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January

*
January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the year. __TOC__ Events Pre-1600 * – For the fi ...
– The
British Board of Film Censors The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC, previously the British Board of Film Censors) is a non-governmental organization, non-governmental organisation founded by the film industry in 1912 and responsible for the national classificatio ...
receives the authority to classify and censor films. *
January 5 Events Pre-1600 *1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is defeated and killed in a conflict with René II, Duke of Lorraine; Duchy of Burgundy, Burgundy subsequently becomes part of France. 1601–1900 *1675 – Battle of Turckh ...
First Balkan War The First Balkan War ( bg, Балканска война; el, Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; sr, Први балкански рат, ''Prvi Balkanski rat''; tr, Birinci Balkan Savaşı) lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and invo ...

First Balkan War
Battle of Lemnos: Greek admiral
Pavlos Kountouriotis Pavlos Kountouriotis ( el, Παύλος Κουντουριώτης; 9 April 1855 – 22 August 1935) was a Greek rear admiral during the Balkan Wars, regent, and the first President of the Second Hellenic Republic. In total he served four tim ...
forces the Turkish fleet to retreat to its base within the
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
, from which it will not venture for the rest of the war. *
January 12 Events Pre-1600 * – Julius crosses the Rubikon at the head of the 13th Legion. Civil war between the former allies, Caesar and , is now inevitable. * – is forced to flee his capital at , and his general, gains control of the e ...
(January 25
Old Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually this is the change from the to the as enacted in various European countries between 1582 and the 20th century. In ...
) – Bolshevik activist Josef Dzhugashvili first publishes an article, under the pseudonym
Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin * ka, link=no, იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე სტალინი. ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Unio ...

Stalin
, which he adopts hereafter. At this time he,
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator , the Kingdom of Italy, Italian dictator from 1922 to 1943 and Adolf Hitler, the Nazi Germany, German dictator from 1933 to 1945 A di ...

Adolf Hitler
and
Josip Broz Tito Josip Broz ( sh-Cyrl, Јосип Броз, ; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (; sh-Cyrl, Тито, links=no, ), was a Yugoslav communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belon ...

Josip Broz Tito
are simultaneously resident in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
. *
January 13 Events Pre-1600 * – transfers the state to the free disposal of the Senate and the people. He receives Spain, Gaul, and Syria as his province for ten years. * – The break out, during the racing season at the in , as a result of ...
Edward Carson Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, PC, Privy Council of Ireland, PC (Ire) (9 February 1854 – 22 October 1935), from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Unionism in Ireland, Irish unioni ...
founds the (first)
Ulster Volunteer Force The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is an Ulster loyalism, Ulster loyalist paramilitary group. Formed in 1965, it first emerged in 1966. Its first leader was Gusty Spence, a former British Army soldier from Northern Ireland. The group undertook T ...
, by unifying several existing
loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdo ...
militia A militia () is generally an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-b ...
s to resist
home rule Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens. It is thus the power of a part (administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

home rule
for Ireland. *
January 23 Events Pre-1600 * 393 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the ...
1913 Tasmanian state election: The Commonwealth Liberal Party candidate, Albert Solomon, is elected premier. *
January 23 Events Pre-1600 * 393 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the ...
1913 Ottoman coup d'état
1913 Ottoman coup d'état
:
Ismail Enver Ismail Enver Pasha ( ota, اسماعیل انور پاشا; tr, İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer who formed one-third of the dictatorial triumvirate known as the " Three Pashas" (along wit ...

Ismail Enver
comes to power. *
January 30 Events Pre-1600 *1018 Year 1018 (Roman numerals, MXVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Europe * January 30 – The Peace of Bautzen: Emp ...
– The British
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
rejects an
Irish Home Rule Bill The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government (or "home rule") for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state tha ...
.


February

*
February 1 Events Pre-1600 *1327 Year 1327 (Roman numerals, MCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events January–December * January 25 – The 14-year-old Edw ...
– New York City's
Grand Central Terminal Grand Central Terminal (GCT; also referred to as Grand Central Station or simply as Grand Central) is a commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a service that primarily operates within a , connecting to a from adjacent ...

Grand Central Terminal
, having been rebuilt, reopens as the world's largest
railroad station A train station, railway station, railroad station or depot is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. I ...
. *
February 3 Events Pre-1600 *1112 Year 1112 ( MCXII) was a leap year starting on Monday A leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday Monday is the between and . According to the ...
– The
16th Amendment to the United States Constitution The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constit ...
is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect
income tax An income tax is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelate ...
es on all sources of income, not just some. *
February 9 Events Pre-1600 *474 __NOTOC__ Year 474 ( CDLXXIV) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 Decemb ...
Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution ( es, Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated w ...
: " La Decena Trágica", the rebellion of some military chiefs against the President
Francisco I. Madero
Francisco I. Madero
, begins. *
February 13 Events Pre-1600 * 962 – Emperor Otto I Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was East Francian king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 un ...
– Thubten Gyatso, the
13th Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso (shortened from Ngawang Lobsang Thupten Gyatso Jigdral Chokley Namgyal; ; Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It ...
, declares the independence of
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang people, Tamang, Qia ...
from
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
China. *
February 18 Events Pre-1600 *1229 Year 1229 () was a (link will display the full calendar) of the . Events January–December * – : signs a ten-year with , regaining , , and with neither military engagements, nor support from the ...
– Mexican Revolution: President and Vice President José María Pino Suárez are forced to resign. Pedro Lascuráin serves as president for less than an hour, before General
Victoriano Huerta José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (; 22 December 1850 – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and 39th President of Mexico The president of Mexico ( es, link=no, Presidente de México), officially known as the president of the Uni ...

Victoriano Huerta
, leader of the coup, takes office. *
February 22 Events Pre-1600 *1316 Year 1316 ( MCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on ThursdayA leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday 1 January, and ends on Friday 31 December. Its ...
Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution ( es, Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated w ...
: and José María Pino Suárez are assassinated. *
February 23 Events Pre-1600 * 303 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman ...
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
is arrested by the Russian secret police, the
Okhrana The Department for Protecting the Public Security and Order (russian: Отделение по охранению общественной безопасности и порядка), usually called Guard Department ( rus, Охранное отд ...
, in
Petrograd Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...
, and exiled to
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
.


March

*
March March is the third month of the year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days ...

March
** The
House of Romanov The House of Romanov (also transcribed Romanoff; rus, Рома́новы, Románovy, rɐˈmanəvɨ) was the reigning imperial house of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country s ...
celebrates the 300th anniversary of its succession to the throne, amidst an outpouring of
monarchist Monarchism is the advocacy of the system of monarchy or monarchical rule. A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government independent of any specific monarch, whereas one who supports a particular monarch is a royalist. One ...
sentiment in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
. ** Following the assassination of his rival
Song Jiaoren Song Jiaoren (, ; Given name at birth: Liàn 鍊; Courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, includi ...

Song Jiaoren
,
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai (; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese histo ...

Yuan Shikai
uses military force to dissolve
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
's parliament, and rules as a dictator. * c.
March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC __NOTOC__ The year 509 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of ...
– British steamship ''Calvados'' disappears in the
Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara,; grc, Προποντίς, Προποντίδα, Propontís, Propontída also known as the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or cl ...

Sea of Marmara
, with 200 on board. *
March 3 Events Pre-1600 *473 – Gundobad (nephew of Ricimer) nominates Glycerius as emperor of the Western Roman Empire. *724 – Empress Genshō abdicates the throne in favor of her nephew Emperor Shōmu, Shōmu who becomes emperor of Japan. ...
– The
Woman Suffrage Procession The Woman Suffrage Procession, in 1913, was the first Women's suffrage, suffragist parade in Washington, D.C. It was also the first large, organized march on Washington for political purposes. The procession was organized by the suffragists Alic ...
takes place in Washington, D.C. led by
Inez Milholland Inez Milholland Boissevain (August 6, 1886 – November 25, 1916) was a leading American suffragist. From her college days at Vassar, she campaigned aggressively for women’s rights as the principal issue of a wide-ranging socialist agenda. In ...

