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This year is noted for the end of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, as well as for the
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
pandemic that killed 50-100 million people worldwide.


Events

Below, the events of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
have the "WWI" prefix.


January

*
January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365. ...
1918 flu pandemic: The "Spanish flu" (
influenza Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), ...

influenza
) is first observed in
Haskell County, Kansas Haskell County (county code HS) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nation ...
. *
January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfred the Great, Alfred are defeated by a Danish invasio ...
– The
Finnish Declaration of Independence The Finnish Declaration of Independence ( fi, Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; sv, Finlands självständighetsförklaring; russian: Провозглашение независимости Финляндии) was adopted by the Parliament of Finla ...
is recognized by Russia, Sweden, Germany and France. *
January 8 Events Pre-1600 *307 – Emperor Huai of Jin, Jin Huaidi becomes emperor of China in succession to his father, Emperor Hui of Jin, Jin Huidi, despite a challenge from his uncle, Sima Ying. *871 – Æthelred I, King of Wessex, Æthelre ...
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th from 1913 to 1921. A member of the , Wilson served as the and as the before winning the . As President, Wilson chang ...

Woodrow Wilson
delivers his
Fourteen Points U.S. President Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility and violence. In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean a lack ...
speech. *
January 9 Events Pre-1600 * 681 – Twelfth Council of Toledo: King Erwig of the Visigoths initiates a council in which he implements diverse measures against the Jews in Spain. *1127 – Jin–Song Wars: Invading Jurchen people, Jurchen soldiers ...
Battle of Bear Valley The Battle of Bear Valley was a small engagement fought in 1918 between a band of Yaquis and a detachment of United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It i ...
: U.S. troops engage
Yaqui The Yaqui, Hiaki, or Yoeme, are a Uto-Aztecan Uto-Aztecan, Uto-Aztekan or (rarely) Uto-Nahuatl is a Language family, family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over thirty languages. Uto-Aztecan languages are found almost e ...
Indian warriors in a minor skirmish in Arizona, and one of the last battles of the
American Indian Wars The American Indian Wars, also known as the American Frontier Wars, the First Nations Wars in Canada (french: Guerres des Premières Nations) and the Indian Wars were fought by European governments and colonists, and later by the United States an ...
between the United States and Native Americans. *
January 12 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubikon at the head of the 13th Legion. Civil war between the former allies, Caesar and Pompey, is now inevitable. *475 – List of Byzantine emperors, Byzantine Emperor Zeno (emper ...
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
enacts a "Mosaic Confessors" law, granting Finnish Jews civil rights. *
January 15 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – Otho Marcus Otho (; born Marcus Salvius Otho; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69) was for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the . A member of a noble family, Otho was initi ...
** The
keel The keel is the bottom-most longitudinal structural element on a vessel. On some sailboats, it may have a hydrodynamic In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ...

keel
of is laid in Britain, the first purpose-designed
aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a that serves as a seagoing , equipped with a full-length and facilities for . Typically, it is the of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to worldwide without depending on . Carriers have evolved since their incepti ...
to be laid down. ** The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
(The Workers and Peasants Red Army) is formed in the
Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
and
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. *
January 18 Events Pre-1600 * – Seven-year-old succeeds his maternal grandfather as . He dies ten months later. * – in fail. * – abdicates the Chinese throne in favour of his son . * – King marries , daughter of , uniting the ...
** The
Russian Constituent Assembly The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ) ...
meets. ** The Historic Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans of Austrian and Hungarian Soldiers is held at the
Konzerthaus, Vienna The Konzerthaus is a concert hall A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage that serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats. While early halls built in the 18th and 19th century were designed for cl ...

Konzerthaus, Vienna
. *
January 19 Events Pre-1600 *379 Year 379 ( CCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its do ...
– The Russian Constituent Assembly proclaims the
Russian Democratic Federative Republic The Russian Republic., referred to as the Russian Democratic Federal Republic in the 1918 Constitution, was a short-lived state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publish ...
but is dissolved by the Bolshevik government on the same day. *
January 25 Events Pre-1600 * – After a night of negotiation, is accepted as by the . * – In the , the rebels defeat the , leading to overthrow of the dynasty. * – A strikes the South Alpine region of in modern , causing considerabl ...
– The
Ukrainian People's Republic The Ukrainian People's Republic (UPR), or Ukrainian National Republic (UNR), was a country in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term ...

Ukrainian People's Republic
declares independence from
Bolshevik The Bolsheviks (Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (росси ...

Bolshevik
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
. *
January 27 Events Pre-1600 * 98 – Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful sol ...
– The
Finnish Civil War The Finnish Civil War; . Other designations: Brethren War, Citizen War, Class War, Freedom War, Red Rebellion and Revolution, . According to 1,005 interviews done by the newspaper '' Aamulehti'', the most popular names were as follows: Civil ...
begins with the Battle of Kämärä. *
January 28 Events Pre-1600 * 98 – On the death of Nerva Nerva (; originally Marcus Cocceius Nerva; 8 November 30 – 27 January 98) was from 96 to 98. Nerva became emperor when aged almost 66, after a lifetime of imperial service under and ...
Porvenir massacre: Texas Rangers, U.S. Cavalry soldiers and local ranchers kill 15 unarmed Mexican villagers, both men and boys.


February

*
February 1 Events Pre-1600 *1327 Year 1327 (Roman numerals, MCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events January–December * January 25 – The 14-year-old Edw ...
Cattaro Mutiny: Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro (Kotor), led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny. *
February 5 Events Pre-1600 * – in , Italy. * – , leader of a against the , declares himself emperor and establishes the .Volume 217 of ' recorded that An crowned himself emperor on the 1st day of the 1st month of the 1st year of the Zhide e ...
– The is torpedoed off the Irish coast; it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed and sunk. *
February 6 Events Pre-1600 *AD 60, 60 – The earliest date for which the day of the week is known. A graffito in Pompeii identifies this day as a ''dies Solis'' (Sunday), by a system in which Sunday corresponds to the day of the week this day would ...
Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom was a movement to fight for women's right to vote. It finally succeeded through laws in 1918 and 1928. It became a national movement in the Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom, th ...
:
Representation of the People ActRepresentation of the People Act is a short title used for legislation addressing electoral matters. The term usually refers to the various statutes enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom from the 19th century onwards. It was later adopted i ...

Representation of the People Act
gives most women over 30 the vote. *
February 14 Events Pre-1600 *748 __NOTOC__ Year 748 ( DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on MondayA leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Leap year st ...
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
switches from the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
to the
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
; the date skips from
January 31 Events Pre-1600 *314 __NOTOC__ Year 314 ( CCCXIV) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that cont ...
to
February 14 Events Pre-1600 *748 __NOTOC__ Year 748 ( DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on MondayA leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Leap year st ...
. *
February 16 Events Pre-1600 * 1249 – André de Longjumeau, Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khagan of the Mongol Empire. *1270 – Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Livonian Order in ...
– The
Council of Lithuania The Council of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Taryba, german: Litauischer Staatsrat, pl, Rada Litewska), after July 11, 1918 the State Council of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Valstybės Taryba) was convened at the Vilnius Conference that took place betwee ...
adopts the
Act of Independence of Lithuania The Act of Reinstating Independence of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Valstybės atkūrimo aktas) or Act of 16 February was signed by the Council of Lithuania on 16 February 1918, proclaiming the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania ...
, declaring Lithuania's independence from the
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=1, Росси́йская Сове́тская Федерати́вная Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Rossíyskaya Sovétskaya ...
. *
February 18 Events Pre-1600 * 1229 – The Sixth Crusade The Sixth Crusade, commonly known as the Crusade of Frederick II (1228–1229), was a military expedition to recapture the city of Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ...
Operations against the Marri and Khetran tribes in
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Balochistan
by British authorities begin. *
February 19 Events Pre-1600 * 197 – Emperor Septimius Severus defeats Roman usurper, usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum, the bloodiest battle between Roman armies. *356 – The anti-paganism policy of Constantius II forbids the wo ...
– WWI: The
Capture of Jericho The Capture of Jericho occurred between 19 and 21 February 1918 to the east of Jerusalem beginning the Occupation of the Jordan Valley during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War. Fighting took place in an area bordered by the Be ...
by the
Egyptian Expeditionary Force The Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) was a British Empire military formation, formed on 10 March 1916 under the command of General Archibald Murray from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt (1914–15), at the beginnin ...
begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley. *
February 19 Events Pre-1600 * 197 – Emperor Septimius Severus defeats Roman usurper, usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum, the bloodiest battle between Roman armies. *356 – The anti-paganism policy of Constantius II forbids the wo ...
25 – WWI: The
Imperial Russian Navy The Imperial Russian Navy () operated as the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral ...
evacuates
Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biol ...

Tallinn
through thick ice, over the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and E ...
. *
February 21 Events Pre-1600 * or – , is martyred in Palestine. * – , the first known , is granted resignation after confessing to torture and . * – The is formed. 1601–1900 * – is unanimously elected by a , beginning the of . * ...
– The last
Carolina parakeet The Carolina parakeet (''Conuropsis carolinensis''), or Carolina conure, is an extinct species of small green neotropical parrot with a bright yellow head, reddish orange face and pale beak that was native to the eastern United States, eastern ...
(the last breed of
parrot Parrots, also known as psittacines , are bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class ...

parrot
native to the eastern United States) dies in captivity at the
Cincinnati Zoo The Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden is the sixth-oldest zoo in the United States, opening in 1873, after the Roger Williams Park Zoo (1872). It is located in the Avondale neighborhood of Cincinnati Cincinnati ( ) is a major city in the U ...

Cincinnati Zoo
. *
February 24 Events Pre-1600 *484 __NOTOC__ Year 484 ( CDLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calend ...
Estonian Declaration of Independence __NOTOC__ , Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Balti ...

Estonian Declaration of Independence
from
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
, after seven centuries of foreign rule; German forces capture
Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biol ...

Tallinn
the following day.


March

*
March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC – Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first Roman triumph, triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia. *293 – Emperor ...
– WWI: German submarine sinks off
Rathlin Island Rathlin Island (Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom ...

Rathlin Island
, Northern Ireland. *
March 3 Events Pre-1600 *473 – Gundobad (nephew of Ricimer) nominates Glycerius as emperor of the Western Roman Empire. *724 – Empress Genshō abdicates the throne in favor of her nephew Emperor Shōmu, Shōmu who becomes emperor of Japan. ...
– WWI: The
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World W ...
and Bolshevist Russia sign the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (also known as the Peace of Brest in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and depende ...
, ending Russia's involvement in the war. *
March 6 Events Pre-1600 *12 BCE __NOTOC__ Year 12 BC was either a , or or a (link will display the full calendar) of the (the sources differ, see for further information) and a of the . At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship ...
** The Finnish Army Corps of Aviation is founded as a forerunner of the
Finnish Air Force , colours = , colours_label = , march = , mascot = , anniversaries = , equipment = 134 , equipment_label ...
(established on 4 May 1928). The blue
swastika The swastika symbol, 卐 (''right-facing'' or ''clockwise'') or 卍 (''left-facing'', ''counterclockwise'', or sauwastika), is an ancient religious icon in various Eurasian cultures. It is used as a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Ind ...

swastika
is adopted as its symbol, as a tribute to the Swedish explorer and aviator
Eric von Rosen Count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. No ...
, who donated the first plane. Von Rosen had painted the Viking symbol on the plane as his personal lucky insignia. ** The first pilotless drone, the
Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane The Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane was a project undertaken during World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 Nove ...
developed by
Elmer Sperry Elmer Ambrose Sperry Sr. (October 12, 1860 – June 16, 1930) was an American inventor and entrepreneur, most famous for construction, 2 years after Herman Anschütz-Kaempfe, of the gyrocompass and as founder of the Sperry Gyroscope Company. H ...
and
Peter Cooper Hewitt Peter Cooper Hewitt (May 5, 1861 – August 25, 1921) was an American electrical engineer and inventor, who invented the first mercury-vapor lamp in 1901. Hewitt was issued on September 17, 1901. In 1903, Hewitt created an improved version ...

