makes the first Transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, nonstop transatlantic flight, from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland. * June 15 – Pancho Villa attacks Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. When the bullets begin to fly to the American side of the border, two units of the United States 7th Cavalry Regiment cross the border, to push Villa's forces from American territory. * June 17 – Epsom Riot by Canadian troops: English Police Sergeant Thomas Green is killed. * June 18 – The second most popular Association football, football club in Costa Rica, Liga Deportiva Alajuelense, is founded. * July 1 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: Perm Operation (1918–19) begins on the Siberian Front: The 2nd and 3rd armies of Soviet Russia recapture the city of Perm, Russia, Perm. * June 20–June 25, 25 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front: The White Volunteer Army defeat the exhausted Red forces in the Kharkiv Operation (June 1919), Kharkiv Operation, capturing the industrial city of Kharkiv. * June 21 ** Winnipeg General Strike, Bloody Saturday of the Winnipeg general strike: Royal Northwest Mounted Police fire a volley of bullets into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two. ** Scuttling of the German fleet at Scapa Flow: Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet interned at Scapa Flow, Scotland; nine German sailors are killed. * June 23 – Estonian War of Independence, Estonian and Latvian War of Independence, Latvian Wars of Independence – Battle of Cēsis (1919), Battle of Cēsis: The Estonian army defeats the pro-German ''Baltische Landeswehr'' in northern Latvia, forcing it to retreat towards Riga; the event has been celebrated as Victory Day in Estonia ever since. * June 26 – British Foreign Office official St John Philby and T. E. Lawrence arrive in Cairo for discussions about Arab unrest in Egypt, having been flown by Canadian pilot Harry Yates (pilot), Harry Yates in a Handley Page bomber which set off from England on June 21. * June 28 ** The Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. John Maynard Keynes, who had been present at the conference and is unhappy with the terms of the treaty, brings out his own analysis later in the year, entitled ''The Economic Consequences of the Peace''. ** The International Labour Organization (ILO) is established as an agency of the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
.


July

* July 2 – The Syrian National Congress in Damascus: Arab nationalists announce independence. * July 2–July 6, 6 – British airship R34 (airship), R34 makes the first transatlantic flight by dirigible, and the first westbound flight, from RAF East Fortune, Scotland, to Mineola, New York. * July 3 – **Estonian War of Independence, Estonian and Latvian War of Independence, Latvian Wars of Independence: The pro-German ''Baltische Landeswehr'' signs a peace treaty with
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
and Latvia. The pro-German Prime Minister of Latvia Andrievs Niedra resigns, and Latvian forces take over Riga on July 8. **
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front: General
Anton Denikin Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Russian: Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин, IPA: nˈton ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ dʲɪˈnʲikʲɪn 16 December Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S._4_December.html" ;"title="Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ...

Anton Denikin
of the White Volunteer Army proclaimed the Directive No. 08878 (the Moscow Directive).This directive defined as operational and strategic target of the White Guard armies, to seize Moscow then controlled by the Bolsheviks, beginning the Advance on Moscow (1919). * July 5–July 20, 20 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Eastern or Siberian Front, Ekaterinburg Operation: The Red Army captures the city of Ekaterinburg in the Ural mountains from the White rule of Admiral
Alexander Kolchak Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (russian: link=no, Александр Васильевич Колчак; – 7 February 1920) was an Russian Empire, Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Na ...
. * July 7 – The United States Army sends a convoy across the continental U.S., starting in Washington, D.C., to assess the possibility of crossing North America by road. This crossing takes many months to complete, because the building of the U.S. Highway System has not commenced. * July 11 – The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands. * July 19 – The Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is established, by decree of the chancellory for foreign affairs. * July 21 – Wingfoot Air Express crash: The dirigible ''Wingfoot Air Express'' catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed; however, two people parachute to the ground safely. * July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft. * July 28 – The International Astronomical Union is founded in Paris, France. * July 31 – British police strikes in 1918 and 1919, British police strikes in London and Liverpool for recognition of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers; over 2,000 strikers are dismissed.


August

* August 1 – Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic collapses. * August 3 – The Romanian army liberates Timișoara from Hungarian occupation. * August 4 – The Romanian army occupies Budapest. * August 8 – The Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919, signed in Rawalpindi, ends the Third Anglo-Afghan War, with the United Kingdom recognising the right of the Emirate of Afghanistan to manage its own foreign affairs and Afghanistan recognising the Durand Line as the border with British India. * August 11 – In Germany, the Weimar Constitution is proclaimed to be in effect (ratified). * August 14–September 12 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front: A Southern Front counteroffensive , failed attack of the red army against the White Volunteer Army of
Anton Denikin Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Russian: Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин, IPA: nˈton ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ dʲɪˈnʲikʲɪn 16 December Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S._4_December.html" ;"title="Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ...

Anton Denikin
. * August 16–August 26, 26 – First Silesian Uprising: Poles in Upper Silesia rise against the Germans. * August 18 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: North Russia intervention – The Bolshevik fleet at Kronstadt, protecting Petrograd on the Baltic Sea, is substantially damaged by British Royal Navy Coastal Motor Boats (torpedo boats) and military aircraft in a combined operation. * August 21 –
Friedrich Ebert Friedrich Ebert (; 4 February 187128 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic pol ...