Inez Milholland
on horseback. *
March 4 Events Pre-1600 * AD 51 AD 51 ( LI) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addit ...
**
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
is
sworn in Traditionally an oath (from Old English, Anglo-Saxon ', also called plight) is either a utterance, statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity. A common legal substitute for those who c ...
, as the 28th President of the United States. ** The U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of Labor are established, by splitting the duties of the 10-year-old
Department of Commerce and Labor The United States Department of Commerce and Labor was a short-lived Cabinet department of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United ...
. The
Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
,
U.S. Bureau of Fisheries The United States Fish Commission, formally known as the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, was an agency of the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...
and U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey form part of the Department of Commerce. *
March 4 Events Pre-1600 * AD 51 AD 51 ( LI) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addit ...
6
First Balkan War The First Balkan War ( bg, Балканска война; el, Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; sr, Први балкански рат, ''Prvi Balkanski rat''; tr, Birinci Balkan Savaşı) lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and invo ...

First Balkan War
Battle of Bizani The Battle of Bizani (, ''Máchi tou Bizaníou''; tr, Bizani Muharebesi, italic=no) took place in Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region Historical regions (or historical areas ...
: Forces of the
Kingdom of Greece The Kingdom of Greece ( grc, label=Katharevousa, Greek, Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος ) was established in 1832 and was the successor state to the First Hellenic Republic. It was internationally recognised by the Treaty of Constant ...
capture the forts of
Bizani Bizani ( el, Μπιζάνι) is a village and a former municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region , image_map = Epirus anti ...
(covering the approaches to
Ioannina Ioannina ( el, Ιωάννινα ' ), often called Yannena ( ' ) within Greece, is the capital and largest city of the Ioannina regional unit and of Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Hist ...

Ioannina
) from the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. *
March 7 Events Pre-1600 *161 – Marcus Aurelius and L. Commodus (who changes his name to Lucius Verus) become joint emperors of Rome on the death of Antoninus Pius. *1138 – Konrad III, Konrad III von Hohenstaufen was elected king of Germany ...
– British freighter ''Alum Chine'', carrying 343 tons of dynamite, explodes in
Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city prop ...

Baltimore
harbour. *
March 12 Events Pre-1600 *538 Year 538 ( DXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Iohannes without colleague (or, less ...
– Australia begins building the new federal capital of
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
. *
March 13 Events Pre-1600 *1567 __NOTOC__ Year 1567 ( MDLXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) i ...
Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution ( es, Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated w ...
:
Pancho Villa Francisco Villa (,"Villa"
''
returns to Mexico, from his self-imposed exile in the United States. *
March 17 Events Pre-1600 *45 BC __NOTOC__ Year 45 BC was either a common year starting on Thursday A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a c ...
– The Military Aviation Academy (Escuela de Aviación Militar) is founded in Uruguay, to become the Military Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Militar) on
4 December Events *771 – Austrasian king Carloman I dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Francia, Frankish Kingdom. *1110 – The Kingdom of Jerusalem captures Siege of Sidon, Sidon. *1259 – Kings Louis IX of Fran ...
1952 Events January * January 8 Events Pre-1600 *307 – Emperor Huai of Jin, Jin Huaidi becomes emperor of China in succession to his father, Emperor Hui of Jin, Jin Huidi, despite a challenge from his uncle, Sima Ying. *871 – ...

1952
(the Uruguayan Air Force (FAU) will grow from this foundation). *
March 18 Events Pre-1600 * 37 – Roman Senate annuls Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (s ...
George I of Greece George may refer to: People * George (given name) George (, ) is a masculine given name derived from the Greek language, Greek Georgios, Geōrgios (; , ). The name gained popularity due to its association with the Christian martyrs, Christian ...

George I of Greece
is assassinated after 50 years on the throne; he is succeeded by his son
Constantine Constantine most often refers to: * Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterra ...

Constantine
. *
March 20 Typically the March equinox falls on this date, marking the vernal point in the Northern Hemisphere and the autumnal point in the Southern Hemisphere. Events Pre-1600 *235 – Maximinus Thrax is proclaimed Roman emperor. *673 – Emper ...
Sung Chiao-jen Song Jiaoren (, ; Chinese name, Given name at birth: Liàn 鍊; Courtesy name: Dùnchū 鈍初) (5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Republic of China (1912–1949), Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomin ...

Sung Chiao-jen
, a founder of the Chinese nationalist party (
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
), is wounded in an assassination attempt, and dies two days later. ** The city of
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
, the center of the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national ...
, becomes the official capital of the
Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from ...

Commonwealth of Australia
. *
March 23 Events Pre-1600 *1400 Year 1400 ( MCD) was a leap year starting on ThursdayA leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday Thursday is the day of the week between Wednes ...
– Supporters of Phan Xích Long begin a revolt against colonial rule in
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
. *
March 25 Events Pre-1600 *421 __NOTOC__ Year 421 ( CDXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calen ...
– The
Great Dayton Flood The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 resulted from flooding by the Great Miami River reaching Dayton, Ohio, and the surrounding area, causing the greatest natural disaster in Ohio history. In response, the Ohio General Assembly, General Assembly passed th ...
, after four days of rain in the
Miami Valley The Miami Valley is the land area surrounding the Great Miami River in southwest Ohio Ohio is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Of the List of states and territories of the United S ...
, kills over 360 and destroys 20,000 homes (chiefly in
Dayton, Ohio Dayton () is the sixth-largest city in the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...
). *
March 26 Events Pre-1600 * 590 – Emperor Maurice (emperor), Maurice proclaims his son Theodosius (son of Maurice), Theodosius as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. *1027 – Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II as Ho ...
**
Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution ( es, Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated w ...
:
Venustiano Carranza José Venustiano Carranza De La Garza (; 29 December 1859 – 21 May 1920) was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutional Army, Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolution ...

Venustiano Carranza
announces his Plan of Guadalupe, and begins his rebellion against
Victoriano Huerta José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (; 22 December 1850 – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and 39th President of Mexico The president of Mexico ( es, link=no, Presidente de México), officially known as the president of the Uni ...

Victoriano Huerta
's government, as head of the ''Constitutionals''. **
Balkan Wars The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War. In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original comb ...

Balkan Wars
: The Siege of Adrianople ends, when
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...
n forces take
Adrianople Edirne (, ), formerly known as Adrianople or Hadrianopolis (), is a city in Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the ...
from the Ottomans.


April

*
April April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, mont ...
Bernhard Kellermann Bernhard Kellermann (4 March 1879, Fürth, Kingdom of Bavaria – 17 October 1951) was a German author and poet. Life Bernhard Kellermann enrolled in 1899 at Technical University Munich initially in general studies, but later focused on Ger ...
's novel ''Der Tunnel (novel), Der Tunnel'' is published. * April 5 – The United States Soccer Federation is formed. * April 8 – The Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, dictating the direct election of senators. * April 10 – Albrecht Grocery Shop, as predecessor of Aldi, as known well for Discount store, discount retail brand in Europe, founded in Essen, Germany. * April 21 – Cunard Line, Cunard ocean liner , built by John Brown & Company, is launched on the River Clyde. * April 24 – The Woolworth Building opens in New York City. Designed by Cass Gilbert, it is the List of tallest buildings in the world, tallest building in the world on this date, and for more than a decade after.