Peter Cooper Hewitt
, is test-flown in
Long Island, New York Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, part of the New York metropolitan area. At New York Harbor, it begins approximately east of Manhattan, Manhattan Island and exte ...
, but development is scrapped in 1925, after its guidance system proves unreliable. *
March 7 Events * 161 – Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a ...
** WWI:
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
forms an alliance with Germany. ** Matsushita Electric Housewares Manufacturing Works, the predecessor of
Panasonic formerly is a major Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state ...

Panasonic
, a famous
consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum ...
brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising for recognition and, importantly, to cre ...

brand
, is founded in
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region The or the , lies in the southern-central region of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...

Osaka
, Japan. *
March 8 Events Pre-1600 * 1010 – Ferdowsi , image = File:Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran 3 (cropped2).jpg , image_size = , caption = Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran, Tus by Abolhassan Sadighi , birth_date = 940 , birth_place = Tus, Ira ...
– WWI: The
Battle of Tell 'Asur The Battle of Tell 'Asur, also known as the actions of Tel Asur or the Battle of Turmus Ayya, Turmus 'Aya, took place 8–12 March 1918, after the decisive victory at the Battle of Jerusalem (1917), Battle of Jerusalem and the Capture of Jericho d ...
is launched by units of the
British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces. , the British Army comprises 80,040 regular full-time personnel and 30,020 Army Reserve (United Kingdom), reserve personnel ...
's
Egyptian Expeditionary Force The Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) was a British Empire military formation, formed on 10 March 1916 under the command of General Archibald Murray from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt (1914–15), at the beginnin ...
against Ottoman defences from the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
, across the
Judaean Mountains The Judaean Mountains, or Judaean Hills ( he, הרי יהודה ''Harei Yehuda'') or the Hebron Mountains ( ar, جبال الخليل ''Jibal Al Khalil'' (lit. "The Khalil Mountains")), is a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountai ...
to the edge of the Jordan Valley; it ends on
March 12 Events Pre-1600 * – , of the ends his and retreats to , leaving the city in the hands of the victorious general, . * - German city Munich (München) is first mentioned as ''forum apud Munichen'' in the by Holy Roman Emperor . 1601 ...
, with the move of much of the front line north into Ottoman territory. *
March 12 Events Pre-1600 * – , of the ends his and retreats to , leaving the city in the hands of the victorious general, . * - German city Munich (München) is first mentioned as ''forum apud Munichen'' in the by Holy Roman Emperor . 1601 ...
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
becomes the capital of Soviet Russia. *
March 19 Sometimes the March equinox falls on this date (mostly in Western Hemisphere countries), marking the vernal point in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun ...
– The
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
establishes
time zone A time zone is an area that observes a uniform standard time for legal, Commerce, commercial and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries between Country, countries and their Administrative division, subdivisions instead of ...
s, and approves
daylight saving time#REDIRECT Daylight saving time Daylight saving time (DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time (the United States and Canada) and summer time (United Kingdom, European Union, and others), is the practice of advancing clocks (typically by ...

daylight saving time
(DST goes into effect on
March 31 It is the last day of the first quarter of the year. Events Pre-1600 * 307 __NOTOC__ Year 307 ( CCCVII) was a common year starting on WednesdayA common year starting on Wednesday is any non- leap year (a year with 365 days) that begins on ...
). *
March 21 Events Pre-1600 * 537 – Siege of Rome: King Vitiges Vitiges or Vitigis, Witiges (died 542) was king of the Ostrogoths in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a ...
July 18 Events Pre-1600 *477 BC __NOTOC__ Year 477 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Pulvillus and Lanatus (or, less frequently, year 277 ''Ab urbe condita 300px, Antonin ...
– WWI: The
Spring Offensive The 1918 Spring Offensive, or '' Kaiserschlacht'' ("Kaiser's Battle"), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War World War I or the First World War, often ...
by the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
Army along the
Western FrontWestern Front or West Front may refer to: Military frontiers *Western Front (World War I), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (World War II), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (Russian Empire), a major ...

Western Front
fails to make a breakthrough, despite large losses on each side, including nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day,
Operation Michael Operation Michael was a major German military offensive during the First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11&n ...
, on the Somme. *
March 21 Events Pre-1600 * 537 – Siege of Rome: King Vitiges Vitiges or Vitigis, Witiges (died 542) was king of the Ostrogoths in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a ...
– WWI: The
First Transjordan attack on Amman The First Transjordan attack on Amman (known to the British as the First Attack on Amman)Battles Nomenclature Committee 1922 p. 33 and to their enemy as the First Battle of the JordanErickson 2001 p. 195 took place between 21 March and 2 April 19 ...
by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins, with the passage of the Jordan River. *
March 23 Events Pre-1600 *1400 Year 1400 ( MCD) was a leap year starting on ThursdayA leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday Thursday is the day of the week between Wednes ...
** WWI: The giant German cannon, the '
Paris Gun The Paris Gun (german: Paris-Geschütz / Pariser Kanone) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918. When the guns we ...
' (''Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz''), begins to shell Paris from away. ** In London at the
Wood Green Wood Green is a suburban district in the borough of Haringey The London Borough of Haringey (pronounced , same as Harringay) is a London borough in North London, classified by some definitions as part of Inner London, and by others as pa ...

Wood Green
Empire,
Chung Ling Soo William Ellsworth Robinson (April 2, 1861 – March 24, 1918) was an American magician who went by the stage name Chung Ling Soo (). He is mostly remembered today for his accidental death due to a failed bullet catch trick. Early years Robinson ...

Chung Ling Soo
(William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick, where he is supposed to " catch" two separate bullets (but one of them perforates his lung). He dies the following morning in a hospital. * March 25 ** The Belarusian People's Republic declares independence. ** Dr. Karl Muck, music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, is arrested under the Alien Enemies Act, and imprisoned for the duration of WWI. * March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book ''Married Love'' in the U.K. * March 27 – WWI: The First Battle of Amman is launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, during the First Transjordan attack on Amman; it ends with their withdrawal on 31 March, back to the Jordan Valley. * March 30 – March Days:
Bolshevik The Bolsheviks (Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (росси ...

Bolshevik
and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths.


April

* April 1 – The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service in Britain are merged to form the Royal Air Force, the first autonomous Air Force in the world. * April 5 – Sālote Tupou III, Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga; she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965. * April 8 – Operations against the Marri and Khetran tribes in
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Balochistan
end with surrender to the British authorities. * April 9 – Union of Bessarabia with Romania: Bessarabia votes to become part of the Kingdom of Romania. * April 21 – WWI: Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron", the war's most successful fighter pilot, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River. * April 22 – Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia (country), Georgia declare their independence from Russia as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. * April 23 – WWI: ** Conscription Crisis of 1918 in Ireland: A general strike is held here against conscription. ** Zeebrugge Raid: The British Royal Navy attempts to seal off the German U-boat base here. ** First Ostend Raid: The British Royal Navy unsuccessfully attempts to seal off the German U-boat base here. * April 28 – WWI: Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, dies in Terezin, Austria-Hungary, after three years in prison. * April 30 – WWI: The Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt, launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, ends on 4 May, with their withdrawal back to the Jordan Valley.


May

* May 1 – WWI: German troops enter Don Host Oblast; they take Rostov on May 8. * May 2 – General Motors acquires the Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware. * May 7 – WWI: The British capture Kirkuk. * May 9 – WWI – Second Ostend Raid: The British Royal Navy unsuccessfully attempts, for a second time, to seal off the German U-boat base here. * May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established. * May 14 – The Three Minute Pause, initiated by the daily firing of the Noon Gun on Signal Hill (Cape Town), Signal Hill, is instituted by Cape Town Mayor Sir Harry Hands. It will inspire the introduction of the two-minute silence in November 1919. * May 15 ** The
Finnish Civil War The Finnish Civil War; . Other designations: Brethren War, Citizen War, Class War, Freedom War, Red Rebellion and Revolution, . According to 1,005 interviews done by the newspaper '' Aamulehti'', the most popular names were as follows: Civil ...
ends. ** The United States Postal Service, United States Post Office Department begins the world's third regular airmail service, between New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. * May 16 – The Sedition Act of 1918 is approved by the U.S. Congress. * May 20 – The small town of Codell, Kansas is hit for the third year in a row, on the same date, by a tornado. * May 21 – The United States Army Aviation Section is separated from the Signal Corps (United States Army), Signal Corps, and divided into the Division of Military Aeronautics and the Bureau of Aircraft Production. * May 24 – Canadian women (excluding Quebec) are granted the right to vote in federal elections. * May 26 – The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic is abolished; Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia. * May 27 – WWI: The Third Battle of the Aisne commences. * May 28 – Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic respectively. * May 29 – WWI: The week-long Battle of Sardarabad concludes with defending Armenian forces victorious over the Ottomans. * May 29–May 30, 30 – WWI: Battle of Skra-di-Legen, Battle of Skra di Legen – The Greek National Defence Army Corps defeats the Bulgarians.


June

* June–August – The "1918 flu pandemic, Spanish 'flu" becomes pandemic. Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months. * June 1 – WWI: The Battle of Belleau Wood begins. * June 4 – RMS ''Kenilworth Castle'', one of the Union-Castle Line steamships, collides with her escort destroyer Yarrow M class destroyer, HMS ''Rival'' while trying to avoid her other escort, the cruiser HMS Kent (1901), HMS ''Kent''. * June 5 – The ''Afrikaner Broederbond'', a confidential cultural organisation, is founded in Johannesburg. * June 8 – V603 Aquilae, the brightest nova observed since Kepler's Supernova, Kepler's of 1604, is discovered. * June 10 – WWI: The Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István, SMS ''Szent István'' is sunk by two Italian MAS (boat), MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast. * June 12 ** Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia, Grand Duke Michael of Russia is murdered, thereby becoming the first of the Romanovs to be killed by the Bolsheviks. ** WWI: The first airplane bombing raid by an American unit in France is carried out. * June 16 – The Declaration to the Seven, a United Kingdom, British government response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables, is published. * June 22 – Suspects in the Chicago Restaurant Poisonings are arrested, and more than 100 waiters are taken into custody for poisoning restaurant customers with a lethal powder called Mickey Finn (drugs), Mickey Finn. * June 29 – Bronx International Exposition of Science, Arts and Industries opens in New York; Brazil is the only international exhibitor and the exposition closes at the end of the season.