Friedrich Ebert
becomes the first president in Germany. * August 27 – South African Prime Minister Louis Botha dies in office. * August 24–September 12 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: Counteroffensive of Southern Front – The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
commanded by Vladimir Yegoryev attacks the White Movement, White forces of General
Anton Denikin Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Russian: Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин, IPA: nˈton ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ dʲɪˈnʲikʲɪn 16 December Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S._4_December.html" ;"title="Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ...

Anton Denikin
but is defeated. * August 29 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
captures Pskov from White forces. * August 31 – **The American Communist Party is established. **
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front: the city of
Kiev Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...

Kiev
is captured by the
White Army The White Army or White Armies, also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, ''Belaya Gvardiya''), Whites, or White Guardsmen (Бѣлогвардейцы/Белогвардейцы, ''Belogvardeytsi''), wa ...
.


September

* September 1–October 2 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Siberian Front: Admiral
Alexander Kolchak Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (russian: link=no, Александр Васильевич Колчак; – 7 February 1920) was an Russian Empire, Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Na ...
launches his final offensive in the Tobolsk operation, defeating the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
. * September 3 – Jan Smuts becomes the second Prime Minister of South Africa. * September 6 – The U.S. Army expedition across America, which started July 7, ends in San Francisco. * September 10–September 15, 15 – The 1919 Florida Keys hurricane, Florida Keys hurricane kills 600 in the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Texas. * September 10 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Austria-Hungary and declaring that the latter's empire is to be dissolved. The Republic of German-Austria becomes the First Austrian Republic but retains less than 40% of the prewar imperial territory. * September 12 ** Gabriele D'Annunzio, with his entourage, marches into Fiume and convinces Italian troops to join him. ** First gold fixing takes place in London. * September 17 – German South West Africa is placed under South African administration. * September 18–November 14 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Western Front: Battle of Petrograd:the White general Nikolai Yudenich approaches the city of Saint Petersburg with 18,500 soldiers, but is defeated by the defense organized by Leon Trotsky. * September 21 – The Steel strike of 1919 begins across the United States. * September 27 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: The last British Army troops leave Arkhangelsk, Archangel, and leave the fighting to the Russians. * September 30 – Elaine massacre: An estimated 100 to 237 black people and 5 white people were killed in Elaine, Arkansas, by white mobs and vigilante militias assisted by federal troops in "the deadliest racial confrontation in Arkansas history and possibly the bloodiest racial conflict in the history of the United States".


October

* October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid for the remainder of his life. * October 7 – The Dutch airline KLM is founded (as of 2019, it is the world's List of airlines by foundation date, oldest airline still flying under its original name). * October 9 – In Major League Baseball, the Cincinnati Reds win the 1919 World Series, World Series, five games to three, over the Chicago White Sox, whose players are later found to have Black Sox Scandal, lost intentionally. * October 10 –
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
adopts a radical land reform, nationalizing 97% of agrarian lands, mostly still belonging to Baltic Germans. * October 11–November 18 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front: The Red army defeat the white army in the Orel–Kursk operation, recapturing the cities and stopping the white's offensive to Moscow. * October 13 – The Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation is signed, in Paris, France. * October 13–November 16 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front: Using massive cavalry forces, The Red army threatened the flank of the white army in the [Voronezh–Kastornoye operation (1919). * October 16 ** In Weimar Republic, Germany, Adolf Hitler gives his first speech for the
German Workers' Party The German Workers' Party (german: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political s ...
(DAP). ** The historic Condado Vanderbilt Hotel is inaugurated, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. * October 26 – 1919 Luxembourg general election, the first in the duchy with
female suffrage Women's suffrage is the women's rights, right of women to Suffrage, vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sou ...
, following constitutional amendments of May 15. * October 28 – Prohibition in the United States: The
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
passes the Volstead Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. Prohibition goes into effect on January 17, 1920, under the provisions of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution.


November

* November 1 – The First Red Scare#Coal Strike of 1919, Coal Strike of 1919 begins in the United States, by the United Mine Workers under John L. Lewis; a final agreement is reached on December 10. * November 7 ** The first of the Palmer Raids is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution; over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in 23 different U.S. cities. **Inspired by Cape Town's daily Noon Gun Three Minute Pause, King George V institutes the Two-minute silence, Two Minute Silence, following a suggestion by James Percy FitzPatrick, Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, to be observed annually at Armistice Day, the Eleventh Hour of the Eleventh Day of the Eleventh Month.Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 13
"2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition
Accessed on 5 June 2014.
* November 9 – Felix the Cat debuts in ''Feline Follies''. * November 10–November 12, 12 – The first national convention of the American Legion is held in Minneapolis. * November 10 – ''Abrams v. United States'': The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the conviction Abrams for inciting resistance to the war effort against
Soviet Russia The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
. * November 11 **
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
: The White Movement, Northwestern Army of General Nikolai Yudenich retreats to
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
and is disarmed. ** The Centralia Massacre (Washington), Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington (United States), originating at an Armistice Day parade, results in the deaths of four members of the American Legion, and the lynching of a local leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). ** First Remembrance Day observed in the British Empire with a two-minute silence at 11:00 hours. * November 14 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Siberian Front: Admiral
Alexander Kolchak Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (russian: link=no, Александр Васильевич Колчак; – 7 February 1920) was an Russian Empire, Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Na ...
's White forces begin the Great Siberian Ice March from the cities of Omsk and Tomsk to Irkutsk, escaping from the victorious
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
. * November 16 – After Entente cordiale, Entente pressure, Romanian forces withdraw from Budapest and allow Admiral Horthy to march in. * November 19 – The Treaty of Versailles fails a critical ratification vote in the United States Senate. It will never be ratified by the U.S. * November 22 – An Solar eclipse of November 22, 1919, annular solar eclipse took place at Atlantic Ocean. The greatest eclipse was 6º56'01.68" N, 48º52'42.24" W. * November 27 – The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine is signed between the Allies of World War I, Allies and Kingdom of Bulgaria, Bulgaria. * November 30 – Health officials declare the global 1918 flu pandemic, "Spanish" flu pandemic has ceased.