May

*May – South Africa's first flying school opens in Kimberley, Northern Cape, Kimberley to train pilots for the South African Aviation Corps, to become the South African Air Force on 1 February 1920. * May 3 – ''Raja Harishchandra'', the first full-length Indian feature film, is released, marking the beginning of the Cinema of India, Indian film industry. * May 9–July 11 – A major industrial strike occurs in the Black Country of England, involving 25,000 workers, and threatening preparations for World War I in naval and steel industries. The workers demand 23 shillings minimum wage. * May 14 – New York Governor William Sulzer approves the charter for the Rockefeller Foundation, which begins operations with a $100,000,000 donation from John D. Rockefeller. * May 24–May 25, 25 –
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator , the Kingdom of Italy, Italian dictator from 1922 to 1943 and Adolf Hitler, the Nazi Germany, German dictator from 1933 to 1945 A di ...

Adolf Hitler
moves from
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
to Munich. * May 24 – Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia marries Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover in Berlin, ending the decades-long rift between the House of Hohenzollern, Houses of Hohenzollern and House of Hanover, Hanover and marking the last great gathering of European sovereigns. * May 26 (May 13 Old Style and New Style dates, O.S.) – Igor Sikorsky becomes the first person to pilot a 4-engine fixed-wing aircraft. * May 29 – The ballet ''The Rite of Spring'' (music by Igor Stravinsky, conducted by Pierre Monteux, choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky and design by Nicholas Roerich) is premiered by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris; its modernism provokes one of the most famous classical music riots in history. The audience includes Gabriele D'Annunzio, Coco Chanel, Marcel Duchamp, Harry Graf Kessler and Maurice Ravel. * May 30 –
First Balkan War The First Balkan War ( bg, Балканска война; el, Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; sr, Први балкански рат, ''Prvi Balkanski rat''; tr, Birinci Balkan Savaşı) lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and invo ...

First Balkan War
: The Treaty of London (1913), Treaty of London is signed, ending the war. Greece is granted those parts of southern Epirus which it does not already control, and the independence of Albania is recognised.


June

* June 1 – The Greek–Serbian Alliance of 1913, Greek–Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War. * June 4 – Emily Davison, a British suffragette, runs out in front of the King's horse, Anmer, at Epsom Derby, The Derby. She is trampled and dies four days later in hospital, never having regained consciousness. * June 8 – The Deutsches Stadion (Berlin), Deutsches Stadion in Berlin is dedicated with the release of 10,000 pigeons, in front of an audience of 60,000 people. It had been constructed in anticipation of the 1916 Summer Olympics (later to be cancelled as the result of World War I). * June 11 ** Women's suffrage is enacted in Norway. ** Battle of Bud Bagsak: Armed with guns and heavy artillery, U.S. and Philippine troops under General John J. Pershing, John J. "Black Jack" Pershing fight a four-day battle against 500 Moro rebels, who are armed mostly with kampilan swords. The rebels are killed in a final desperate charge on June 15. * June 18 – The Arab Congress of 1913 opens, during which Arab nationalists meet to discuss desired reforms under the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. * June 19 – The Parliament of South Africa passes the Natives Land Act, limiting land ownership for blacks to black territories. * June 13 – The predecessor of the Aldi store chain opens in Essen, Germany. * June 24 – Joseph Cook becomes the 6th Prime Minister of Australia. * June 29 – The Second Balkan War begins.


July

* July 10 ** Romania declares war on Bulgaria. ** Death Valley, California hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C), the all-time highest temperature recorded on Earth (although its validity has been challenged, and in 2020 a temperature of was recorded at the same location, which would make it the world's highest ''verified'' air temperature, subject to confirmation). * July 27 – The town of San Javier, Uruguay is founded by Russian settlers. * July 29 Agreement reached at the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Anglo-Ottoman Convention which defined the limits of Ottoman jurisdiction in the area of the Persian Gulf with respect to Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain.


August

* August 2 – The first known ascent of Mount Olympus in Greece is made by Swiss mountaineers Daniel Baud-Bovy and Frédéric Boissonnas guided by Christos Kakkalos. * August 4 – Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China: The province of Chungking (Chongqing) declares independence; Republican forces crush the rebellion in a couple of weeks. * August 10 – Second Balkan War: The Treaty of Bucharest (1913), Treaty of Bucharest is signed, ending the war. Macedonia (region), Macedonia is divided, and Northern Epirus is assigned to Provisional Government of Albania, Albania. * August 13 – Harry Brearley invents stainless steel in Sheffield. * August 20 – After his airplane fails at an altitude of , aviator Adolphe Pégoud becomes the first person to bail out from an airplane and land safely. * August 23 – The Little Mermaid (statue), The Little Mermaid statue is finished in Copenhagen, Denmark. * August 26 – Dublin Lock-out in Ireland: Members of James Larkin's Irish Transport and General Workers' Union employed by the Dublin United Transport Company, Dublin United Tramways Company begin strike action in defiance of the dismissal of trade union members by its chairman. * August 31 – Dublin Lock-out: "Bloody Sunday": The dispute escalates when the Dublin Metropolitan Police kill one demonstrator and injure 400, in dispersing a demonstration.


September

* September 7–September 8, 8 – The Fourth Congress of the International Psychoanalytical Association (the last occasion on which Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud will meet) takes place in Munich. * September 9 ** In Germany, BASF starts the world's first plant for the production of fertilizer based on the Haber process, Haber-Bosch process, feeding in modern times about a third of the world's population. ** Imperial Russian Army pilot Pyotr Nesterov becomes the first person to Aerobatic maneuver, loop an airplane, flying a Nieuport IV monoplane over Syretzk Aerodrome near Kiev,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
. ** Helgoland Island air disaster: The first fatalities aboard a German airship occur, when the Imperial German Navy Zeppelin dirigible ''LZ 14'' (naval designation ''L 1'') is forced down into the North Sea off Heligoland during a thunderstorm, killing 16 of the 22 men on board. * September 10 – Jean Sibelius's tone poem ''Luonnotar (Sibelius), Luonnotar'' is premiered in Gloucester Cathedral, England, with soprano Aino Ackté. * September 13 – The Bell of Chersonesos is returned by France to Russia after having been seized during the Crimean War. * September 17 – In Chicago, the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith is founded, with Sigmund Livingston as its first president. * September 23 – French aviator Roland Garros (aviator), Roland Garros crosses the Mediterranean in an airplane flying from Fréjus, France to Bizerte, Tunisia. * September 29 – Second Balkan War: The Treaty of Constantinople (1913), Treaty of Constantinople is signed in Istanbul, between the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and the Kingdom of Bulgaria.


October

* October 1 –
Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution ( es, Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated w ...
:
Pancho Villa Francisco Villa (,"Villa"
''
's troops take Torreón after a 3-day battle, when government troops retreat. * October 7 – The Ford Motor Company's Highland Park Ford Plant, Highland Park Plant in Highland Park, Michigan, near Detroit, becomes the first automobile production facility in the world to implement the moving assembly line, significantly speeding up production of the Ford Model T, Model T. * October 9 – Canadian-owned ocean liner , carrying passengers (mostly immigrants) and a chemical cargo from Rotterdam to New York City, catches fire in a North Atlantic gale; 136 die, but 521 are saved by ships summoned by SOS messages to the scene. * October 10 ** U.S. President
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, ending construction on the Panama Canal. **
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai (; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese histo ...

Yuan Shikai
is elected President of the Republic of China. * October 11 – The Philadelphia Athletics win the deciding game of the 1913 World Series, over baseball's New York Giants, winning 3–1 to take the series in five games. * October 14 – Senghenydd colliery disaster: An explosion at the Universal Colliery, Senghenydd in South Wales kills 439 miners, the worst mining accident in the United Kingdom. * October 16 – The British Royal Navy's is launched at Portsmouth Dockyard as the first oil-fired battleship. * October 18 – The Monument to the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig, Germany is finished. * October 19 – The DLRG (German Life-Saving Society) is founded. * October 26 –
Victoriano Huerta José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (; 22 December 1850 – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and 39th President of Mexico The president of Mexico ( es, link=no, Presidente de México), officially known as the president of the Uni ...