July

* July 3 – Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War: The Siberian Intervention is launched by the Allies of World War I, Allies, to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War. * July 4 – Mehmed VI succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V (Reşâd, who has reigned since 1909), himself reigning until the Sultanate is abolished in 1922. * July 9 – Great Train Wreck of 1918: In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101. * July 12 – The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship ''Japanese battleship Kawachi, Kawachi'' blows up off Tokuyama, Yamaguchi, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621. * July 13 – The National Czechoslovak Committee is established. * July 14 – The film ''The Glorious Adventure (1918 film), The Glorious Adventure'' is released in the United States, featuring Mammy Lou, who becomes one of the oldest people ever to star in a film, at a claimed age of 114. * July 15 – WWI: Second Battle of the Marne: The battle begins near the River Marne, with a German attack. * July 17 ** WWI: (famed for rescuing survivors of the ) is torpedoed and sunk off the east coast of Ireland, by Imperial German Navy submarine ''SM U-55, U-55''; 218 of the 223 on board are rescued. ** Execution of the Romanov family: By order of the Bolshevik Party, and carried out by the Cheka, former emperor Nicholas II of Russia, Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse), Alexandra Feodorovna, their children, Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia, Olga, Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia, Tatiana, Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (1899–1918), Maria, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, Anastasia, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, Alexei and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House, in Yekaterinburg, Ekaterinburg, Russia. * July 21 – WWI: Attack on Orleans – Imperial German submarine ''SM U-156'' surfaces and fires on a small convoy of barges and defending flying boats off the Cape Cod town of Orleans, Massachusetts.


August

* August 2 – North Russia Intervention: British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk. * August 3 – WWI: Australian hospital ship is torpedoed and sunk in the English Channel on passage from Le Havre to Southampton by German submarine with the loss of 123 of the 801 people on board. * August 8 – WWI: Battle of Amiens (1918), Battle of Amiens – British, Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories, the 'Hundred Days Offensive', with an 8-mile push through the German front lines, taking 12,000 prisoners. German General Erich Ludendorff later calls this the "black day of the German Army". * August 10 – October Revolution, Russian Revolution: The British commander in Archangel is told to help the White movement, White Russians. * August 16 – The Battle of Lake Baikal is fought by the Czechoslovak legion, against the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
. * August 21 – WWI: The Second Battle of the Somme (1918), Second Battle of the Somme begins. * August 23 – The Bessarabian Peasants' Party is created. * August 27 – Battle of Ambos Nogales: U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German Military advisor, advisors at Nogales, Arizona, in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil. * August 30 ** 20,000 British police strikes in 1918 and 1919, London policemen strike for increased pay and union recognition. ** In response to the October Revolution in Russia, Vladimir Lenin is shot and wounded by Fanny Kaplan in Moscow, but survives. ** Moisei Uritsky, the Petrograd head of the Cheka, is assassinated.


September

* September – WWI: British armies and their Arab allies roll into Syria. * September 3 – The
Bolshevik The Bolsheviks (Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (росси ...

Bolshevik
government of Russia publishes the first official announcement of the Red Terror, a period of repression against political opponents, as an "Appeal to the Working Class" in the newspaper ''Izvestia''. * September 4 – WWI: Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin concludes with the Australian Corps breaking the German line. * September 5 – Russian Civil War: The Kazan Operation begins. The event continues for 5 days, and solidifies the Red Army's power in Russia over the White Army. * September 12 – WWI: Battle of Havrincourt – British take a German salient. * September 12–September 15, 15 – WWI: Battle of Saint-Mihiel – Americans take a German salient. * September 14 – WWI: The Balkan front offensive by the Serbian Army begins. * September 15–September 18, 18 – WWI: Battle of Dobro Pole in the Vardar Offensive of the Balkans Campaign (World War I), Balkans Campaign: The Allied Army of the Orient defeats Kingdom of Bulgaria, Bulgarian defenders. * September 18 – WWI: Battle of Épehy – British approach the Hindenburg Line along the St Quentin Canal. * September 19 – WWI: ** The
British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces. , the British Army comprises 80,040 regular full-time personnel and 30,020 Army Reserve (United Kingdom), reserve personnel ...
's
Egyptian Expeditionary Force The Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) was a British Empire military formation, formed on 10 March 1916 under the command of General Archibald Murray from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt (1914–15), at the beginnin ...
launches the Battle of Megiddo (1918), Battle of Megiddo, incorporating the Battle of Sharon, and the Battle of Nablus (1918), Battle of Nablus, an attack in the
Judaean Mountains The Judaean Mountains, or Judaean Hills ( he, הרי יהודה ''Harei Yehuda'') or the Hebron Mountains ( ar, جبال الخليل ''Jibal Al Khalil'' (lit. "The Khalil Mountains")), is a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountai ...
. This day are fought the Battle of Tulkarm, and the Battle of Arara, which break the Ottoman front line stretching from the Mediterranean coast to the Judaean Mountains, while the Battle of Tabsor extends into September 20. ** The Third Transjordan attack in the Jordan Valley begins. * September 20 – WWI: The British Army's Desert Mounted Corps launches the ** Battle of Nazareth by 5th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army); ** Capture of Afulah and Beisan by the 4th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army); ** Capture of Jenin by the Australian Mounted Division, almost encircling the Yildirim Army Group still in the Judaean Mountains. * September 25 – WWI: ** The Battle of Megiddo ends with the Battle of Haifa (1918), Battle of Haifa, Battle of Samakh, and Capture of Tiberias. ** The Third Transjordan attack ends with ANZAC Mounted Division victory at the Second Battle of Amman, with the subsequent capture at Ziza of the Ottoman II Corps, and more than 10,000 Ottoman and German prisoners. * September 26 – WWI: ** The Meuse-Argonne Offensive begins, the largest and bloodiest operation of the war for the American Expeditionary Forces. ** The Capture of Damascus (1918), Capture of Damascus begins, with the Charge at Irbid by the 4th Cavalry Division. * September 27 – WWI: ** The Battle of the Canal du Nord, launched by British and Empire forces, continues the advance towards the Hindenburg Line. ** The Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub, launched by the Australian Mounted Division, continues the advance towards Damascus. * September 29 – WWI: ** Battle of St Quentin Canal begins; Allied forces advance towards the Hindenburg Line. ** Bulgaria requests an armistice. * September 30 – WWI: ** The Charge at Kaukab is begun by units of the Australian Mounted Division. ** The Charge at Kiswe is begun by 4th Cavalry Division, continuing the Desert Mounted Corps' advance to Damascus.


October

* October 1 – WWI: The Desert Mounted Corps Capture of Damascus (1918), captures Damascus. * October 2 – WWI: The Charge at Khan Ayash is begun north of Damascus, by the 3rd Light Horse Brigade. * October 3 ** Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany appoints Max von Baden Chancellor of Germany (German Reich), Chancellor of Germany. ** King Ferdinand I of Bulgaria abdicates in the wake of the Bulgarian military collapse in WWI. He is succeeded by his son, Boris III of Bulgaria, Boris III. ** WWI: The Pursuit to Haritan by the Desert Mounted Corps begins. * October 4 ** Wilhelm II of Germany forms a new more liberal government, to sue for peace. ** The T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant explosion in New Jersey kills 100+, and destroys enough ammunition to supply the Western Front for 6 months. * October 7 – The Regency Council (Poland) declares Polish independence from the German Empire, and demands that Germany cede the Polish provinces of Poznań, Upper Silesia and Polish Corridor, Polish Pomerania. * October 8–October 10, 10 – WWI: Battle of Cambrai (1918), Second Battle of Cambrai: British and Canadian troops take Cambrai from the Germans and the First and Third British Armies break through the Hindenburg Line. * October 8 – WWI: In the Forest of Argonne in France, U.S. Corporal Alvin C. York almost single-handedly kills 25 German soldiers and captures 132. * October 9 – Landgrave Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse is elected Kingdom of Finland (1918), King of Finland. * October 11 – The 7.1 1918 San Fermín earthquake, San Fermín earthquake shakes Puerto Rico with a maximum Mercalli intensity scale, Mercalli intensity of IX (''Violent''), killing 76–116 people. A destructive tsunami contributes to the damage and loss of life. * October 12 – 1918 Cloquet Fire, Cloquet Fire: The city of Cloquet, Minnesota, and nearby areas are destroyed in a fire, killing 453. * October 18 – The Czechoslovak declaration of independence, Washington Declaration proclaims the independent First Czechoslovak Republic, Czechoslovak Republic. * October 24 – WWI: The Battle of Vittorio Veneto opens. * October 25 ** WWI: Battle of Aleppo (1918), Aleppo is captured, by Faisal I of Iraq, Prince Feisal's Sheifial Forces. ** The steamer ''SS Princess Sophia, Princess Sophia'' sinks on Vanderbilt Reef near Juneau, Alaska; 353 people die, in the greatest maritime disaster in the Pacific Northwest. * October 26 – WWI – Charge at Haritan: Units of the Desert Mounted Corps battle with Ottoman forces for the last time in WWI. * October 28 ** Czechoslovakia declares its independence from Austria-Hungary. ** A new Polish government is declared in Western Galicia (Eastern Europe). * October 29 ** The Wilhelmshaven mutiny of the German High Seas Fleet breaks out. ** The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs declares its independence from Austria-Hungary. * October 30 ** The Martin Declaration is published, including Slovakia in the formation of the Czecho-Slovak state. ** The Armistice of Mudros ends conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I, and grants independence to the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. * October 31 – The Kingdom of Hungary, Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