December

* December 1 ** American-born Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor, becomes the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, having become the second to be elected on November 28. ** XWA (modern-day CINW), in Montreal, becomes the first public radio station in North America to go on the air. * December 3 – After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, including two collapses causing 89 deaths, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic. * December 4 – The French Opera House in New Orleans, Louisiana is destroyed by fire. * December 5 – The Ottoman Empire, Turkish Ministry of War releases Greeks, Armenians and Jews from Conscription, military service. * December 10–December 16 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front:
Kiev Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...

Kiev
is Battle of Kiev (December 1919), captured by the The Red army. * December 17 – Uruguay becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty. * December 18–December 31 –
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
, Southern Front: The Red army Donbas Operation (1919), captures the Donbas region from the Volunteer Army. * December 21 – The United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT Buford, USAT ''Buford''. * December 23 – Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 becomes law in the United Kingdom. * December 25 – Cliftonhill Stadium in Coatbridge, Scotland, opens as the home of Albion Rovers F.C. They lose the opening match 2–0 to St Mirren F.C., St Mirren. * December 26 – American baseball player Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at this time, a deal made public at the beginning of January 1920.


Date unknown

* John Browning finalizes the design for the M1919 Browning machine gun (.30-06 Springfield, .30 caliber), the first widely distributed and practical air cooled medium machine gun introduced to the United States Military. It receives an official designation, and production is started in the same year. * Hyperinflation, Severe inflation in Germany sees the German Papiermark, Papiermark rise to 47 Mark (currency), marks against the United States dollar by December, compared to 12 marks in April. * Foundation of the Yugoslav Women's Alliance.


Births


January

*
January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. __TO ...
** Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa, 5th Prime Minister of Sudan (d. 2006) ** Rocky Graziano, American boxer (d. 1990) ** Carole Landis, American actress (d. 1948) ** Daniil Granin, Soviet-Russian author (d. 2017) ** J. D. Salinger, American novelist (d. 2010) *
January 7 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC __NOTOC__ Year 49 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Lentulus and Marcellus (or, less frequently, year 705 ''Ab urbe condita 300px, Antoni ...
– Huang Feng, Hong Kong film director *
January 13 Events Pre-1600 *27BC – Augustus, Octavian transfers the state to the free disposal of the Senate and the people. He receives Spain, Gaul, and Syria as his province for ten years. *532 – The Nika riots break out, during the racing ...
– Robert Stack, American actor (d. 2003) *
January 14 Events Pre-1600 *1236 – King Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence. *1301 – Andrew III of Hungary dies, ending the Árpád dynasty in Hungary. 1601–1900 *1639 – The "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, Fundamenta ...
** Giulio Andreotti, Italian politician, 3-time Prime Minister of Italy (d. 2013) ** Andy Rooney, American television personality (d. 2011) *
January 15 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – Otho Marcus Otho (; born Marcus Salvius Otho; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69) was for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the . A member of a noble family, Otho was initi ...
– George Cadle Price, twice Prime Minister of Belize (1981–84 and 1989–93) (d. 2011) * January 17 – Mingote, Spanish cartoonist (d. 2012) *
January 18 Events Pre-1600 *474 __NOTOC__ Year 474 ( CDLXXIV) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 Decemb ...
– Juan Orrego-Salas, Chilean-American composer (d. 2019) *
January 19 Events Pre-1600 *379 – Emperor Gratian elevates Theodosius I, Flavius Theodosius at Sirmium to ''Augustus (honorific), Augustus'', and gives him authority over all the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. *649 – Conquest of Kucha: ...
** Antonio Pietrangeli, Italian film director and screenwriter (d. 1968) ** Wasfi Tal, three times Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1971) *
January 23 Events Pre-1600 * 393 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the ...
** Frances Bay, Canadian actress (d. 2011) ** Hans Hass, Austrian zoologist (d. 2013) ** Ernie Kovacs, American comedian (d. 1962) ** Bob Paisley, English footballer and manager (d. 1996) * January 24 ** Mario Bunge, Spanish writer, Slavonic scholar, Portuguese scholar, literary critic and translator (d. 2020) ** Leon Kirchner, American composer (d. 2009) * January 26 ** Valentino Mazzola, Italian footballer (d. 1949) ** Hyun Soong-jong, 22nd Prime Minister of South Korea (d. 2020) * January 27 – Ross Bagdasarian Sr., American musician and actor (''Alvin and the Chipmunks'') (d. 1972) * January 30 – Fred Korematsu, Japanese-American civil rights activist (d. 2005) *
January 31 Events Pre-1600 *314 __NOTOC__ Year 314 ( CCCXIV) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that con ...
– Jackie Robinson, African-American baseball player (d. 1972)