Victoriano Huerta
elected president of Mexico. * October 28–December 2 – Zabern Affair: Acts of aggression by the Prussian garrison at Zabern, Alsace-Lorraine provoke political debate across the German Empire. * October 31 – The Lincoln Highway, the first automobile road across the United States, is dedicated.


November

* November 5 – King Otto of Bavaria is deposed by his cousin, Prince Regent Ludwig, who assumes the title Ludwig III of Bavaria, Ludwig III. * November 6 – Mohandas Gandhi is arrested, while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa. * November 7–November 11, 11 – The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 claims 19 ships, and more than 250 lives.


December

* December 1 ** The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line, reducing chassis assembly time from hours in October to 2 hours, 40 minutes. Although Henry Ford, Ford is not the first to use an assembly line, his successful adoption of one sparks an era of mass production. ** Crete, having obtained self rule from Ottoman Empire, Turkey after the
First Balkan War The First Balkan War ( bg, Балканска война; el, Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; sr, Први балкански рат, ''Prvi Balkanski rat''; tr, Birinci Balkan Savaşı) lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and invo ...

First Balkan War
, is annexed by Kingdom of Greece (Glücksburg), Greece. **Buenos Aires Underground, the first in South America, opens. * December 12 – Vincenzo Peruggia tries to sell the ''Mona Lisa'' in Florence, and is arrested. * December 19 – The Raker Act is signed by President
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
, allowing the City of San Francisco to dam Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park. * December 23 – The Federal Reserve System is created as the central banking system of the United States, by
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
's signature of the Federal Reserve Act. * December 30 – Kingdom of Italy, Italy returns the ''Mona Lisa'' to French Third Republic, France.


Date unknown

* The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is established in Bengal Presidency, Bengal Province (modern-day Bangladesh). * French physicist Georges Sagnac shows that light propagates at a speed independent of the speed of its source. * The Camel (cigarette), Camel cigarettes are introduced by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, R. J. Reynolds in the United States (the first packaged cigarettes). * Prada is established as a leather goods dealer in Milan, by Mario Prada and his brother. * Astra AB, Astra, as predecessor of AstraZeneca, a healthcare and pharmaceutical brand worldwide, founded in Sodertalje, Sweden. * The value of International trade, world trade reaches roughly $38 billion.


Births


January–February

*
January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the year. __TOC__ Events Pre-1600 * – For the fi ...
– Shih Kien, Shek Kin, Hong Kong actor (d. 2009) * January 2 – Anna Lee, English-American actress (d. 2004) * January 4 – Malietoa Tanumafili II, Samoan head of state (d. 2007) * January 6 ** Edward Gierek, Polish politician (d. 2001) ** Loretta Young, American actress (d. 2000) * January 7 – Victor H. Krulak, United States Marine Corps general (d. 2008) * January 9 ** Eric Berry (actor), Eric Berry, British actor (d. 1993) ** Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States (d. 1994) * January 10 ** Gustáv Husák, Slovak politician (d. 1991) ** Mehmet Shehu, 23rd Prime Minister of Albania (d. 1981) * January 11 ** Karl Stegger, Danish actor (d. 1980) ** Jean Murrell Capers, American judge (d. 2017) * January 15 ** Eugène Brands, Dutch painter (d. 2002) ** Lloyd Bridges, American actor (d. 1998) ** Alexander Marinesko, Soviet naval officer (d. 1963) * January 17 – Everett Parker, American civil rights activist (d. 2015) * January 18 – George Unwin, British World War II fighter ace (d. 2006) * January 22 ** Henry Bauchau, Belgian novelist, poet and psychoanalyst (d. 2012) ** William Conway (cardinal), William Conway, Irish cardinal (d. 1977) ** Carl F. H. Henry, American theologian and publisher (d. 2003) *
January 23 Events Pre-1600 * 393 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the ...
** Jean-Michel Atlan, French painter (d. 1960) ** Wally Parks, American founder of the NHRA (d. 2007) * January 25 ** Huang Hua, Foreign Minister of China (d. 2010) ** Witold Lutosławski, Polish composer (d. 1994) * January 29 ** Victor Mature, American actor (d. 1999) ** Peter von Zahn, German journalist, writer (d. 2001) * February 2 – Poul Reichhardt, Danish actor (d. 1985) * February 4 **Frank P. Keller, American Film editing, film editor (d. 1977) **Rosa Parks, American civil rights activist (d. 2005) **Richard Seaman, British motor racing driver (d. 1939) * February 6 – Mary Leakey, British anthropologist (d. 1996) * February 8 – Betty Field, American actress (d. 1973) ** Norman H. Boke, American plant anatomist (d. 1996) * February 10 ** Douglas Slocombe, British cinematographer (d. 2016) ** Bill White (rugby union born 1913), Bill White, Australian rugby union player (d. 1969) * February 14 ** Mel Allen, American sports reporter (d. 1996) ** Woody Hayes, American college football coach (d. 1987) ** Jimmy Hoffa, American labor leader (disappeared 1975) * February 19 – Frank Tashlin, American animation director (d. 1972) * February 20 – Tommy Henrich, American baseball player (d. 2009) *
February 23 Events Pre-1600 * 303 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman ...
– P. C. Sorcar, Indian stage magician (d. 1971) * February 25 ** Jim Backus, American actor (d. 1989) ** Gert Fröbe, German actor ''(Goldfinger)'' (d. 1988) * February 26 – George Barker (poet), George Barker, British poet (d. 1991) * February 27 ** T. B. Ilangaratne, Sri Lankan author, dramatist, actor and politician (d. 1992) ** Paul Ricœur, French philosopher (d. 2005) ** Kazimierz Sabbat, leader of Polish government-in-exile (d. 1989) ** Irwin Shaw, American writer (d. 1984)


March–April

*
March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC __NOTOC__ The year 509 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of ...
– R. S. R. Fitter, British writer (d. 2005) * March 2 – Godfried Bomans, Dutch writer (d. 1971) *
March 4 Events Pre-1600 * AD 51 AD 51 ( LI) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addit ...
– John Garfield, American actor (d.
1952 Events January * January 8 Events Pre-1600 *307 – Emperor Huai of Jin, Jin Huaidi becomes emperor of China in succession to his father, Emperor Hui of Jin, Jin Huidi, despite a challenge from his uncle, Sima Ying. *871 – ...

1952
) *
March 12 Events Pre-1600 *538 Year 538 ( DXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Iohannes without colleague (or, less ...
– Loulie Jean Norman, American singer (d. 2005) *
March 13 Events Pre-1600 *1567 __NOTOC__ Year 1567 ( MDLXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) i ...
** William J. Casey, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 1987) ** Sergey Mikhalkov, Russian writer, lyricist (d. 2009) * March 15 – Rosita Contreras, Argentine actress (d. 1962) *
March 18 Events Pre-1600 * 37 – Roman Senate annuls Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (s ...
** René Clément, French film director (d. 1996) ** Reinhard Hardegen, German U-boat commander (d. 2018) ** Werner Mölders, German fighter pilot (d. 1941) * March 19 – Smoky Dawson, Australian singer (d. 2008) * March 21 – George Abecassis, English race car driver (d. 1991) * March 22 – Tom McCall, American politician and journalist (d. 1983) *
March 26 Events Pre-1600 * 590 – Emperor Maurice (emperor), Maurice proclaims his son Theodosius (son of Maurice), Theodosius as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. *1027 – Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II as Ho ...
** Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1996) ** Jacqueline de Romilly, French philologist (d. 2010) * March 28 – Toko Shinoda, Japanese painter (d. 2021) * March 29 – R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet (d. 2000) * March 30 ** Richard Helms, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 2002) ** Frankie Laine, American singer (d. 2007) ** Ċensu Tabone, Maltese politician (d. 2012) * March 31 – Etta Baker, American musician (d. 2006) * April 3 – Per Borten, Premier of Norway (d. 2005) * April 4 ** Cecil Gant, American blues singer, songwriter and pianist (d. 1951) ** Rosemary Lane (actress), Rosemary Lane, American singer (d. 1974) ** Frances Langford, American singer, actress (d. 2005) ** Muddy Waters, African-American musician (d. 1983) * April 7 **Louise Currie, American actress (d. 2013) **Florence S. Jacobsen, American Mormon leader (d. 2017) **Charles Vanik, American politician (d. 2007) * April 8 ** Sourou-Migan Apithy, Beninese political figure, 2nd President of Dahomey (d. 1989) ** Benedict J. Semmes Jr., American admiral (d. 1994) ** Carlton Skinner, Governor of Guam (d. 2004) * April 9 – Aleksanteri Saarvala, Finnish artistic gymnast (d. 1989) * April 10 – Stefan Heym, German writer (d. 2001) * April 11 – Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (d. 2006) * April 11 – Winifred Drinkwater, Scottish aviator, first woman to hold a commercial pilot's license (d. 1996) * April 14 – Jean Fournet, French conductor (d. 2008) * April 16 – Les Tremayne, British-born American actor (d. 2003) * April 18 – Jack Pope, American judge, attorney, and author (d. 2017) * April 19 ** Lloyd Cardwell, American football player and coach (d. 1997) ** Karl Rawer, German physicist (d. 2018) * April 21 – Richard Beeching, chairman of British Rail (d. 1985) * April 27 – Philip Hauge Abelson, American physicist, writer, and editor (d. 2004) * April 29 – Eugene Vielle, British Royal Air Force officer (d. 2015)