November

* November 1 ** The Polish–Ukrainian War is inaugurated, by the proclamation of the West Ukrainian People's Republic in Galicia (Eastern Europe), Galicia, with a capital at Lviv, Lwów. ** Serbian forces recapture Belgrade. ** Malbone Street Wreck: The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 93 dead. * November 3 ** WWI: Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies of WWI, Allies, at the Villa Giusti in Padua. ** Poland declares its independence from Russia. ** German Revolution of 1918–1919, German Revolution: Sailors in the German fleet at Kiel mutiny, and throughout northern German Empire, Germany soldiers and workers begin to establish revolutionary councils, on the Russian Soviet (council), soviet model. * November 4 – WWI: The Armistice of Villa Giusti ends warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary, on the Italian Front. * November 6 – A new Polish government is proclaimed in Lublin. * November 7 – King Ludwig III of Bavaria, Ludwig of Bavaria flees his country. * November 8 – The German army withdraws its support of the Kaiser. The German Armistice delegation arrives at the Forest of Compiègne in France. * November 9 ** Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands. ** The German Republic is proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin, on the Reichstag building, Reichstag balcony. ** Provisional National Council Minister-President Kurt Eisner declares Bavaria to be a republic. ** British Pre-dreadnought battleship, battleship is sunk by a German submarine off Cape Trafalgar, Trafalgar, with the loss of around fifty lives (the last major naval engagement of WWI). * November 11 ** End of World War I, WWI: Armistice of 11 November 1918 – Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies, between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM, in the "Compiègne Wagon", Marshal Ferdinand Foch, Foch's railroad car, in the Forest of Compiègne in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. At 10:59 U.S. soldier Henry Gunther becomes (probably) the last killed in action. ** Poland regains independence, after 123 years of Partitions of Poland, partitions. Józef Piłsudski is appointed Commander-in-Chief. ** Emperor Charles I of Austria gives up his absolute power, but does not abdicate. * November 12 – Republic of German-Austria, Austria becomes a republic. * November 13 ** The Allied Occupation of Constantinople begins. ** Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden, relinquishes all governing duties. * November 14 ** Czechoslovakia becomes a republic. ** The Second Polish Republic is proclaimed with Józef Piłsudski as head of state. ** The provisional government of Baden proclaims the "Free People's Republic of Baden" (''Freie Volksrepublik Baden''). ** Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, is forced from his throne, leading to the establishment of the People's State of Hesse. ** Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin abdicates his throne, leading to the establishment of the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. ** Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, announces he is ceasing to rule Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, leading to the establishment of the Free State of Coburg. ** German East African troops are informed of the November 11 armistice. * November 16 – The Hungarian Democratic Republic is declared, marking Hungary's independence from Austria. * November 18 – Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic, Latvia declares its independence from Russia. * November 20 – U-boats start to rendezvous off Harwich, to begin the surrender of the High Seas Fleet to the British Royal Navy; in the following week the German warships are escorted to internment in Scapa Flow. * November 21 – Lwów pogrom (1918), Lwów pogrom: Second Polish Republic, Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and History of the Jews in Poland, Jews in Lviv, Lwów, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Galicia. * November 22 ** The Spartacist League founds the German Communist Party. ** The Monarchy of Belgium, Belgian royal family returns to Brussels after the war, King Albert I of Belgium, Albert I having commanded the Allies of World War I, Allied Army group in the autumn Kortrijk, Courtrai offensive, which liberated his country. ** Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden, abdicates; the Grand Duchy of Baden gives way to the Republic of Baden. * November 23 – British military government of Palestine (region), Palestine begins. * November 25 – General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, German commander in German East Africa, signs a ceasefire at Mbala, Zambia, Abercorn in Northern Rhodesia. * November 26 – The Podgorica Assembly votes for a "union of the people", declaring its union with the Kingdom of Serbia. * November 28 – Estonian War of Independence: The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
invades Estonia, starting the war. The Commune of the Working People of Estonia is established as a Soviet puppet state in Narva on the next day. * November 29 – Kingdom of Serbia, Serbia annexes Kingdom of Montenegro, Montenegro, suspending the latter's existence as a sovereign state for nearly the entirety of the following 88 years. * November 30 – Ernest Ansermet conducts the first concert by the ''Orchestre de la Suisse Romande''.


December

* December 1 ** By the Danish–Icelandic Act of Union, Iceland regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark, who also becomes the King of Iceland until 1944. ** New voting laws in Sweden makes votes no longer dependent on taxable assets, each adult having one vote. ** The Union of Transylvania with Romania, Union of Alba Iulia is proclaimed: Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina, Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania. ** The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which later becomes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed, in particular ending Serbia's existence as a sovereign state for the next 87 years (it would not regain its sovereignty until 2006). * December 4 – President
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th from 1913 to 1921. A member of the , Wilson served as the and as the before winning the . As President, Wilson chang ...

Woodrow Wilson
departs by ship to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Paris Peace Conference, becoming the first United States President to travel to Europe while holding office. * December 5 – Estonian War of Independence: The British light cruiser strikes a naval mine, mine and sinks near Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea, killing 11 sailors. * December 14 ** Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse renounces the Finnish throne. ** Portuguese President Sidónio Pais is assassinated. * December 16 – Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas declares the formation of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1918–19), Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, a puppet state created by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russian SFSR to justify the Lithuanian–Soviet War. * December 17 – Darwin Rebellion in Australia: Disaffected workers march on Government House, Darwin, demanding the resignation of the Administrator of the Northern Territory, John A. Gilruth. * December 20 – Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk returns to the Czechoslovak Republic. * December 21 – Estonian War of Independence: The
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
captures Tartu, Estonia. * December 25 – ''Der Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten'', is formed in Germany as a German nationalism, nationalist veterans' organization. * December 27 – Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19): Poles in Greater Poland (the former Grand Duchy of Posen) rise up against the Germans, ignited by a patriotic speech made in Poznań by pianist and politician Ignacy Jan Paderewski. * December 28 – Sinn Féin enjoys a landslide victory in Irish seats in the 1918 Irish general election, Irish general election (part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election), following the counting of votes, winning 73 of the 105 seats in Ireland. In accordance with their Sinn Féin Manifesto 1918, manifesto, Sinn Féin members will not take their seats in the Palace of Westminster but will form the First Dáil in Dublin. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons. * December 31 – A British-brokered ceasefire ends the two weeks of fighting in the Georgian–Armenian War.


Date unknown

* The Native American Church is formally founded in Oklahoma. * The Association Against the Prohibition Amendment is founded to promote repeal of Prohibition in the United States. * United Business Media is founded in London, as United Newspapers Ltd. * Around 1,000 pilot whales Cetacean stranding, strand in the Chatham Islands.


Births


January

* January 1 ** Nat Jaffe, American swing jazz pianist (d. 1945) ** Patrick Anthony Porteous, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross (d. 2000) * January 2 – Gudrun Zapf-von Hesse, German typographer, calligrapher and book-binder (d. 2019) *
January 9 Events Pre-1600 * 681 – Twelfth Council of Toledo: King Erwig of the Visigoths initiates a council in which he implements diverse measures against the Jews in Spain. *1127 – Jin–Song Wars: Invading Jurchen people, Jurchen soldiers ...
– Alma Ziegler, American female professional baseball player (d. 2005) * January 10 – Arthur Chung, 1st President of Guyana (d. 2008) * January 11 – Kassim Al-Rimawi, Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1982) *
January 12 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubikon at the head of the 13th Legion. Civil war between the former allies, Caesar and Pompey, is now inevitable. *475 – List of Byzantine emperors, Byzantine Emperor Zeno (emper ...
– Mike Laffin, Canadian politician, dentist (d. 2019) * January 14 – Dimitri Tsafendas, South African criminal (d. 1999) *
January 15 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – Otho Marcus Otho (; born Marcus Salvius Otho; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69) was for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the . A member of a noble family, Otho was initi ...
** João Figueiredo, 30th President of Brazil (d. 1999) ** Ira B. Harkey Jr., American newspaper editor (d. 2006) ** Gamal Abdel Nasser, 2nd President of Egypt (d. 1970) ** Deryck Stapleton, British Royal Air Force officer (d. 2018) * January 16 ** Nel Benschop, Dutch poet (d. 2005) ** Allan Ekelund, Swedish film producer (d. 2009) ** Stirling Silliphant, American writer, producer (d. 1996) * January 17 ** Kamal Amrohi, Indian director, screenwriter (d. 1993) ** George M. Leader, American politician (d. 2013) *
January 19 Events Pre-1600 *379 Year 379 ( CCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its do ...
** Peter Hobbs (actor), Peter Hobbs, American actor (d. 2011) ** John H. Johnson, African-American publisher, founder of ''Ebony (magazine), Ebony'' (d. 2005) * January 20 ** Juan García Esquivel, Mexican bandleader (d. 2002) ** Nevin S. Scrimshaw, American food scientist (d. 2013) * January 21 ** Chichay, Filipino actress (d. 1993) ** Richard Winters, U.S. Army officer (d. 2011) * January 22 – Elmer Lach, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2015) * January 23 – Gertrude B. Elion, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1999) * January 24 – Oral Roberts, American neo-Pentecostal televangelist (d. 2009) *
January 25 Events Pre-1600 * – After a night of negotiation, is accepted as by the . * – In the , the rebels defeat the , leading to overthrow of the dynasty. * – A strikes the South Alpine region of in modern , causing considerabl ...
– Ernie Harwell, American baseball sportscaster (d. 2010) * January 26 ** Nicolae Ceaușescu, Romanian communist politician and leader (d. 1989) ** Philip José Farmer, American writer (d. 2009) ** Vito Scotti, American character actor (d. 1996) *
January 27 Events Pre-1600 * 98 – Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful sol ...
** Skitch Henderson, English-born musician, bandleader (d. 2005) ** Elmore James, American musician (d. 1963) * January 29 ** Luis Aguilar (actor), Luis Aguilar, Mexican actor, singer (d. 1997) ** John Forsythe, American actor (''Dynasty'') (d. 2010) * January 30 – Bazilije Pandžić, Croatian historian, archivist and orientalist (d. 2019) *
January 31 Events Pre-1600 *314 __NOTOC__ Year 314 ( CCCXIV) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that cont ...
– Millie Dunn Veasey, African-American civil rights activist (d. 2018)


February

*
February 1 Events Pre-1600 *1327 Year 1327 (Roman numerals, MCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events January–December * January 25 – The 14-year-old Edw ...
** Carlos Fayt, Argentine lawyer, politician and academic (d. 2016) ** Dame Muriel Spark, Scottish author (d. 2006) * February 2 – Hella Haasse, Dutch writer (d. 2011) * February 3 ** Joey Bishop, American entertainer, member of the "Rat Pack" (d. 2007) ** Martin Greenberg (poet), Martin Greenberg, American poet and translator ** Helen Stephens, American runner (d. 1994) * February 4 ** Clive Bossom, British politician (d. 2017) ** Ida Lupino, Anglo-American actress, screenwriter, director and producer (d. 1995) *
February 6 Events Pre-1600 *AD 60, 60 – The earliest date for which the day of the week is known. A graffito in Pompeii identifies this day as a ''dies Solis'' (Sunday), by a system in which Sunday corresponds to the day of the week this day would ...
– Lothar-Günther Buchheim, German author (d. 2007) * February 7 – Markey Robinson, Irish painter (d. 1999) * February 8 ** Fred Blassie, American professional wrestler, novelty singer (''Pencil Neck Geek'') (d. 2003) ** Walter Newton Read, American lawyer, second chairman of the New Jersey Casino Control Commission (d. 2001) * February 12 – Julian Schwinger, American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994) *
February 14 Events Pre-1600 *748 __NOTOC__ Year 748 ( DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on MondayA leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Leap year st ...
– William L. Snyder, American film producer (d. 1998) * February 15 ** Allan Arbus, American actor (''M*A*S*H (TV series), M*A*S*H'') (d. 2013) ** Smilja Avramov, Serbian academic, authority and educator in international law (d. 2018) ** William T. Young, American businessman (d. 2004) *
February 16 Events Pre-1600 * 1249 – André de Longjumeau, Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khagan of the Mongol Empire. *1270 – Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Livonian Order in ...
– Patty Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters) (d. 2013) * February 17 – William Bronk, American poet (d. 1999) *
February 19 Events Pre-1600 * 197 – Emperor Septimius Severus defeats Roman usurper, usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum, the bloodiest battle between Roman armies. *356 – The anti-paganism policy of Constantius II forbids the wo ...
– Fay McKenzie, American silent film actress (d. 2019) *
February 21 Events Pre-1600 * or – , is martyred in Palestine. * – , the first known , is granted resignation after confessing to torture and . * – The is formed. 1601–1900 * – is unanimously elected by a , beginning the of . * ...
– Robert E. Thacker, American aviator and test pilot (d. 2020) * February 22 ** Charlie Finley, American owner of the Oakland A's (1960–80) (d. 1996) ** Don Pardo, American television announcer (''Saturday Night Live'') (d. 2014) ** Robert Pershing Wadlow, American tallest man record-holder (d. 1940) * February 25 ** Barney Ewell, American athlete (d. 1996) ** Miguel Gallastegui, Spanish pelotari (d. 2019) ** Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (d. 1995) * February 26 ** Herbert Blaize, 6th Prime Minister of Grenada (d. 1989) ** Otis R. Bowen, American politician (d. 2013) ** Lloyd Geering, New Zealand theologian ** Theodore Sturgeon, American writer (d. 1985) * February 28 – Alfred Burke, English actor (d. 2011)