February

* February 2 – Carlo D'Angelo, Italian actor and voice actor (d. 1973) *
February 4 This day marks the approximate midpoint of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and of summer in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the December solstice). Events Pre–1600 *211 Year 211 ( CCXI) was a common year starting on T ...
– Janet Waldo, American actress (d. 2016) *
February 5 Events Pre-1600 * 62 – Earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth Earth is the third planet from t ...
** Red Buttons, American actor (d. 2006) ** Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (1981–89 and 1993–96) (d. 1996) * February 7 – Desmond Doss, American combat medic (d. 2006) *
February 11 Events Pre-1600 *660 BC The year 660 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) w ...
– Eva Gabor, Hungarian actress, best known for her role in ''Green Acres'' (d. 1995) *
February 12 Events Pre-1600 *1404 Year 1404 ( MCDIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took e ...
** Forrest Tucker, American actor, better known for his role in ''F Troop'' (d. 1986) ** Ferruccio Valcareggi, Italian football player and manager (d. 2005) *
February 13 Events Pre-1600 * 962 – Emperor Otto I Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was East Francian king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 un ...
– Tennessee Ernie Ford, American musician (d. 1991) *
February 14 Events Pre-1600 *748 __NOTOC__ Year 748 ( DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on MondayA leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Leap year st ...
– Hanzelka and Zikmund, Miroslav Zikmund, Czech adventurer and film director * February 17 – Kathleen Freeman, American film, television, voice actress, and stage actress (d. 2001) * February 18 ** Jack Palance, American actor (d. 2006) ** José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez, Colombian cardinal (d. 2019) * February 20 – Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani, Iranian Marja * February 22 – Harold Rahm, American-Brazilian Roman Catholic priest (d. 2019) * February 24 – Árpád Bogsch, Hungarian international civil servant (d. 2004) *
February 25 Events Pre-1600 * 138 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rh ...
– Karl H. Pribram, Austrian-American neuroscientist (d. 2015) *
February 26 Events Pre-1600 *740s BC, 747 BC – Epoch (reference date), Epoch (origin) of Ptolemy's Nabonassar Era. *364 – Valentinian I is proclaimed Roman emperor. *1266 – Battle of Benevento: An army led by Charles I of Naples, Charles ...
– Rie Mastenbroek, Dutch swimmer (d. 2003)


March

*
March 2 Events Pre-1600 * 537 – Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoth The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...
– Jennifer Jones, American film actress (d. 2009) *
March 3 Events Pre-1600 *473 – Gundobad (nephew of Ricimer) nominates Glycerius as emperor of the Western Roman Empire. *724 – Empress Genshō abdicates the throne in favor of her nephew Emperor Shōmu, Shōmu who becomes emperor of Japan. ...
** Peter Abrahams, South African-born Jamaican novelist and journalist (d. 2017) ** Tadahito Mochinaga, Japanese stop-motion animator (d. 1999) * March 5 – Peter Florjančič, Slovenian inventor (d. 2020) * March 7 – M. N. Nambiar, Indian film actor (d. 2008) * March 10 ** Marion Hutton, American singer and actress (d. 1987) ** Leonor Oyarzún, First Lady of Chile * March 11 – Kira Golovko, Russian actress (d. 2017) * March 14 – Dickey Chapelle, American photojournalist (d. 1965) * March 15 – Lawrence Tierney, American actor (d. 2002) * March 17 ** Nat King Cole, African-American singer ("Unforgettable (Nat King Cole song), Unforgettable") (d. 1965) ** Mad Mike Hoare, Indian-born British mercenary of Irish parentage (d. 2020) * March 18 – Santiago Álvarez (filmmaker), Santiago Álvarez, Cuban filmmaker (d. 1998) * March 19 – Abdullah Tariki, Saudi politician and government official (d. 1997) * March 20 – Gerhard Barkhorn, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1983) * March 21 – Prasert na Nagara, Thai scholar (d. 2019) * March 24 – Lawrence Ferlinghetti, American poet and publisher (d. 2021) * March 25 – Jeanne Cagney, American actress (d. 1984) * March 26 – B. J. Khatal-Patil, Indian politician (d. 2019)


April

* April 1 ** Joseph Murray, American surgeon, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2012) ** Jeannie Rousseau, French Allied intelligence agent (d. 2017) * April 5 – Lester James Peries, Sri Lankan director, screenwriter and producer (d. 2018) * April 6 – Caren Marsh Doll, American actress and dancer * April 8 – Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (1967–79) (d. 2007) * April 12 – Billy Vaughn, American singer, multi-instrumentalist, orchestra leader (d. 1991) * April 13 – Howard Keel, American singer and actor (d. 2004) * April 18 – Esther Afua Ocloo, Ghanaian entrepreneur and pioneer of microlending (d. 2002) * April 19 – Gloria Marín, Mexican actress (d. 1983) * April 21 ** Licio Gelli, Italian financer (d. 2015) ** André Bettencourt, French politician (d. 2007) * April 22 – Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2001) * April 23 – Osman Nuhu Sharubutu, Ghanaian Islamic cleric * April 24 ** Glafcos Clerides, Cypriot president (1993–2003) (d. 2013) ** César Manrique, Spanish artist, sculptor, architect and activist (d. 1992) ** Yi Hae-won, South Korean princess (d. 2020)