May–June

* May 1 ** Roy Matsumoto, American army officer (d. 2014) ** Louis Nye, American comedian, actor (d. 2005) ** Walter Susskind, Czech conductor (d. 1980) * May 4 – Hisaya Morishige, Japanese actor (d. 2009) * May 5 – Fred J. Doocy, American politician, banker (d. 2017) * May 6 – Stewart Granger, Anglo-American actor (d. 1993) * May 8 ** Bob Clampett, American director (''Looney Tunes'') (d. 1984) ** Saima Harmaja, Finnish poet (d. 1937) ** Sid James, South African-born British actor, comedian (d. 1976) ** Charles Scorsese, American actor, father of Martin Scorsese (d. 1993) * May 11 – Robert Jungk, Austrian journalist (d. 1994) * May 13 ** Liu Xuyi, Chinese historian (d. 2018) ** William Tolbert, President of Liberia (d. 1980) * May 16 ** Gheorghe Apostol, Romanian communist politician (d. 2010) ** Woody Herman, American musician, band leader (d. 1987) ** Paul R. Norby, American naval officer (d. 2015) * May 19 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, Indian politician, 6th President of India (d. 1996) * May 20 ** Teodoro Fernández, Peruvian soccer player (d. 1996) ** William Redington Hewlett, William Hewlett, American businessman (d. 2001) * May 22 – Benedict Garmisa, American politician (d. 1985) * May 24 ** Peter Ellenshaw, American matte designer (d. 2007) ** James Flint (RAF officer), James Flint, British Royal Air Force officer, businessman (d. 2013) ** Haldor Topsøe (1913–2013), Haldpr Topsøe, Danish engineer (d. 2013) * May 25 – Benjamin Melniker, American producer (d. 2018) * May 26 ** Peter Cushing, English actor (d. 1994) ** Pierre Daninos, French writer, humorist (d. 2005) ** Josef Manger, German weightlifter (d. 1991) * May 29 – Tony Zale, American boxer (d. 1997) * May 31 – Peter Frankenfeld, German comedian, radio and television personality (d. 1979) * June 2 – Elsie Tu, English-born Hong Kong social activist (d. 2015) * June 3 – Yitzhak Berman, Israeli politician (d. 2013) * June 6 – Carlo L. Golino, American scholar (d. 1991) * June 10 – Benjamin Shapira, German-born Israeli biochemist, recipient of the Israel Prize (d. 1993) * June 11 ** Vince Lombardi, American football coach (d. 1970) ** Risë Stevens, American mezzo-soprano (d. 2013) * June 13 ** Ralph Edwards, American game show host (d. 2005) ** Yitzhak Pundak, Polish-born Israeli military officer, diplomat (d. 2017) ** Oswald Teichmüller, German mathematician (d. 1943) * June 18 ** Robert Mondavi, American winemaker (d. 2008) ** Sammy Cahn, American songwriter (d. 1993) ** Sylvia Field Porter, American economist, journalist (d. 1991) * June 20 – Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, Spanish royal, Count of Barcelona (d. 1993) * June 21 ** Luis Taruc, Filipino political figure, insurgent (d. 2005) ** Madihe Pannaseeha Thero, Sri Lankan Buddhist monk (d. 2003) ** Kid Azteca, Mexican boxer (d. 2002) * June 22 – Álvaro Alsogaray, Argentine politician and businessman (d. 2005) * June 23 ** Jacques Rabemananjara, Malagasy politician, playwright and poet (d. 2005) ** William P. Rogers, American diplomat (d. 2001) * June 24 – Gustaaf Deloor, Belgian road racing cyclist (d. 2002) * June 25 – Cyril Fletcher, British comedian (d. 2005) * June 26 ** Rudolf Brazda, German concentration camp prisoner (d. 2011) ** Aimé Césaire, French Martinican poet, politician (d. 2008) ** Konrāds Kalējs, Latvian soldier (d. 2001) ** Anissa Rawda Najjar, Lebanese feminist, women's rights activist (d. 2016) ** Maurice Wilkes, British computer scientist (d. 2010) * June 27 ** Richard Pike Bissell, American author (d. 1977) ** Elton Britt, American country music singer-songwriter (d. 1972) ** Benvenuto Nunes, Brazilian olympic freestyle, backstroke swimmer (d. unknown) * June 28 ** Franz Antel, Austrian filmmaker (d. 2007) ** Maldwyn James, Welsh international rugby union player (d. 2003) * June 30 ** Henry Leask, British Army officer (d. 2004) ** Alfonso López Michelsen, 24th President of Colombia (d. 2007)