March

*
March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC – Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first Roman triumph, triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia. *293 – Emperor ...
** Franz Becker, German footballer (d. 1965) ** Roger Delgado, British actor (d. 1973) ** João Goulart, 24th President of Brazil (d. 1976) ** James N. Morgan, American economist (d. 2018) * March 2 – Martin Flannery, British politician (d. 2006) *
March 3 Events Pre-1600 *473 – Gundobad (nephew of Ricimer) nominates Glycerius as emperor of the Western Roman Empire. *724 – Empress Genshō abdicates the throne in favor of her nephew Emperor Shōmu, Shōmu who becomes emperor of Japan. ...
** Arthur Kornberg, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2007) ** Fritz Thiedemann, German equestrian (d. 2000) * March 4 – Margaret Osborne duPont, American female tennis player (d. 2012) * March 5 ** Shlomo Lorincz, member of Israeli Knesset for Agudat Yisrael (d. 2009) ** James Tobin, American economist, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002) * March 9 ** George Lincoln Rockwell, American Nazi leader (d. 1967) ** Mickey Spillane, American writer (d. 2006) * March 10 – Günther Rall, German ace fighter pilot (d. 2009) * March 11 – Jack Coe, American evangelist (d. 1956) *
March 12 Events Pre-1600 * – , of the ends his and retreats to , leaving the city in the hands of the victorious general, . * - German city Munich (München) is first mentioned as ''forum apud Munichen'' in the by Holy Roman Emperor . 1601 ...
– Elaine de Kooning, American artist (d. 1989) * March 13 – Eddie Pellagrini, American baseball player, coach (d. 2006) * March 14 – John McCallum (actor), John McCallum, Australian actor (d. 2010) * March 15 – William McIntyre (judge), William McIntyre, Canadian Puisne Justice (d. 2009) * March 16 – Frederick Reines, American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998) * March 17 – Viviane Gauthier, Haitian dancer (d. 2017) * March 18 – Bob Broeg, American sports writer (d. 2005) * March 20 – Jack Barry (game show host), Jack Barry, American television game show host, producer (d. 1984) * March 22 – Cheddi Jagan, 4th President of Guyana (d. 1997) *
March 23 Events Pre-1600 *1400 Year 1400 ( MCD) was a leap year starting on ThursdayA leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday Thursday is the day of the week between Wednes ...
** Naoki Kazu, Japanese soccer player (d. 1940s) ** Stick McGhee, American jump blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter (d. 1961) ** Émile Derlin Zinsou, President of Benin (d. 2016) * March 25 – Howard Cosell, American attorney, lecturer, and sports journalist (d. 1995) * March 26 – Lloyd McCuiston, American politician * March 28 – Gonzalo Facio Segreda, Costa Rican lawyer, politician, and diplomat (d. 2018) * March 29 ** Pearl Bailey, African-American singer, actress (d. 1990) ** Shirley Jameson, American female baseball player (d. 1993) ** Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart (d. 1992)


April

* April 1 – Milt Earnhart, American politician (d. 2020) * April 6 ** Alfredo Ovando Candía , 48th President of Bolivia (d. 1982) ** George Corones, Australian Masters swimmer (d. 2020) * April 7 – Bobby Doerr, American baseball player (d. 2017) * April 8 ** Betty Ford, First Lady of the United States (d. 2011) ** Charles P. Roland, American historian * April 9 – Jørn Utzon, Danish architect (d. 2008) * April 10 – H. S. Doreswamy, Indian activist, journalist * April 11 – Jean-Claude Servan-Schreiber, French journalist, politician (d. 2018) * April 14 – Mary Healy (entertainer), Mary Healy, American actress, variety entertainer and singer (d. 2015) * April 15 – Edmund Jones, American politician (d. 2019) * April 16 ** Spike Milligan, Irish comedian (d. 2002) ** Murray Westgate, Canadian actor (d. 2018) * April 17 ** William Holden, American actor (d. 1981) ** Frank Popper, French historian (d. 2020) ** Anne Shirley (actress), Anne Shirley, American actress (d. 1993) * April 18 ** Gabriel Axel, Danish film director (d. 2014) ** Shinobu Hashimoto, Japanese screenwriter (d. 2018) ** Clifton Hillegass, American author, founder of ''CliffsNotes'' (d. 2001) ** Claudio Teehankee, Filipino lawyer (d. 1989) * April 20 **Edward L. Beach, Jr., American naval officer, author (d. 2002) **Kai Siegbahn, Swedish physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007) * April 22 ** William Jay Smith, American poet (d. 2015) ** Mickey Vernon, American baseball player (d. 2008) * April 24 – Lou Dorfsman, American graphic designer (d. 2008) * April 26 – Fanny Blankers-Koen, Dutch athlete (d. 2004) * April 27 – John Rice (umpire), John Rice, American baseball umpire (d. 2011) * April 28 ** Mildred Persinger, American feminist (d. 2018) ** Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler, East German journalist, host of the television show ''Der schwarze Kanal'' (d. 2001) ** Rodger Wilton Young, United States Army soldier, remembered in the song "The Ballad of Rodger Young" (d. 1943) * April 29 ** George Allen (American football coach), George Allen, American football coach (d. 1990) ** Nils Ostensson, Swedish Olympic cross-country skier (d. 1949)


May

* May 1 ** Jack Paar, American television show host (''The Tonight Show'') (d. 2004) ** Li Yaowen, Chinese politician, general and diplomat (d. 2018) * May 3 – Richard Dudman, American reporter, editorial writer (''St. Louis Post-Dispatch'') (d. 2017) * May 4 ** Kakuei Tanaka, 40th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1993) ** Ana Enriqueta Terán, Venezuelan poet (d. 2017) * May 5 – Egidio Galea, Maltese Roman Catholic priest (d. 2005) * May 6 ** Henrietta Boggs, Costa Rican-American author, journalist and activist (d. 2020) ** Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, 1st President of the United Arab Emirates (d. 2004) * May 9 ** Russell M. Carneal, American politician, judge (d. 1998) ** Orville Freeman, American politician (d. 2003) ** Mike Wallace, American journalist (d. 2012) * May 10 ** T. Berry Brazelton, American pediatrician (d. 2018) ** George Welch (pilot), George Welch, American aviator (d. 1954) * May 11 – Richard Feynman, American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988) * May 13 – Caesar Anthonio Zeppeli, Italian Hamon user (d. 1939) * May 12 – Julius Rosenberg, American-born Soviet spy (d. 1953) * May 15 ** Eddy Arnold, American country music singer (d. 2008) ** Joseph Wiseman, Canadian actor (d. 2009) * May 16 – Wilf Mannion, English footballer (d. 2000) * May 17 ** Bolesław Gładych, Polish World War II flying ace (d. 2011) ** A. C. Lyles, American film producer (d. 2013) ** Birgit Nilsson, Swedish soprano (d. 2005) * May 18 ** Claudia Bryar, American actress (d. 2011) ** Joe and Beth Krush, Joe Krush, American illustrator * May 19 – Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist (d. 2000) * May 20 – Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004) * May 23 ** Frank Mancuso, American major league baseball player, politician (d. 2007) ** Naomi Replansky, American poet * May 27 – Yasuhiro Nakasone, 45th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 2019) * May 28 ** Norbert Franck, Luxembourgian swimmer (d. 2006) ** Johnny Wayne, Canadian comedian (d. 1990) * May 30 ** Károly Doncsecz, Slovenian potter (d. 2002) ** Martin Lundstrom, Swedish Olympic cross-country skier (d. 2016) * May 31 – Margaret Todd (golfer), Margaret Todd, Canadian female golfer (d. 2019)


June

* June 2 – Kathryn Tucker Windham, American writer, storyteller (d. 2011) * June 4 – Johnny Klein, American drummer (d. 1997) * June 6 ** Kenneth Connor, English comedy stage, radio, film and television actor (d. 1993) ** Edwin G. Krebs, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2009) * June 8 – Robert Preston (actor), Robert Preston, American actor (''The Music Man'') (d. 1987) * June 9 – John Hospers, American philosopher (d. 2011) * June 10 ** Wood Moy, American actor (d. 2017) ** Patachou, French singer (d. 2015) * June 11 – Hugo Scheltema, Dutch diplomat (d. 1996) * June 12 – Jerry A. Moore Jr., American politician (d. 2017) * June 15 – François Tombalbaye, 1st President of Chad (d. 1975) * June 17 ** Derek Barber, Baron Barber of Tewkesbury, British life peer (d. 2017) ** Ajahn Chah Subaddho, Buddhist teacher (d. 1992) ** Raúl Padilla (alias ''El Chato''), Mexican actor (d. 1994) * June 18 ** Jerome Karle, American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013) ** Franco Modigliani, Italian-born economist, Nobel Prize in Economics, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003) ** Angel Martín Taboas, Puerto Rican-American politician ** Elisabeth Waldo, American violinist, composer * June 21 ** Allan Lindberg, Swedish pole vaulter (d. 2004) ** Dee Molenaar, American mountaineer, author and artist (d. 2020) ** Adriana Sivieri, Argentine-born Italian film actress ** Josephine Webb, American engineer * June 22 ** Cicely Saunders, English Anglican nurse, social worker, physician and writer (d. 2005) ** Yeoh Ghim Seng, Singaporean politician, acting President of Singapore (d. 1993) * June 23 – Paul Ashbee, British archaeologist (d. 2009) * June 24 ** Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky, Ukrainian Catholic bishop (d. 2000) ** Yong Nyuk Lin, Singaporean politician (d. 2012) * June 25 ** Lady Cynthia Postan, English horticulturist (d. 2017) ** Sid Tepper, American songwriter (d. 2015) * June 26 ** Ellen Liiger, Estonian actress (d. 1987) ** Raleigh Rhodes, American combat fighter pilot (d. 2007) ** Leo Rosner, Polish-born Austrian Jewish musician (d. 2008) * June 27 ** Willy Breinholst, Danish humorist, writer (d. 2009) ** Adolph Kiefer, American former competition swimmer (d. 2017) * June 28 – Marshall Brown (basketball, born 1918), Marshall Brown, American professional basketball player (d. 2008) * June 29 ** Gene La Rocque, U.S. admiral (d. 2016) ** Heini Lohrer, Swiss ice hockey player (d. 2011) ** Francis W. Nye, United States Air Force major general (d. 2019) * June 30 – Jackie Roberts, Welsh footballer (d. 2001)