May

* May 1 ** Lance Barnard, Australian politician (d. 1997) ** Manna Dey, Indian playback singer (d. 2013) ** Mohammed Karim Lamrani, Prime Minister of Morocco (d. 2018) ** Dan O'Herlihy, Irish film actor (d. 2005) * May 3 – Pete Seeger, American folk singer and musician (d. 2014) * May 5 – Georgios Papadopoulos, President of Greece and Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1999) * May 7 – Eva Perón, wife of Argentine President Juan Perón (d. 1952) * May 8 – Lex Barker, American actor (d. 1973) * May 10 – Atmasthananda, Indian Hindu leader (d. 2017) * May 15 – Eugenia Charles, 3rd Prime Minister of Dominica (d. 2005) * May 16 – Liberace, American pianist, singer and actor (d. 1987) * May 17 – Antonio Aguilar, Mexican singer and actor (d. 2007) * May 18 – Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (d. 1991) *
May 19 Events Pre-1600 * 639 – Ashina Jiesheshuai and his tribesmen assaulted Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Taizong at Jiucheng Palace. * 715 – Pope Gregory II is elected. *1051 – Henry I of France marries the Kievan Rus', Rus ...
** Arvid Andersson (weightlifter), Arvid Andersson, Swedish weightlifter (d. 2011) ** Mitja Ribičič, Slovene politician, 25th Prime Minister of Yugoslavia (d. 2013) * May 21 – Vera Altayskaya, Soviet actress (d. 1978) * May 22 – Paul Vanden Boeynants, twice Prime Minister of Belgium (d. 2001) * May 23 – Betty Garrett, American actress and dancer (d. 2011) * May 25 – Raymond Smullyan, American mathematician, logician, and philosopher (d. 2017) * May 30 – René Barrientos, 47th President of Bolivia (d. 1969)


June

* June 5 – Veikko Huhtanen, Finnish artistic gymnast (d. 1976) * June 8 – Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, 2nd President and 3rd Prime Minister of Somalia (d. 1969) * June 12 – Ahmed Abdallah, President of the Comoros (d. 1989) * June 16 – V. T. Sambanthan, Malaysian politician (d. 1979) * June 18 – Gordon A. Smith, English-Canadian artist (d. 2020) * June 19 – Pál Fábry, Hungarian politician (d. 2018) * June 21 ** K. R. Gowri Amma, Indian politician ** Tsilla Chelton, French actress (d. 2012) * June 23 ** Mohamed Boudiaf, 4th President of Algeria (d. 1992) ** Hermann Gmeiner, Austrian educator (d. 1986) * June 27 – Amala Shankar, Indian danseuse (d. 2020) * June 29 ** Slim Pickens, American film and television actor (d. 1983) ** Ernesto Corripio y Ahumada, Mexican cardinal (d. 2008)


July

* July 1 ** Malik Dohan al-Hassan, Iraqi politician ** Mikhail Shultz, Soviet and Russian physical chemist (d. 2006) ** Arnold Meri, Estonian colonel (d. 2009) * July 3 – Gabriel Valdés, Chilean politician, lawyer and diplomat (d. 2011) * July 4 – Gerd Hagman, Swedish actress (d. 2011) * July 8 – Walter Scheel, President of Germany (d. 2016) * July 10 – Pierre Gamarra, French poet, novelist and literary critic (d. 2009) * July 11 – Donald Zilversmit, Dutch-born U.S. nutritional biochemist, researcher and educator (d. 2010) * July 13 – Grisha Filipov, leading member of the Bulgarian communist party (d. 1994) * July 14 – Lino Ventura, Italian actor (d. 1987) * July 15 – Iris Murdoch, British novelist and philosopher (d. 1999) * July 16 ** Choi Kyu-hah, 19th Prime Minister of South Korea and 4th President of South Korea (d. 2006) ** Hermine Braunsteiner, Austrian SS officer (d. 1999) * July 18 – Lilia Dale, Italian actress * July 19 – Patricia Medina, English-born actress (d. 2012) * July 20 – Edmund Hillary, Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountaineer, conqueror of Mount Everest (d. 2008) * July 24 ** Asadollah Alam, Iranian politician, 40th Prime Minister of Iran (d. 1978) ** Ferdinand Kübler, Swiss racing cyclist (d. 2016) * July 26 – James Lovelock, English biologist and chemist * July 31 ** Maurice Boitel, French painter (d. 2007) ** Primo Levi, Italian chemist and writer (d. 1987)


August

* August 2 ** Nehemiah Persoff, Israeli-American character actor ** Carlo Savina, Italian composer and conductor (d. 2002) * August 4 – Michel Déon, French writer (d. 2016) * August 8 ** Dino De Laurentiis, Italian film producer (d. 2010) ** Hau Pei-tsun, Premier of the Republic of China (d. 2020) * August 9 – Joop den Uyl, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1973 to 1977 (d. 1987) * August 11 – Ginette Neveu, French violinist (d. 1949) * August 12 – Margaret Burbidge, English-American astrophysicist and academic (d. 2020) * August 13 – George Shearing, Anglo-American jazz pianist (d. 2011) * August 15 – Dina Wadia, Indian political figure (d. 2017) * August 17 – Georgia Gibbs, American singer (d. 2006) * August 20 – Adamantios Androutsopoulos, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 2000) * August 24 – Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy, 31st President of Ecuador (d. 2004) * August 25 – George Wallace, American politician, 45th Governor of Alabama (d. 1998) * August 28 – Godfrey Hounsfield, English electrical engineer and inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004) * August 30 ** Maurice Hilleman, American microbiologist and vaccinologist (d. 2005) ** Joachim Rønneberg, Norwegian war veteran (d. 2018) ** Wolfgang Wagner, German opera director (d. 2010) ** Kitty Wells, American country music singer (d. 2012) * August 31 – Amrita Pritam, Indian poet and author (d. 2005)