July

* July 1 ** Lee Guttero, American basketball player (d. 2004) ** Noel Miller, Australian cricketer (d. 2007) ** Frederick Malkus, American politician (d. 1999) ** André Tollet, French upholsterer, trade unionist and communist (d. 2001) ** Frank Barrett (baseball), Frank Barrett, American relief pitcher (d. 1998) ** Mario Acerbi, Italian football player (d. 2010) ** Joana Raspall i Juanola, Spanish writer and librarian (d. 2013) ** Paramasiva Prabhakar Kumaramangalam, Indian Army Chief (d. 2000) * July 3 – Dorothy Kilgallen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1965) * July 4 – Barbara Weeks (film actress), Barbara Weeks, American actress (d. 2003) * July 5 ** Elwood Cooke, American tennis player (d. 2004) ** Smiley Lewis, American New Orleans rhythm and blues singer, guitarist (d. 1966) * July 6 – Vance Trimble, American Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, author * July 7 ** Pinetop Perkins, American blues musician (d. 2011) ** Lu Ann Meredith, American actress (d. 1998) * July 8 ** Alejandra Soler, Spanish politician and schoolteacher (d. 2017) ** Bill Thompson (voice actor), Bill Thompson, American voice actor (d. 1971) * July 9 ** Ted Grant, South African Trotskyist (d. 2006) ** William M. Zachacki, (d. 1969) * July 10 ** Elizabeth Inglis, English actress (d. 2007) ** Joan Marsh, American actress (d. 2000) * July 11 – Kofi Abrefa Busia, Ghanese nationalist leader, 2nd Prime Minister of Ghana (d. 1978) * July 12 ** Sultan Hamid II (d. 1978) ** Edith Nash, American educator, poet (d. 2003) ** Philip Mayer Kaiser, American diplomat (d. 2007) ** Rufus Rogers, New Zealand doctor, politician (d. 2009) ** Willis Lamb, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008) * July 13 ** Kay Linaker, American actress (d. 2008) ** Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Danish shipping magnate (d. 2012) * July 14 ** Gerald Ford, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006) ** René Llense, French football goalkeeper (d. 2014) ** Princess Urraca of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, (d. 1999) * July 15 ** Gene Wettstone, American gymnastics coach (d. 2013) ** Hammond Innes, English author (d. 1998) ** Abraham Sutzkever, Yiddish language poet, memoirist (d. 2010) * July 16 ** Mirza Babayev, Azerbaijani movie actor, singer (d. 2003) ** Herman Gundlach, American football offensive lineman (d. 2005) ** Antoine Raab, German footballer (d. 2006) ** Carmen Acevedo Vega, Ecuadorian poet, writer, and journalist (d. 2006) * July 17 ** Roger Garaudy, French Holocaust denier (d. 2012) ** Bertrand Goldberg, American architect (d. 1997) * July 18 ** N. Krishnaswami Reddy, Indian lawyer (d. 2002) ** Du Runsheng, Chinese military officer, politician, and economist (d. 2015) ** Red Skelton, American comedian (d. 1997) * July 19 ** Fred Agnich, American politician (d. 2004) ** Manouchehr Sotodeh, Iranian geographer (d. 2016) * July 20 ** Irma Córdoba, Argentine actress (d. 2008) ** Guillermo Leaden, Argentine bishop (d. 2014) * July 22 ** Esteban Reyes, Mexican tennis player (d. 2014) ** Gorni Kramer, Italian bandleader, songwriter (d. 1995) ** Licia Albanese, Italian-born soprano (d. 2014) * July 23 ** Coral Browne, Australian actress (d. 1991) ** Michael Foot, British politician (d. 2010) * July 24 – Robert Emhardt, American actor (d. 1994) * July 26 – Kan Yuet-keung, Hong Kong banker, politician and lawyer (d. 2012) * July 28 – Hedley Kett, British naval officer (d. 2014) * July 29 – Erich Priebke, German war criminal, leader of the 1944 Ardeatine massacre (d. 2013) * July 30 – Lou Darvas, American artist, cartoonist (d. 1987)


August

* August 8 – Robert Stafford, Governor of Vermont, U.S Representative and U.S. Senator (d. 2006) * August 9 – Tadeusz Kotz, Polish World War II fighter ace (d. 2008) * August 10 ** Noah Beery Jr., American actor (d. 1994) ** Wolfgang Paul, German physicist (d. 1993) * August 13 ** Fred Davis (snooker player), Fred Davis, English snooker, billiards player (d. 1998) ** Makarios III, Archbishop and first President of Cyprus (d. 1977) * August 16 ** Menachem Begin, 6th Prime Minister of Israel, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1992) ** Helen F. Holt, American politician (d. 2015) * August 17 ** W. Mark Felt, American FBI Associate Director, ''Deep Throat'' Watergate informant (d. 2008) ** Rudy York, American baseball player (d. 1970) * August 18 – Nils Löfgren, Swedish chemist (d. 1967) * August 20 – Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994) * August 22 – James W. Downing, American naval officer and author (d. 2018) * August 26 – Boris Pahor, Slovenian writer * August 27 – Nina Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, German wife of freedom fighter Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (d. 2006) * August 28 ** Robertson Davies, Canadian novelist (d. 1995) ** Richard Tucker (tenor), Richard Tucker, American tenor (d. 1975) * August 29 ** Jackie Mitchell, Baseball Pitcher (d. 1987) ** Jan Ekier, Polish pianist, composer (d. 2014) * August 30 – Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991) * August 31 ** Helen Levitt, American photographer (d. 2009) ** Bernard Lovell, British radio astronomer (d. 2012) ** Michael Gover, English actor (d. 1987)


September–October

* September 1 – Ludwig Merwart, Austrian painter, graphic artist (d. 1979) * September 2 ** Alex Lovy, American animator (d. 1992) ** Israel Gelfand, Russian mathematician (d. 2009) ** Bill Shankly, Scottish football manager (d. 1981) * September 3 – Alan Ladd, American actor (d. 1964) * September 4 ** Mickey Cohen, American gangster (d. 1976) ** Boone Guyton, American test pilot (d. 1996) ** Stanford Moore, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1982) ** Kenzō Tange, Japanese architect (d. 2005) * September 6 – Julie Gibson, American singer and actress (d. 2019) * September 10 ** Lincoln Gordon, American diplomat (d. 2009) ** Zephania Mothopeng, South African politician, activist (d. 1990) * September 11 ** Bear Bryant, Paul "Bear" Bryant, American football coach (d. 1983) ** Eugenia Rawls, American actress (d. 2000) * September 12 ** Jesse Owens, African-American athlete (d. 1980) ** Eiji Toyoda, Japanese industrialist (d. 2013) * September 13 ** Roy Engel, American actor (d. 1980) ** Trần Đại Nghĩa, North Vietnamese army general (d. 1997) * September 14 ** Jacobo Árbenz, President of Guatemala (d. 1971) ** Annalisa Ericson, Swedish actress (d. 2011) * September 15 – John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General, convicted Watergate criminal (d. 1988) * September 17 ** Robert Lembke, German television presenter, game show host (d. 1989) ** Ata Kandó, Hungarian-born Dutch photographer (d. 2017) * September 19 – Frances Farmer, American actress (d. 1970) * September 22 – Lillian Chestney, American painter (d. 2000) * September 23 – Carl-Henning Pedersen, Danish artist, member of the CoBrA movement (d. 2007) * September 24 ** Wilson Rawls, American author (d. 1984) ** Herb Jeffries, American actor, popular music and jazz singer (d. 2014) * September 25 ** Charles Helou, 9th President of Lebanon (d. 2001) ** Terence Patrick O'Sullivan, British civil engineer (d. 1970) * September 28 – Warja Honegger-Lavater, Swiss artist, illustrator (d. 2007) * September 29 ** Trevor Howard, English actor (d. 1988) ** Stanley Kramer, American film producer, director, and writer (d. 2001) ** Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (d. 1996) * September 30 ** Bill Walsh (producer), Bill Walsh, American movie producer, writer (d. 1975) ** Cecilia Caballero Blanco, First Lady of Colombia (d. 2019) * October 2 – Roma Mitchell, Australian lawyer, Governor of South Australia (d. 2000) * October 4 – Martial Célestin, 1st Prime Minister of Haiti (d. 2011) * October 10 ** Alice Chetwynd Ley, British romance writer (d. 2004) ** Claude Simon, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005) * October 11 – Joe Simon, American comic book artist, writer (d. 2011) * October 18 – Evelyn Venable, American actress (d. 1993) * October 19 – Vinicius de Moraes, Brazilian poet, lyricist, and diplomat (d. 1980) * October 20 ** Barney Phillips, American actor (d. 1982) ** Cecilia Miranda de Carvalho, Brazilian singer (d. 2011) * October 22 ** Boots Mallory, American actress, dancer, and model (d. 1958) ** Robert Capa, Hungarian-born American photojournalist (d. 1954) ** Tamara Desni, German-born British actress (d. 2008) ** Hans-Peter Tschudi, 2-time President of Switzerland (d. 2002) * October 24 ** Ron Barassi Sr., Australian rules footballer (d. 1941) ** Tito Gobbi, Italian operatic baritone (d. 1984) * October 26 – Harry Kartz, British businessman (d. 2016) * October 27 ** Joe Medicine Crow, American tribal historian, anthropologist (d. 2016) ** Otto Wichterle, Czech inventor of the modern contact lens (d. 1998) * October 28 ** Douglas Seale, American actor (d. 1999) ** Don Lusk, American animator (d. 2018)