July

* July 1 ** Ahmed Deedat, South African writer, public speaker (d. 2005) ** Pedro Yap, Filipino lawyer (d. 2003) ** Ralph Young (singer), Ralph Young, American singer, actor (d. 2008) * July 2 ** Athos Bulcão, Brazilian painter, sculptor (d. 2008) ** Indumati Bhattacharya, Indian politician (d. 1990) * July 3 ** Shirley Adelson Siegel, American activist and lawyer ** Johnny Palmer, American golfer (d. 2006) ** Benjamin C. Thompson, American architect (d. 2002) ** Lorenzo Robledo, Spanish actor (d. 2006) * July 4 ** King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV of Tonga (d. 2006) ** Alec Bedser, English cricketer (d. 2010) ** Eric Bedser, English cricketer (d. 2006) ** Eppie Lederer, Ann Landers, American advice columnist (d. 2002) ** Joe Fortunato (coach), Joe Fortunato, American football, basketball, and baseball coach (d. 2004) ** Pauline Phillips, American advice columnist, popularly known as Abigail Van Buren (d. 2013) * July 5 ** Brian James (actor), Brian James, Australian actor (d. 2009) ** Zakaria Mohieddin, Egyptian general, politician (d. 2012) ** Nikos Papatakis, Greek Ethiopian-born naturalised French filmmaker (d. 2010) ** George Rochberg, American composer (d. 2005) ** Miguel Ángel Sanz Bocos, Spanish fighter pilot (d. 2018) * July 6 ** Sebastian Cabot (actor), Sebastian Cabot, English actor (d. 1977) ** J. Dewey Daane, American economist (d. 2017) ** Herm Fuetsch, American professional basketball player (d. 2010) ** Francisco Moncion, Dominican-American dancer, charter member of New York City Ballet (d. 1995) * July 7 ** Jing Shuping, Chinese businessman (d. 2009) ** Bob Vanatta, American head basketball coach (d. 2016) * July 8 ** Paul B. Fay, American businessman, soldier, and diplomat, 12th United States Secretary of the Navy (d. 2009) ** Edward B. Giller, U.S. major general (d. 2017) ** Julia Pirie, British spy working for MI5 (d. 2008) ** Oluf Reed-Olsen, Norwegian resistance member, pilot (d. 2002) ** Craig Stevens (actor), Craig Stevens, American actor (d. 2000) * July 9 – Jarl Wahlström, Salvation Army general (d. 1999) * July 10 ** Frank L. Lambert, American professor emeritus of chemistry at Occidental College (d. 2018) ** Chuck Stevens, American major baseball (d. 2018) * July 11 – Venetia Burney, English woman known for being the first person to suggest the name Pluto for the planet in 1930 (d. 2009) * July 12 ** Mary Glen-Haig, British Olympic fencer (d. 2014) ** Doris Grumbach, American novelist, memoirist, biographer, literary critic, and essayist ** Vivian Mason, American actress (d. 2009) ** Paul Stenn, American football offensive tackle (d. 2003) ** Alice Van-Springsteen, American stuntwoman, jockey (d. 2008) * July 13 ** Alberto Ascari, Italian race car driver (d. 1955) ** Ted Oldfield, English footballer (d. 2006) * July 14 ** T. M. Aluko, Nigerian writer (d. 2010) ** Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film director (d. 2007) ** Jay Wright Forrester, American computer engineer, systems scientist (d. 2016) * July 15 ** Paddy Bassett, New Zealand scientist (d. 2019) ** Bertram Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003) ** Aubrey Buxton, Baron Buxton of Alsa, British soldier, politician, television executive and writer (d. 2009) ** Arthur Dimmock, English writer, journalist and historian (d. 2007) ** Brenda Milner, Canadian neuropsychologist * July 16 ** Denis Edward Arnold, English soldier (d. 2015) ** Bayani Casimiro, Filipino dancer and actor (d. 1989) ** Paul Farnes, famed World War II Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter pilot, one of "The Few" surviving pilots of the Battle of Britain (d. 2020) ** Pituka de Foronda, Spanish actress (d. 1999) ** John Frost (SAAF officer), John Everitt Frost Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom), DFC medal bar, & Bar, World War II South African Air Force, SAAF fighter aviator, pilot (Missing in action, MIA 16 June 1942) ** Samuel Victor Perry, British biochemist (d. 2009) ** Leonard T. Schroeder, American colonel (d. 2009) ** Jim Vickers-Willis, Australian journalist (d. 2008) * July 17 ** Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio, President of Guatemala (d. 2003) ** Chandler Robbins, American ornithologist (d. 2017) *
July 18 Events Pre-1600 *477 BC __NOTOC__ Year 477 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Pulvillus and Lanatus (or, less frequently, year 277 ''Ab urbe condita 300px, Antonin ...
** Lia Dorana, Dutch comedian, actress (d. 2010) ** James Duesenberry, American economist (d. 2009) ** Warren Hair, American professional basketball player (d. 2006) ** Nelson Mandela, 1st President of South Africa and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2013) * July 20 ** Auður Laxness, Icelandic writer, craftsperson (d. 2012) ** Edward S. Little, American diplomat (d. 2004) ** Eric Longworth, British actor (d. 2008) ** Cindy Walker, American songwriter, country singer (d. 2006) * July 21 – Elsa Kobberstad, Norwegian schoolteacher, politician (d. 2007) * July 22 ** Stanley Lebergott, American government economist (d. 2009) ** Lila Zali, Georgian-born American prima ballerina (d. 2003) * July 23 ** Abraham Bueno de Mesquita, Dutch comedian, actor (d. 2005) ** Carl T. Langford, American politician (d. 2011) ** Pee Wee Reese, American baseball player (d. 1999) * July 24 ** Antonio Candido, Brazilian literary critic, sociologist (d. 2017) ** Irving London, American hematologist and geneticist (d. 2018) ** Ruggiero Ricci, Italian-born violinist (d. 2012) * July 25 ** Jane Frank, American artist (d. 1986) ** Alexander McKee (author), Alexander McKee, British journalist, military historian and diver, discoverer of the ''Mary Rose'' (d. 1992) * July 26 – Marjorie Lord, American actress (d. 2015) * July 27 – Leonard Rose, American cellist (d. 1984) * July 28 – Penaia Ganilau, 1st President of Fiji (d. 1993) * July 29 ** Frank Miller (singer), Frank Miller, American singer (d. 2015) ** Edwin O'Connor, American novelist, Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winner (d. 1968) * July 30 ** John L. Cason, American actor (d. 1961) ** Jimmy Robinson (actor), Jimmy Robinson, American actor (d. 1967) * July 31 ** Vicente Almeida d'Eça, Portuguese colonial administrator (d. 2018) ** Paul D. Boyer, American chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2018) ** Hank Jones, American pianist (d. 2010)


August

* August 1 ** Artur Brauner, German film producer and entrepreneur (d. 2019) ** Zhou Xuan, Chinese singer, actress (d. 1957) * August 2 – Dada Vaswani, Indian spiritual leader (d. 2018) * August 3 ** Sidney Gottlieb, American Central Intelligence Agency official (d. 1999) ** Cheng Kaijia, Chinese nuclear physicist and engineer (d. 2018) * August 4 – Noel Willman, Irish actor (d. 1988) * August 5 ** Kondapalli Koteswaramma, Indian communist leader, feminist, revolutionary and writer (d. 2018) ** Betty Oliphant, co-founder of National Ballet of Canada (d. 2004) * August 6 – Charles Coulston Gillispie, American historian (d. 2015) * August 11 – Thomas A. Bird, British WWII army officer, architect (d. 2017) * August 12 – Roy C. Bennett, American songwriter (d. 2015) * August 13 ** Noor Hassanali, 2nd President of Trinidad and Tobago (d. 2006) ** Tao Porchon-Lynch, American yoga master and author (d. 2020) ** Frederick Sanger, English biochemist, two time Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013) * August 19 – Shankar Dayal Sharma, 9th President of India (d. 1999) * August 20 – Crystal Bennett, British archaeologist, pioneering researcher on Jordan (d. 1987) * August 21 – Bruria Kaufman, American-born Israeli physicist (d. 2010) * August 22 ** Said Mohamed Djohar, President of the Comoros (d. 2006) ** Martin Pope, American physical chemist * August 23 – Bernard Fisher (scientist), Bernard Fisher, American surgeon (d. 2019) * August 25 – Leonard Bernstein, American composer, conductor (d. 1990) * August 26 ** Hutton Gibson, American religion writer, father of actor Mel Gibson (d. 2020) ** Katherine Johnson, African-American physicist, space scientist and mathematician (d. 2020) ** Maria Isaura Pereira de Queiróz, Brazilian sociologist (d. 2018) * August 27 ** Simeon Booker, American journalist (d. 2017) ** Chang Yun Chung, Chinese-born billionaire shipping magnate (d. 2020) ** Jelle Zijlstra, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1966 to 1967 (d. 2001) * August 28 – Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (d. 1996) * August 29 ** Clemens C. J. Roothaan, Dutch physicist (d. 2019) ** Brian Stonehouse, English painter, WWII spy (d. 1998) * August 30 – Ted Williams, American baseball player (d. 2002) * August 31 ** Griffin Bell, American politician (d. 2009) ** Alan Jay Lerner, American lyricist, librettist (d. 1986) ** Kenny Washington (American football), Kenny Washington, African-American football player (d. 1971)


September

* September 1 ** James D. Martin, American politician (d. 2017) ** Phyllis Wallbank, English educationalist (d. 2020) * September 3 – Helen Wagner, American soap opera actress (d. 2010) * September 4 ** John Carrick (Australian politician), John Carrick, Australian politician (d. 2018) ** Paul Harvey, American radio broadcaster (d. 2009) ** Gerald Wilson, American jazz trumpeter (d. 2014) * September 6 ** Hugh Gillis, American politician (d. 2013) ** Ludwig Hörmann, German cyclist (d. 2001) * September 8 – Derek Barton, British chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998) * September 9 – Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, 9th President of Italy (d. 2012) * September 13 ** Ray Charles (musician, born 1918), Ray Charles, American musician, singer and songwriter (d. 2015) ** Rosemary Kennedy, sister of John F. Kennedy (d. 2005) ** Eric McClintock, Australian businessman, public servant (d. 2018) * September 14 – James George (diplomat), James George, Canadian diplomat (d. 2020) * September 15 – Nipsey Russell, American comedian, poet, and dancer (d. 2005) * September 16 – Ismail Mohd Ali, Malaysian politician (d. 1998) * September 17 – Chaim Herzog, 6th President of Israel 1983–1993 (d. 1997) * September 19 – Joseph Zeller, American politician (d. 2018) * September 21 – John Gofman, American Manhattan Project scientist, advocate (d. 2007) * September 22 – Henryk Szeryng, Polish-born violinist (d. 1988) * September 24 – Emerante Morse, Haitian singer, dancer and folklorist (d. 2018) * September 26 ** Peng Chang-kuei, Taiwanese chef (d. 2016) ** Harry Yee, American bartender ** John Zacherle, American television and radio host, singer, and voice actor (d. 2016) * September 27 ** Sotero Laurel, Filipino politician and educator (d. 2009) ** Martin Ryle, English radio astronomer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1984) * September 28 ** Ángel Labruna, Argentine soccer player, manager (d. 1983) ** Ida Schuster, Scottish actress (d. 2020) ** Arnold Stang, American comic actor (d. 2009) * September 29 – Peter Arne, British actor (d. 1983) * September 30 ** Giovanni Canestri, Italian cardinal (d. 2015) ** Aldo Parisot, Brazilian-American cellist and educator (d. 2018)