September

* September 2 – Marge Champion, American actress (d. 2020) * September 8 – Maria Lassnig, American painter (d. 2014) * September 9 – Barbara Fiske Calhoun, American cartoonist in WWII and artist; co-founded Quarry Hill Creative Center, where she taught art for many years (d. 2014). **Pyotr Braiko, Soviet soldier (d. 2018) * September 11 **Ota Šik, Czech economist and politician (d. 2004) **Daphne Odjig, Canadian artist (d. 2016) * September 13 ** Olle Anderberg, Swedish wrestler (d. 2003) ** Mary Midgley, English philosopher (d. 2018) * September 14 – Kay Medford, American character actress and comedian (d. 1980) * September 15 ** Fausto Coppi, Italian cyclist (d. 1960) ** Alfie Scopp, Canadian English-born actor * September 17 – Helmut Ashley, Austrian cinematographer * September 18 – Pál Losonczi, Hungarian politician (d. 2005) * September 21 ** Mario Bunge, Argentine philosopher and physicist (d. 2020) ** Fazlur Rahman, Pakistani Islamic scholar (d. 1988) * September 23 – Tōta Kaneko, Japanese writer (d. 2018) * September 26 – Matilde Camus, Spanish poet and researcher (d. 2012) * September 27 ** Jayne Meadows, American actress (d. 2015) ** James H. Wilkinson, English mathematician (d. 1986) * September 29 – Margot Hielscher, German singer and film actress (d. 2017)


October

* October 3 – James M. Buchanan, American economist, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013) * October 5 – Donald Pleasence, English actor (d. 1995) * October 6 – Siad Barre, President of Somalia (d. 1995) * October 7 – Zelman Cowen, Governor-General of Australia (d. 2011) * October 8 – Kiichi Miyazawa, 49th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 2007) * October 11 – Art Blakey, American jazz drummer (d. 1990) * October 14 – Edward L. Feightner, United States Navy officer (d. 2020) * October 16 – Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003) * October 17 ** Isaak Khalatnikov, Ukrainian-Russian physicist and academic (d. 2021) ** Zhao Ziyang, Premier of the People's Republic of China (d. 2005) * October 18 ** Anita O'Day, American jazz singer (d. 2006) ** Pierre Trudeau, 15th Prime Minister of Canada (d. 2000) ** Orlando Drummond, Brazilian stage, television and film actor * October 22 ** Abdulrahim Abby Farah, Somali diplomat and politician (d. 2018) ** Doris Lessing, Persian-born English writer, winner of Nobel Prize in Literature (d. 2013) * October 23 – Manolis Andronikos, Greek archaeologist (d. 1992) * October 26 ** Edward Brooke, U. S. Senator from Massachusetts (d. 2015) ** Ashraf Pahlavi, Princess Ashraf of Iran (d. 2016) ** Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1980) * October 30 – Stane Kavčič, Prime Minister of Slovenia (d. 1987) * October 31 – Tong Siv Eng, Cambodian politician (d. 2001)


November

* November 1 ** Hermann Bondi, British-Austrian mathematician and cosmologist (d. 2005) ** Russell Bannock, Canadian fighter ace (d. 2020) * November 4 ** Martin Balsam, American actor (d. 1996) ** Shirley Mitchell, American actress (d. 2013) * November 6 – Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen, Portuguese poet and writer (d. 2004) * November 9 – Eva Todor, Hungarian-born Brazilian actress (d. 2017) * November 10 ** Mikhail Kalashnikov, Russian firearms inventor (d. 2013) ** Moïse Tshombe, Congolese business and politician (d. 1969) * November 18 ** Andrée Borrel, French World War II heroine (d. 1944) ** Jocelyn Brando, American actress and writer (d. 2005) * November 19 ** Elizabeth Strohfus, American aviator (d. 2016) ** Alan Young, British-born Canadian-American actor (d. 2016) ** Lolita Lebrón, Puerto Rican nationalist (d. 2010) * November 21 – Gert Fredriksson, Swedish canoer (d. 2006) * November 26 ** Ryszard Kaczorowski, President of Poland (d. 2010) ** Frederik Pohl, American science fiction writer (d. 2013) * November 28 – Keith Miller, Australian sportsman and Air force pilot (d. 2004)


December

* December 2 – Norma Miller, African-American dancer, choreographer, actress, author and comedian (d. 2019) * December 4 – I. K. Gujral, Indian politician, Prime Minister of India (d. 2012) * December 6 – Paul de Man, Belgian-born literary critic (d. 1983) * December 8 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (d. 1996) * December 9 – William Lipscomb, American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011) * December 11 – Paavo Aaltonen, Finnish gymnast (d. 1962) * December 13 – Hans-Joachim Marseille, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1942) * December 24 – Pierre Soulages, French artist


Deaths


January

* January 4 – Georg von Hertling, 7th Chancellor of Germany (German Reich), Chancellor of Germany (b. 1843) *
January 6 Events Pre-1600 *1066 1066 (Roman numerals, MLXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. Events By place England * January 5 – Edward the Confessor dies after a 24-year reign at London. The Witena ...
** Max Heindel, Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic (b. 1865) **
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or his initials T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president o ...

Theodore Roosevelt
, 26th
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch, executive branch of the Federal gover ...