November

* November 2 – Burt Lancaster, American actor, best known for his role in ''Elmer Gantry (film), Elmer Gantry'' (d. 1994) * November 3 ** Marika Rökk, Egyptian-born Austrian singer, dancer and actress (d. 2004) ** Antony Mitradas, Indian film director (d. 2017) * November 5 – Vivien Leigh, British actress, best known for her role in ''Gone with the Wind (film), Gone With The Wind'' (d. 1967) * November 6 – Aisha Abd al-Rahman, Egyptian writer (d. 1998) * November 7 ** Albert Camus, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1960) ** Elizabeth Bradford Holbrook, Canadian sculptor (d. 2009) ** Tahira Tahirova, Azerbaijani politician (d. 1991) * November 8 – Max Desfor, American photographer (d. 2018) * November 10 ** Álvaro Cunhal, Portuguese politician (d. 2005) ** Sun Yun-suan, Chinese engineer, politician (d. 2006) * November 13 ** Landrum Bolling, American political scientist and academic administrator (d. 2018) ** Lon Nol, 2-Time Prime Minister of Cambodia (d. 1985) ** Alexander Scourby, American actor (d. 1985) * November 15 – Arthur Haulot, Belgian journalist (d. 2005) * November 16 – Ellen Albertini Dow, American actress (d. 2015) * November 18 – Endre Rozsda, Hungarian-French painter (d. 1999) * November 21 ** John Boulting, English film director (d. 1985) ** Roy Boulting, English film director, producer (d. 2001) * November 22 ** Charles Berlitz, American author (d. 2003) ** Benjamin Britten, English composer (d. 1976) ** Gardnar Mulloy, American tennis player, coach (d. 2016) ** Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, first female Philippine Supreme Court Justice (d. 2006) ** Jacqueline Vaudecrane, French figure skater (d. 2018) * November 23 – William Krehm, Canadian author, journalist and political activist (d. 2019) * November 24 – Geraldine Fitzgerald, Irish-American actress (d. 2005) * November 25 – Lewis Thomas, American physician, essayist (d. 1993)


December

* December 1 – Mary Martin, American actress (d. 1990) * December 2 – Jerry Sohl, American scriptwriter (d. 2002) * December 6 ** Nikolai Amosov, Ukrainian heart surgeon, inventor, best-selling author, and exercise enthusiast (d. 2002) ** Eleanor Holm, American swimmer (d. 2004) * December 8 – Delmore Schwartz, American poet (d. 1966) * December 9 – Cynthia Chalk, American photographer (d. 2018) * December 10 ** Morton Gould, American composer (d. 1996) ** Harry Locke, British character actor (d. 1987) * December 11 – Jean Marais, French actor (d. 1998) * December 13 – Arnold Brown (General of The Salvation Army), Arnold Brown, Salvation Army general (d. 2002) * December 15 – Muriel Rukeyser, American poet (d. 1980) * December 16 – George Ignatieff, Canadian diplomat, recipient of the 1984 Pearson Medal of Peace (d. 1989) * December 18 ** Lynn Bari, American actress (d. 1989) ** Alfred Bester, American author (d. 1987) ** Willy Brandt, Chancellor of Germany, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1992) * December 21 – Arnold Friberg, American artist (d. 2010) * December 23 – Frank Pierpoint Appleby, Canadian politician (d. 2015) * December 25 ** Candy Candido, American voice actor (d. 1999) ** Tony Martin (American singer), Tony Martin, American singer and actor (d. 2012) ** Henri Nannen, German journalist, mass media owner (d. 1996) * December 26 – Frank Swift, English footballer (d. 1958) * December 28 **Lou Jacobi, Canadian-American actor (d. 2009) **Charles Maxwell (actor), Charles Maxwell, American actor (d. 1993) * December 29 – Pierre Werner, Prime Minister of Luxembourg (d. 2002) * December 30 – Elyne Mitchell, Australian author (d. 2002)


Date unknown

* Halil-Salim Jabara, Israeli Arab politician (d. 1999) * Bahjat Talhouni, 4-time Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1994)


Deaths


January

* January 2 ** Hermann Kinkelin, Swiss mathematician and politician (b. 1832) ** Léon Teisserenc de Bort, French meteorologist (b. 1855) * January 3 – Jeff Davis (Arkansas governor), Jeff Davis, American politician, 20th Governor of Arkansas (b. 1862) * January 4 – Alfred von Schlieffen, German field marshal (b. 1833) * January 6 – Gyula Juhász (sculptor), Gyula Juhász, Hungarian sculptor (b. 1876) *January 8 - Xavier Mertz, Swiss explorer, mountaineer, and skier (b. 1882) * January 16 ** Tom Dolan (baseball), Tom Dolan, American baseball pitcher (b. 1855) ** Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, American aeronaut, scientist and inventor (b. 1832) * January 18 – George Alexander Gibson, Scottish physician (b. 1854) * January 20 – José Guadalupe Posada, Mexican political printmaker and engraver (b. 1852) * January 21 – Aluísio Azevedo, Brazilian novelist (b. 1857) * January 27 – Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria (b. 1832) * January 28 ** Julius Heinrich Franz, German astronomer (b. 1847) ** Segismundo Moret, Spanish politician and writer, 3-time Prime Minister of Spain (b. 1833)


February

* February 2 – Gustaf de Laval, Swedish engineer and inventor (b. 1845) * February 4 – Gordon Sprigg, Sir Gordon Sprigg, British Prime Minister of the Cape Colony (b. 1830) * February 5 ** Johan Ehrnrooth, 5th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1833) ** Lio Gangeri, Italian sculptor (b. 1845) * February 8 – Morten Eskesen, Danish author (b. 1826) *
February 9 Events Pre-1600 *474 __NOTOC__ Year 474 ( CDLXXIV) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 Decemb ...
** Manuel Enrique Araujo, 23rd President of El Salvador (assassinated) (b. 1865) ** Bernardo Reyes, Mexican general and politician (b. 1850) * February 15 – Florence Barker (actress), Florence Barker, American actress (b. 1891) * February 17 – Edward Stanley Gibbons, English philatelist, founder of Stanley Gibbons Ltd (b. 1840) *
February 22 Events Pre-1600 *1316 Year 1316 ( MCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on ThursdayA leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday 1 January, and ends on Friday 31 December. Its ...
**Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss linguist and semiotician (b. 1857) ** Empress Dowager Longyu, Chinese empress (b. 1868) ** , 33rd President of Mexico, assassinated (b. 1873) *
February 23 Events Pre-1600 * 303 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman ...
– Dénes Andrássy, Hungarian nobleman (b. 1835) * February 26 – Felix Draeseke, German composer (b. 1835) * February 28 – George Finnegan, American Olympic boxer (b. 1881)


March

*
March 7 Events Pre-1600 *161 – Marcus Aurelius and L. Commodus (who changes his name to Lucius Verus) become joint emperors of Rome on the death of Antoninus Pius. *1138 – Konrad III, Konrad III von Hohenstaufen was elected king of Germany ...
– E. Pauline Johnson, Canadian writer (b. 1861) * March 10 – Harriet Tubman, American abolitionist, humanitarian and spy (b. c. 1822) * March 11 – John Shaw Billings, American military, medical leader (b. 1838) *
March 12 Events Pre-1600 *538 Year 538 ( DXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Iohannes without colleague (or, less ...
– Francisco Pereira Passos, Brazilian engineer politician, Mayor of Rio de Janeiro (b. 1836) *
March 13 Events Pre-1600 *1567 __NOTOC__ Year 1567 ( MDLXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) i ...
– Felix Hidalgo, Filipino artist (b. 1855) * March 14 – Auguste Desgodins, French missionary (b. 1826) *
March 17 Events Pre-1600 *45 BC __NOTOC__ Year 45 BC was either a common year starting on Thursday A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a c ...
– Soledad Acosta, Colombian journalist and writer (b. 1833) *
March 18 Events Pre-1600 * 37 – Roman Senate annuls Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (s ...
– King
George I of Greece George may refer to: People * George (given name) George (, ) is a masculine given name derived from the Greek language, Greek Georgios, Geōrgios (; , ). The name gained popularity due to its association with the Christian martyrs, Christian ...