October

* October 4 – Kenichi Fukui, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998) * October 6 – Goh Keng Swee, former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore (d. 2010) * October 8 – Jens Christian Skou, Danish chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2018) * October 9 ** E. Howard Hunt, American Watergate scandal, Watergate break-in coordinator (d. 2007) ** Bebo Valdés, Cuban pianist, bandleader, composer and arranger (d. 2013) * October 13 ** Jack MacGowran, Irish film actor (d. 1973) ** Robert Walker (actor, born 1918), Robert Walker, American actor (d. 1951) * October 14 – Thelma Coyne Long, Australian tennis player (d. 2015) * October 16 ** Louis Althusser, French philosopher (d. 1990) ** Géori Boué, French operatic singer (d. 2017) ** Henri Vernes, Belgian author * October 17 – Rita Hayworth, American actress (d. 1987) * October 18 ** Konstantinos Mitsotakis, former Greek Prime Minister (d. 2017) ** Bobby Troup, American singer-songwriter and actor, known for his role in ''Emergency!'' (d. 1999) * October 19 – Robert S. Strauss, American politician, Democratic National Committee Chairman (d. 2014) * October 22 ** Fred Caligiuri, American baseball player (d. 2018) ** René de Obaldia, French playwright and poet * October 23 – Augusta Dabney, American actress (d. 2008) * October 25 ** Francisco Griéguez, Spanish WWII soldier (d. 2018) ** Milton Selzer, American actor (d. 2006) * October 26 – Marc Hodler, Swiss lawyer (d. 2006) * October 27 ** Mihkel Mathiesen, Estonian statesman (d. 2003) ** Gérard Tremblay (bishop), Gérard Tremblay, Canadian Roman Catholic bishop (d. 2019) ** Teresa Wright, American actress (d. 2005) * October 29 – Diana Serra Cary, American actress (d. 2020) * October 31 – Ian Stevenson, American parapsychologist (d. 2007)


November

* November 2 – Raimon Panikkar, Spanish theologian (d. 2010) * November 3 ** Bob Feller, American baseball player (d. 2010) ** Ann Hutchinson Guest, American movement, dance researcher ** Elizabeth P. Hoisington, American Brigadier General (d. 2007) ** Russell B. Long, United States Senator from Louisiana (d. 2003) ** Dean Riesner, American film, television screenwriter (d. 2002) * November 4 ** Art Carney, American actor, best known for his role in ''The Honeymooners'' (d. 2003) ** Cameron Mitchell (actor), Cameron Mitchell, American actor, best known for his role in ''The High Chaparral'' (d. 1994) * November 7 ** Paul Aussaresses, French general (d. 2013) ** Fred Cusick, American ice hockey broadcaster (d. 2009) ** Billy Graham, American evangelist, spiritual adviser to several U.S. Presidents (d. 2018) * November 8 ** Bob Schiller, American screenwriter (d. 2017) ** Teoh Seng Khoon, Malaysian badminton player (d. 2018) ** Hermann Zapf, German typeface designer (d. 2015) * November 9 ** Spiro Agnew, List of Vice Presidents of the United States, 39th Vice President of the United States (d. 1996) ** Su Beng, Taiwanese dissident and political activist (d. 2019) ** Thomas Ferebee, United States Air Force colonel (d. 2000) ** Choi Hong Hi, South Korean general, martial artist (d. 2002) * November 10 ** Ernst Otto Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007) ** John Henry Moss, American baseball executive, politician (d. 2009) * November 11 – Louise Tobin, American singer * November 14 – John Bromwich, Australian tennis player (d. 1999) * November 15 – Vittore Bocchetta, Italian sculptor, painter and academic (d. 2021) * November 18 – Nicolás Kingman Riofrío, Ecuadorian journalist, writer and politician (d. 2018) * November 21 – Dorothy Maguire, Dorothy Maguire Chapman, American professional baseball player (d. 1981) * November 26 – Patricio Aylwin, 32nd President of Chile (d. 2016) * November 27 – Borys Paton, Ukrainian scientist (d. 2020) * November 28 – Jack H. Harris, American film producer, distributor and actor (d. 2017) * November 29 – Madeleine L'Engle, American author (d. 2007) * November 30 – Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., American actor (''The F.B.I. (TV series), The FBI'') (d. 2014)


December

* December 3 – Abdul Haris Nasution, Indonesian general (d. 2000) * December 6 ** Tauba Biterman, Polish Holocaust survivor (d. 2019) ** Nick Drahos, American football player (d. 2018) * December 7 ** Jórunn Viðar, Icelandic pianist, composer (d. 2017) ** Liu Yichang, Hong Kong writer and novelist (d. 2018) * December 8 – Gérard Souzay, French baritone (d. 2004) * December 10 ** Fergus Anckorn, British magician (d. 2018) ** Anatoly Tarasov, Russian ice-hockey player and coach (d. 1995) * December 11 ** John W. Reed, American legal scholar (d. 2018) ** Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Russian writer, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008) * December 12 – Joe Williams (jazz singer), Joe Williams, American jazz singer (d. 1999) * December 14 – B. K. S. Iyengar, Indian yoga teacher (d. 2014) * December 15 – Jeff Chandler (actor), Jeff Chandler, American actor (d. 1961) * December 17 ** Dusty Anderson, American actress and model (d. 2007) ** Duchess Woizlawa Feodora of Mecklenburg, German royal (d. 2019) * December 18 – Joyce Reynolds (classicist), Joyce Reynolds, English author * December 19 – Georgina Cookson, British actress (d. 2011) * December 20 – Joseph Payne Brennan, American poet, author (d. 1990) * December 21 ** Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias, Peruvian philosopher (d. 2019) ** Fred Gloden, American football player (d. 2019) ** Donald Regan, American United States Secretary of the Treasury, Treasury Secretary, White House Chief of Staff (d. 2003) ** Kurt Waldheim, President of Austria, Secretary-General of the United Nations (d. 2007) * December 23 ** José Greco, Italian-born flamenco dancer (d. 2001) ** Kumar Pallana, Indian actor (d. 2013) ** Helmut Schmidt, Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic), Chancellor of Germany (d. 2015) * December 24 – Dave Bartholomew, American musician, songwriter and music producer (d. 2019) * December 25 ** Bertie Mee, English football player, manager (d. 2001) ** Anwar Sadat, 3rd President of Egypt, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1981) ** George S. Vest, American diplomat * December 26 ** Butch Ballard, American jazz drummer (d. 2011) ** Georgios Rallis, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 2006) * December 29 – Leo J. Dulacki, American general (d. 2019) * December 31 ** Al Lakeman, American Major League Baseball catcher (d. 1976) ** Kyra Petrovskaya Wayne, Russian-American author (d. 2018)


Date unknown

* Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, 5th President of Bangladesh (d. 1996) * Louis Wienholt, Australian public servant (d. 1973)


Deaths


January

* January 2 – Katharine A. O'Keeffe O'Mahoney, Irish-born American teacher and writer (b. 1855) * January 6 – Georg Cantor, German mathematician (b. 1845) *
January 8 Events Pre-1600 *307 – Emperor Huai of Jin, Jin Huaidi becomes emperor of China in succession to his father, Emperor Hui of Jin, Jin Huidi, despite a challenge from his uncle, Sima Ying. *871 – Æthelred I, King of Wessex, Æthelre ...
** Johannes Pääsuke, Estonian photographer, filmmaker (b. 1892) ** Ellis H. Roberts, American politician (b. 1827) *
January 9 Events Pre-1600 * 681 – Twelfth Council of Toledo: King Erwig of the Visigoths initiates a council in which he implements diverse measures against the Jews in Spain. *1127 – Jin–Song Wars: Invading Jurchen people, Jurchen soldiers ...
** Max Ritter von Müller, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1887) ** Charles-Émile Reynaud, French inventor (b. 1844) * January 10 – María Dolores Rodríguez Sopeña, Spanish Roman Catholic religious sister and blessed (b. 1848) * January 21 – Emil Jellinek, German automobile entrepreneur (b. 1853) * January 26 – Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich of Russia (b. 1850) *
January 28 Events Pre-1600 * 98 – On the death of Nerva Nerva (; originally Marcus Cocceius Nerva; 8 November 30 – 27 January 98) was from 96 to 98. Nerva became emperor when aged almost 66, after a lifetime of imperial service under and ...
– John McCrae, Canadian soldier, surgeon and poet (b. 1872) *
January 31 Events Pre-1600 *314 __NOTOC__ Year 314 ( CCCXIV) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that cont ...
– Ivan Puluj, Ukrainian physicist and inventor (b. 1845)


February

* February 2 – John L. Sullivan, American boxer, World Heavyweight Champion (b. 1858) * February 4 ** Akiyama Saneyuki, Japanese admiral (b. 1868) ** Jeannette Walworth, American journalist and novelist (b. 1835) *
February 5 Events Pre-1600 * – in , Italy. * – , leader of a against the , declares himself emperor and establishes the .Volume 217 of ' recorded that An crowned himself emperor on the 1st day of the 1st month of the 1st year of the Zhide e ...
– Leonard Monteagle Barlow, British fighter pilot (accident) (b. 1898) *
February 6 Events Pre-1600 *AD 60, 60 – The earliest date for which the day of the week is known. A graffito in Pompeii identifies this day as a ''dies Solis'' (Sunday), by a system in which Sunday corresponds to the day of the week this day would ...
– Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter (b. 1862),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* February 8 – Louis Renault (jurist), Louis Renault, French jurist, educator and Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1843) * February 10 ** Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1842) ** Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Italian pacifist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1833) * February 11 – Alexey Kaledin, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1861) *
February 14 Events Pre-1600 *748 __NOTOC__ Year 748 ( DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on MondayA leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Leap year st ...
– Cecil Spring Rice, Sir Cecil Spring Rice, British diplomat (b. 1859) * February 15 – Vernon Castle, American dancer (b. 1887) *
February 16 Events Pre-1600 * 1249 – André de Longjumeau, Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khagan of the Mongol Empire. *1270 – Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Livonian Order in ...
– Károly Khuen-Héderváry, 2-time Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1849) * February 23 ** Adolphus Frederick VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1882) **Thomas Brassey, 1st Earl Brassey, British politician and colonial administrator (b. 1836)


March

* March 2 – Prince Mirko of Montenegro (b. 1879) * March 9 – Frank Wedekind, German playwright (b. 1864) * March 10 ** Hans-Joachim Buddecke, German flying ace (killed in action) (b. 1890) **Jim McCormick (pitcher), Jim McCormick, Scottish-born American baseball player (b. 1856) * March 13 – César Cui, Lithuanian composer (b. 1835) * March 14 ** Lucretia Garfield, First Lady of the United States (b. 1832) ** Gennaro Rubino, Italian anarchist who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate King Leopold II of Belgium (b. 1859) * March 15 – Adolf Ritter von Tutschek, German fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891) *
March 23 Events Pre-1600 *1400 Year 1400 ( MCD) was a leap year starting on ThursdayA leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday Thursday is the day of the week between Wednes ...
– T. P. Cameron Wilson, English poet, novelist (b. 1888) * March 25 ** Claude Debussy, French composer (b. 1862) ** Walter Tull, first Black infantry officer to serve in the British Army (b. 1888) * March 27 ** Henry Adams, American historian (b. 1838) ** Martin Sheridan, American Olympic athlete (b. 1881),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...