President of the United States
(b. 1858) ** Jacques Vaché, French writer, associated with Surrealism (b. 1895) *
January 8 Events Pre-1600 *307 __NOTOC__ Year 307 ( CCCVII) was a common year starting on WednesdayA common year starting on Wednesday is any non- leap year (a year with 365 days) that begins on Wednesday Wednesday is the day of the week betwee ...
** Peter Altenberg, Austrian writer (b. 1859) ** J. Franklin Bell, Major General of the US Army (b. 1856) *
January 10 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC __NOTOC__ Year 49 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Lentulus and Marcellus (or, less frequently, year 705 ''Ab urbe condita 300px, Antonin ...
– Wallace Clement Sabine, American physicist (b. 1868) *
January 12 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubikon at the head of the 13th Legion. Civil war between the former allies, Caesar and Pompey, is now inevitable. *475 – List of Byzantine emperors, Byzantine Emperor Zeno (emper ...
– Charles Wyndham (actor), Sir Charles Wyndham, British actor and theatrical manager (b. 1837), Spanish flu *
January 15 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – Otho Marcus Otho (; born Marcus Salvius Otho; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69) was for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the . A member of a noble family, Otho was initi ...
**
Karl Liebknecht Karl Paul August Friedrich Liebknecht (; 13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, ...

Karl Liebknecht
, German communist politician (b. 1871; assassinated) **
Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (; pl, Róża Luksemburg; also ''Rozalia Luksenburg''; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxism, Marxist, Philosophy, philosopher, economist, Anti-war movement, anti-war activist and Revolutionary socialism, revolut ...

Rosa Luxemburg
, German communist politician (b. 1870; assassinated) *
January 16 Events Pre-1600 *27 BCE __NOTOC__ Year 27 BC was either a common year starting on Sunday A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a cale ...
– Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, Brazilian politician, 5th President of Brazil (b. 1848), Spanish flu * January 17 ** Alexis, Prince of Bentheim and Steinfurt (b. 1881) ** Arichi Shinanojō, Japanese admiral (b. 1843) *
January 18 Events Pre-1600 *474 __NOTOC__ Year 474 ( CDLXXIV) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 Decemb ...
** Prince John of the United Kingdom (b. 1905) ** Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria (b. 1842) *
January 21 Events Pre-1600 *763 – Following the Alid revolt of 762–763, Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa, the Alid rebellion ends with the death of Ibrahim, brother of Isa ibn Musa. *1525 – The Switzerland, Swiss Anab ...
– Gojong of Korea, Gojong, first Emperor of Korea (b. 1852) * January 22 – Carl Larsson, Swedish painter (b. 1853) * January 24 – Ismail Qemali, Albanian politician, 1st Prime Minister of Albania and 1st President of Albania (b. 1844) * January 27 ** Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (b. 1877) ** French Ensor Chadwick, American admiral (b. 1844) ** Nikolai Iudovich Ivanov, Russian general (b. 1851) * January 28 ** Franz Mehring, German communist politician (b. 1846) ** Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich of Russia (b. 1860) *
January 31 Events Pre-1600 *314 __NOTOC__ Year 314 ( CCCXIV) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that con ...
– Nat Goodwin, American actor and comedian (b. 1857)


February

* February 2 – Julius Kuperjanov, Estonian military commander (b. 1894) *
February 4 This day marks the approximate midpoint of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and of summer in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the December solstice). Events Pre–1600 *211 Year 211 ( CCXI) was a common year starting on T ...
– John C. Bates, American general (b. 1842) *
February 14 Events Pre-1600 *748 __NOTOC__ Year 748 ( DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on MondayA leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Leap year st ...
– Pál Luthár, Slovene teacher, cantor and writer (b. 1839) * February 17 – Wilfrid Laurier, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, 7th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1841) * February 20 ** Habibullah Khan, Emir of Afghanistan (b. 1872; assassinated) ** Augusta Lundin, Swedish fashion designer (b. 1840) * February 21 ** Kurt Eisner, German socialist revolutionary (b. 1867; assassinated) ** Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern (b. 1868) ** Mary Edwards Walker, American physician (b. 1832)


March

*
March 2 Events Pre-1600 * 537 – Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoth The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...
– Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero (b. 1812) * March 5 – Ernest von Koerber, Austrian politician, former Prime Minister (b. 1850) * March 10 – Amelia Edith Huddleston Barr, American novelist (b. 1831) * March 16 – Yakov Sverdlov, Bolshevik revolutionary and politician (b. 1885), Spanish flu * March 26 – Ernest Henry (explorer), Ernest Henry, British explorer (b. 1837)


April

* April 4 ** Saint Francisco Marto, witness to the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1917 at Fátima, Portugal (b. 1908), Spanish flu ** William Crookes, Sir William Crookes, British chemist and physicist (b. 1832) * April 8 – Frank Winfield Woolworth, American businessman (b. 1852) * April 9 – Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Drew, Sidney Drew, American stage and film actor (b. 1863) * April 10 – Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1879) * April 14 – Auguste-Réal Angers, Canadian judge and politician, 6th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (b. 1837) * April 15 – Jane Delano, American nurse and founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service (b. 1862) * April 19 – Andrei Eberhardt, Russian admiral (b. 1856) * April 20 ** Vasili Altfater, Russian and Soviet admiral (b. 1883) **Thomas Egan (gangster), Thomas Egan, American gangster (b. 1874) * April 21 – Jules Védrines, French pre-war aviator and World War I pilot (b. 1881) * April 23 – Prince Tsunehisa Takeda (Spanish flu) (b. 1882)