April

* April 1 **Paul von Rennenkampf, Russian general (executed) (b. 1854) **Isaac Rosenberg, British war poet (killed in action) (b. 1890) * April 4 – Hermann Cohen, German philosopher (b. 1842) * April 5 – King George Tupou II of Tonga (b. 1874),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* April 11 – Otto Wagner, Austro-Hungarian architect, urban planner (b. 1841) * April 20 ** Karl Ferdinand Braun, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1850) ** Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn, Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1851) * April 21 ** Friedrich II, Duke of Anhalt (b. 1856) ** Manfred von Richthofen, German fighter pilot, top-scoring ace of World War I (killed in action) (b. 1892) * April 27 – Jacques Duchesne, French general (b. 1837) * April 28 – Gavrilo Princip, Yugoslav assassin (b. 1894)


May

* May 2 ** Ernie Parker, Australian tennis champion (killed in action) (b. 1883) ** Jüri Vilms, Estonian politician (b. 1889) * May 14 – James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American newspaper publisher (b. 1841) * May 17 – William Drew Robeson I, African-American minister, father of singer and actor Paul Robeson (b. 1844) * May 18 – Maria Magdalena Merten, German Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1883) * May 19 ** Ferdinand Hodler, Swiss painter (b. 1853) ** Raoul Lufbery, Franco-American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1885) * May 23 – Mariano Ponce, Filipino diplomat, politician and writer (b. 1863) * May 24 – József Kiss, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1896) * May 30 – Georgi Plekhanov, Russian revolutionary, philosopher (b. 1856)


June

* June 1 – Roderic Dallas, Australian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1891) * June 3 – Count Richard von Bienerth-Schmerling, Austrian noble, statesman and former Prime Minister (b. 1863) * June 4 – Charles W. Fairbanks, List of Vice Presidents of the United States, 26th Vice President of the United States (b. 1852) * June 10 – Arrigo Boito, Italian poet, composer (b. 1842) * June 13 – Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia, Grand Duke Michael Romanov (assassinated) (b. 1878) * June 15 – Frank Miles Day, American architect (b. 1861) * June 16 – Bazil Assan, Romanian engineer and explorer (b. 1860) * June 19 – Francesco Baracca, Italian fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1888) * June 25 – Jake Beckley, American baseball player, MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1867) * June 26 – Kyrion II of Georgia, Georgian Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox religious leader, saint (b. 1855) * June 27 – Joséphin Péladan, French occultist (b. 1858)


July

* July 3 – Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1844) * July 9 – James McCudden, British fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1895) * July 14 – Quentin Roosevelt, youngest son of United States President Theodore Roosevelt, fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1897) * July 17 – Executed members of the Romanov family: ** Former Emperor Nicholas II of Russia (b. 1868) ** Former Empress Alexandra of Hesse, Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (b. 1872) ** Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1895) ** Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1897) ** Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1899) ** Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1901) ** Former Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia (b. 1904) *
July 18 Events Pre-1600 *477 BC __NOTOC__ Year 477 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Pulvillus and Lanatus (or, less frequently, year 277 ''Ab urbe condita 300px, Antonin ...
** Prince Constantine Constantinovich of Russia (executed) (b. 1891) ** Prince Igor Constantinovich of Russia (executed) (b. 1894) ** Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia (executed) (b. 1869) ** Grand Duchess Elisabeth of Russia (Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine (1864–1918), Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine) (executed) (b. 1864) * July 20 – Francis Lupo, American soldier (b. 1895) * July 22 ** Manuel González Prada, Peruvian politician, author (b. 1844) ** Indra Lal Roy, Indian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1898) ** Alexey Schastny, Russian naval officer (executed) (b. 1881) * July 26 ** Henry Macintosh, British Olympic athlete (killed in action) (b. 1892) ** Edward Mannock, British fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1887) * July 29 – Ernest William Christmas, Australian painter (b. 1863) * July 30 **Hermann von Eichhorn, German field marshal (assassinated) (b. 1848) **Joyce Kilmer, American journalist, poet (killed in action) (b. 1886) **Frank Linke-Crawford, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1893) * July 31 – George McElroy, British fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1893)


August

* August 1 ** John Riley Banister, American policeman, cowboy (b. 1854) ** Gabriel Guérin, French World War I fighter ace (air crash) (b. 1892) * August 6 – Peter Strasser, German naval officer, airship commander (killed in action) (b. 1876) * August 9 ** Marianne Cope, German-born American Roman Catholic nun and saint (b. 1838) ** František Plesnivý, Austro-Hungarian architect (b. 1845) * August 10 ** Jean Brillant, Canadian soldier (b. 1890) ** Erich Löwenhardt, German World War I fighter ace (b. 1897) ** Aleksander Uurits, Estonian painter, graphic artist (b. 1888) * August 12 – Anna Held, French actress (b. 1873) * August 18 – Henry Norwest, Canadian sniper (killed in action) (b. 1884) * August 24 – Louis Bennett Jr., American World War I flying ace (killed in action) (b. 1894) * August 30 – William Duncan (missionary), William Duncan, British missionary in Canada and the United States (b. 1832)


September

* Mudbir al-Far'un, Arab chieftain, leader of 1913 Euphrates rebellion * September 2 – John Forrest, Sir John Forrest, Australian explorer and politician, 1st Premier of Western Australia (b. 1847) * September 5 – Nikolay Maklakov, Russian politician, former minister of the Interior (b. 1871) * September 6 – Elizabeth Yates (mayor), Elizabeth Yates, New Zealand politician (b. 1845) * September 8 ** Francis Mary of the Cross Jordan, German Roman Catholic priest and venerable (b. 1848) ** Mikael of Wollo, Ethiopian army commander and Ras of Wollo (b. 1850) * September 12 – George Reid (Australian politician), Sir George Reid, 4th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845) * September 13 – Eduard, Duke of Anhalt (b. 1861) * September 16 – Maurice Boyau, French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1888) * September 20 – Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland (b. 1889),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* September 27 – Fritz Rumey, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891) * September 28 ** True Boardman, American actor (b. 1882),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
** Georg Simmel, German sociologist, philosopher (b. 1858) ** Freddie Stowers, American soldier (killed in action) (b. 1896) * September 29 – Frank Luke, American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1897)


October

* October 4 – Nikolai Skrydlov, Russian admiral (b. 1844) * October 5 ** Roland Garros (aviator), Roland Garros, French fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1888) ** Robbie Ross, British writer (b. 1869) * October 6 – Arthur O'Hara Wood, Australian tennis champion and fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1890) * October 7 – Hubert Parry, Sir Hubert Parry, British composer (b. 1848),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* October 8 – Mikhail Alekseyev, Russian general (b. 1857) * October 9 – Raymond Duchamp-Villon, French sculptor (b. 1876) * October 11 – Wallace Lloyd Algie, Canadian soldier (b. 1891) * October 14 – Nikolai Skrydlov, Russian admiral (executed) (b. 1844) * October 15 – Sai Baba of Shirdi, Indian guru, yogi and National saint of India (b. 1838) * October 16 – Felix Arndt, American pianist, composer (b. 1889),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* October 18 ** Radko Dimitriev, Bulgarian, Russian general (executed) (b. 1859) ** Uganda Martyrs, Jildo Irwa, Ugandan Roman Catholic martyr and saint (executed) (b. 1906) ** Uganda Martyrs, Daudo Okelo, Ugandan Roman Catholic martyr and saint (executed) (b. ca. 1900) ** Nikolai Ruzsky, Russian general (executed) (b. 1854) * October 19 ** Harold Lockwood, American actor (b. 1887),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
** Prince Umberto, Count of Salemi (b. 1889),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* October 22 – Myrtle Gonzalez, American actress (b. 1891),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* October 24 ** César Ritz, Swiss hotelier (b. 1850) ** Daniel Burley Woolfall, English administrator, 2nd President of FIFA (b. 1852) * October 25 – Amadeo de Souza Cardoso, Portuguese painter (b. 1887),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* October 28 – Michel Coiffard, French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1892) * October 29 – Rudolf Tobias, Estonian composer (b. 1873) * October 31 ** Egon Schiele, Austrian artist (b. 1890),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
** István Tisza, 2-time List of Prime Ministers of Hungary, Prime Minister of Hungary (assassinated) (b. 1861)


November

* November 1 – Vladimir Vasilyevich Smirnov, Russian general (executed) (b. 1849) * November 2 – Hugh Cairns (VC), Hugh Cairns, Canadian soldier (b. 1896) * November 4 ** Wilfred Owen, British poet, soldier (killed in action) (b. 1893) ** Andrew Dickson White, American academic and diplomat, co-founder of Cornell University (b. 1832) * November 5 **Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, British occultist (b. 1854),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
**William Shea (actor), William Shea, British actor (b. 1856) * November 6 – Alan Arnett McLeod, Canadian soldier (b. 1899),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* November 9 ** Guillaume Apollinaire, French poet (b. 1880),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
** Albert Ballin, German shipping magnate (b. 1857) ** Peter Lumsden, Sir Peter Lumsden, British general in the Indian Army (b. 1829) * November 11 ** Victor Adler, Austrian politician (b. 1852) ** George Lawrence Price, last Commonwealth soldier to die in WWI (b. 1892) * November 12 – Aleksei Evert, Russian general (executed) (b. 1857; may have died in 1926) * November 15 – Robert Anderson (Scotland Yard official), Sir Robert Anderson, British police officer (b. 1841),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* November 19 – Joseph F. Smith, 6th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (b. 1838) * November 20 – John Bauer (illustrator), John Bauer, Swedish painter (b. 1882) * November 22 – Rose Cleveland, ''de facto'' First Lady of the United States (b. 1846),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* November 23 – Fritz von Below, German general (b. 1853) * November 30 – Karl Petrovich Jessen, Russian admiral (b. 1852)


December

* December 2 – Edmond Rostand, French writer (b. 1868),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* December 4 – Princess Teriivaetua of Tahiti (b. 1869),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* December 5 – Schalk Willem Burger, Boer military leader, lawyer, politician, statesman, and acting President of the South African Republic (1900-1902) (b. 1852) * December 9 – Samuel Swett Green, American library pioneer (b. 1837) * December 11 – Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (b. 1876),
Spanish flu Spanish flu, also known as the Great Influenza epidemic or the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic An influenza pandemic is an epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' ...
* December 14 – Sidónio Pais, Portuguese politician, general, diplomat, 66th Prime Minister of Portugal and 4th President of Portugal (b. 1872), assassinated * December 16 – Frederic W. Tilton, American educator and 7th List of Phillips Academy Heads of School, Principal of Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts (b. 1839) * December 20 – Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar (b. 1884) * December 21 – Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863) * December 28 – Olavo Bilac, Brazilian poet (b. 1865)


Date unknown

* Spring – Vyacheslav Troyanov, Russian general (b. 1875) * Yakov Zhilinsky, Russian general (b. 1853)


Nobel Prizes

* Nobel Prize in Physics, Physics – Max Planck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck * Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Chemistry – Fritz Haber * Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Medicine – not awarded * Nobel Prize in Literature, Literature – not awarded * Nobel Peace Prize, Peace – not awarded


References


Further reading

* Chandra, Siddharth, Julia Christensen, and Shimon Likhtman. "Connectivity and seasonality: the 1918 influenza and COVID-19 pandemics in global perspective." ''Journal of Global History'' 15.3 (2020): 408–420. * Phillips, Howard. "’17,’18,’19: religion and science in three pandemics, 1817, 1918, and 2019." ''Journal of Global History'' 15.3 (2020): 434–443. * Williams, John. ''The Other Battleground The Home Fronts: Britain, France and Germany 1914-1918'' (1972) pp 243–92.


Primary sources and year books


''New International Year Book 1918'' (1919)
Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 904 pp * {{DEFAULTSORT:1918 1918,