May

** María Antonia Bandrés Elósegui, Spanish Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1898) ** Anton Irv, Estonian military officer (b. 1886) * May 2 – Gustav Landauer, German anarchist (b. 1870; assassinated) * May 4 – Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak general, politician, and astronomer (b. 1880) * May 6 – L. Frank Baum, American author, poet, playwright, actor and independent filmmaker (''The Wizard of Oz'') (b. 1856) * May 9 – Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra, Dominican political figure, 2-time President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1846) * May 12 – D. M. Canright, American Seventh-day Adventist minister and author, later one of the church's severest critics (b. 1840) * May 14 – Henry J. Heinz, American entrepreneur (b. 1844) * May 15 – Aaron Aaronsohn, Romanian-born Israeli botanist (b. 1876) * May 21 – Victor Segalen, French naval doctor, ethnographer, archeologist, writer, poet, explorer, art-theorist, linguist and literary critic (b. 1878) * May 28 – Hermann von Spaun, Austro-Hungarian admiral (b. 1833)


June

* June 1 – Caroline Still Anderson, American physician (b. 1848) * June 5 – Eugen Leviné, German revolutionary (b. 1883; assassinated) * June 15 – Prince Francis Joseph of Braganza (b. 1879) * June 19 – Petre P. Carp, 2-Time Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1837) * June 29 **José Gregorio Hernández, Venezuelan medician and Roman Catholic venerable (b. 1864) **Alexander Ragoza, Russian general and Ukrainian politician (executed) (b. 1858) * June 30 – John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, British physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1842)


July

* July 2 – Friedrich Soennecken, German entrepreneur and inventor of hole punch and ringbinder (b. 1848) * July 10 ** Edward Abeles, American actor (b. 1869) ** Jean Navarre, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1895) * July 15 – Emil Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852) * July 17 – Charles Conrad Abbott, American naturalist (b. 1848) * July 18 – Raymonde de Laroche, French aviator, the first woman to receive an aviators license (b. 1882) * July 21 ** Eremia Grigorescu, Romanian general (b. 1863) ** Gustaf Retzius, Swediah physician and anatomist (b. 1842) * July 26 – Edward Poynter, Sir Edward Poynter, British painter (b. 1836)


August

* August 1 – Oscar Hammerstein I, Polish-born theater impresario and composer (b. 1847) * August 7 – Felice Abrami, Italian painter (b. 1872) * August 9 ** Ralph Albert Blakelock, American romanticist painter (b. 1847) ** Ernst Haeckel, German biologist, naturalist and philosopher (b. 1834) ** Ruggero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (b. 1857) * August 11 – Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-born businessman and philanthropist (b. 1835) * August 23 – Augustus George Vernon Harcourt, English chemist (b. 1834) * August 24 – Friedrich Naumann, German politician and pastor (b. 1860) * August 27 – Louis Botha, Boer general, statesman, 1st Prime Minister of South Africa (b. 1862)


September

* September 16 – Alfred Parland, Russian architect (b. 1842) * September 22 – Alajos Gáspár, Slovene writer in Hungary (b. 1848) * September 27 – Adelina Patti, Italian opera singer (b. 1843) * September 29 – Masataka Kawase, a.k.a. Kogorō Ishikawa, Japanese political activist and diplomat (b. 1840)


October

* October 1 – Princess Charlotte of Prussia, German royal (b. 1850) * October 2 – Victorino de la Plaza, Argentinian politician, 18th President of Argentina, leader (b. 1840) * October 6 – Ricardo Palma, Peruvian writer (b. 1833) * October 7 – Alfred Deakin, 2nd Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1856) * October 11 – Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857) * October 18 – William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor, American financier and statesman (b. 1848) * October 22 – John Cyril Porte, Irish-born British flying boat pioneer (b. 1884)


November

* November 3 – Terauchi Masatake, 9th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1852) * November 7 – Hugo Haase, German Socialist politician and jurist (b. 1863) * November 9 – Eduard Müller (Swiss politician), Eduard Müller, Swiss Federal Councillor (b. 1848) * November 15 – Alfred Werner, German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)


December

* December 2 ** Henry Clay Frick, American industrialist (b. 1849) ** Evelyn Wood (British Army officer), Sir Evelyn Wood, British field marshal and Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1838) * December 3 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter (b. 1841) *December 12 - Feng Guozhang, Chinese general (b. 1859) * December 16 – Julia Lermontova, Russian chemist (b. 1846) * December 18 – Sir John Alcock (RAF officer), John Alcock, British aviator; pilot of first nonstop transatlantic flight in airplane, June 1919 (b. 1892) * December 19 ** Alice Moore McComas, American suffragist (b. 1850) ** Martin Savage, Irish Republican Army, IRA commander (b. 1898) * December 22 – Sarah Morgan Bryan Piatt, American poet (b. 1836) * December 28 – Johannes Rydberg, Swedish physicist (b. 1854)


Nobel Prizes

* Nobel Prize in Physics, Physics – Johannes Stark * Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Chemistry – not awarded * Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Physiology or Medicine – Jules Bordet * Nobel Prize in Literature, Literature – Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler * Nobel Peace Prize, Peace – Woodrow Wilson


References


Sources

*


Further reading

* Klingaman, William K. ''1919, The Year Our World Began'' (1987) world perspective based on primary sources by a scholar.
''New International Year Book 1919'' (1920)
Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 744pp


External link

* {{DEFAULTSORT:1919 1919,