George I of Greece
(b. 1845) * March 19 – Géza Allaga, Hungarian composer (b. 1841) * March 21 – Manuel Bonilla, 2-time President of Honduras (b. 1849) * March 22 **Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino, Romanian lawyer and politician, 20th Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1833) **Song Jiaoren, Sung Chiao-jen, Chinese revolutionary (b. 1882) *
March 25 Events Pre-1600 *421 __NOTOC__ Year 421 ( CDXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calen ...
– Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, British field marshal (b. 1833) * March 31 – J. P. Morgan, American financier (b. 1837)


April

* April 7 – Carl von Lemcke, German mathematician (b. 1867) * April 8 – Gyula Kőnig, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1849) * April 15 – Kareemullah Shah, Indian Sufi scholar and saint * April 18 – Lester Frank Ward, American botanist, paleontologist and sociologist (b. 1841) * April 19 ** Paul Janson, Belgian politician (b. 1840) ** Hugo Winckler, German archaeologist and historian who uncovered the capital of the Hittite Empire (Hattusa) (b. 1863) * April 20 – Vilhelm Bissen, Danish sculptor (b. 1836) * April 24 – Vsevolod Abramovich, Russian aviator (b. 1890) * April 25 ** Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, Ukrainian author (b. 1864) ** Stjepan Kovačević, Croatian politician (b. 1841) * April 27 – Gabriel von Seidl, German architect (b. 1848) * April 28 – Andreas Flocken, German entrepreneur and inventor (b. 1845) * April 29 – Václav Hladík, Austro-Hungarian novelist (b. 1868)


May

* May 1 – John Barclay Armstrong, Texas Ranger, U.S. Marshal (b. 1850) * May 2 ** Tancrède Auguste, Haitian general, 20th President of Haiti (b. 1856) ** Metropolitan Baselios Paulose I, Indian bishop (b. 1836) * May 6 – Elena Guro, Russian painter and writer (b. 1877) * May 8 – Louis Adolphus Duhring, American physician (b. 1845) * May 16 – Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1849) * May 19 – Gabriel Loppé, French painter and photographer (b. 1825) * May 25 – Alfred Redl, Austrian military intelligence officer, double agent (honorable suicide) (b. 1864) * May 27 – Catherine Amanda Coburn, American journalist, newspaper editor (b. 1834) * May 28 – John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, British politician and scientist (b. 1839)


June

* June 1 – Iosif Dubrovinsky, Bolsheviks, Bolshevik and comrade of Vladimir Lenin prior to the Russian Revolution (b. 1877) * June 2 – Alfred Austin, English Poet Laureate (b. 1835) * June 5 – Chris von der Ahe, German-born American brewer, baseball owner (b. 1851) * June 8 – Emily Davison, English suffragette (b. 1872) * June 22 ** Ștefan Octavian Iosif, Romanian poet (b. 1875) ** Victorin-Hippolyte Jasset, French pioneer (b. 1862) * June 23 ** Nicolás de Piérola, Peruvian politician, 2-time President of Peru (b. 1839) ** Jonathan Hutchinson, Sir Jonathan Hutchinson, English surgeon (b. 1828) * June 28 – Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales, Brazilian lawyer, politician and 4th President of Brazil (b. 1841)


July

* July 1 – Emanuel M. Abrahams, American politician (b. 1866) * July 3 – Horatio Nelson Young, American Civil War naval hero (b. 1845) * July 5 – Prince Arisugawa Takehito (b. 1862) * July 7 – Edward Burd Grubb Jr., American Union Army officer, diplomat and politician (b. 1841) * July 10 ** Mikoláš Aleš, Austro-Hungarian painter (b. 1835) ** John Valentine Ellis, Canadian journalist * July 11 – Charles Lavigne, Ceylonese Roman Catholic and Syro Malabar Catholic bishop and Servant of God (b. 1840) * July 13 – Edward Burd Grubb Jr., American Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General (b. 1841) * July 16 – Sigismund Bachrich, Hungarian composer (b. 1841) * July 17 – Esther Saville Allen, American author (b. 1837) * July 19 – Clímaco Calderón, Colombian lawyer, politician and 15th President of Colombia (b. 1852) * July 20 – Vsevolod Rudnev, Russian admiral (b. 1855) * July 22 – Adhémar Esmein, French jurist (b. 1848) ** Eduardo López Rivas, Venezuelan editor and journalist (b. 1850) * July 29 – Tobias Asser, Dutch jurist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1838) * July 30 ** Lady Alicia Blackwood, English painter (b. 1818) ** Warren F. Daniell, American politician, U.S. Representative from New Hampshire (b. 1826) ** Itō Sachio, Japanese poet and novelist (b. 1864)


August

* August 3 ** Josephine Cochrane, American inventor of the first commercially successful dishwasher (b. 1839) ** Joseph Graybill, American actress (b. 1887) * August 4 – Étienne Laspeyres, German economist (b. 1834) * August 7 – Samuel Franklin Cody, American-born British aviation pioneer (b. 1867) * August 9 – Wilhelm Albermann, German sculptor (b. 1835) * August 10 ** Johannes Linnankoski, Finnish author (b. 1869) ** Jules Desbrochers des Loges, French entomologist (b. 1836) * August 11 ** Vasily Avseenko, Russian journalist and writer (b. 1842) ** Natalie Zahle, Danish educator and women's rights activist (b. 1827) * August 13 – August Bebel, German Social Democratic politician (b. 1840) * August 20 – Émile Ollivier, 24th Prime Minister of France (b. 1825) * August 22 – Oscar de Négrier, French general (b. 1839) * August 28 – Fyodor Kamensky, Russian sculptor (b. 1836) * August 29 – Lars Havstad, Norwegian activist (b. 1851)


September

* September 1 – Patriarch and Metropolitan Lukijan Bogdanović (b. 1867) *September 2 - Bill Miner, American bandito and stagecoach robber (b. 1847) * September 4 – Henry Billings Brown, American Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (b. 1836) * September 9 – Paul de Smet de Naeyer, 16th Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1843) * September 13 – Arandzar, Armenian poet and writer (b. 1877) * September 16 – Julius Lewkowitsch, German engineer (b. 1857) * September 18 – Prince George Alexandrovich Yuryevsky (b. 1872) * September 20 – Ferdinand Blumentritt, Filipino author (b. 1853) * September 27 – Alexandru Drăghici, Romanian communist activist and politician (d. 1993) * September 29 – Rudolf Diesel, German engine inventor (b. 1858) * September 30 ** Beatrice Bhadrayuvadi, Princess Beatrice Bhadrayuvadi, Siamese princess (b. 1876) ** Antoni Klawiter, Polish Roman Catholic priest and venerable (b. 1836)


October

* October 4 ** Josep Tapiró Baró, Spanish painter (b. 1836) ** Faisal bin Turki, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, Faisal bin Turki, Sultan of Oman (b. 1864) ** Eleanor Cripps Kennedy, Canadian businessman (b. 1825) * October 5 – Hans von Bartels, German painter (b. 1856) * October 7 – Ivan Banjavčić, Croatian politician and philanthropist (b. 1843) * October 10 ** Gregorio Maria Aguirre y Garcia, Spanish Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1835) ** Katsura Tarō, 6th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1848) * October 12 – Elisabeth Leisinger, German soprano (b 1864) * October 13 – Leonid Sobolev, 6th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1844) * October 16 – Ralph Rose, American Olympic athlete (b. 1885) * October 19 – Charles Tellier, French engineer, inventor of the chemical refrigerator (b. 1828) * October 20 – Viktor Kirpichov, Russian engineer and physicist (b. 1845) * October 21 – Theodor Kolde, German Protestant theologian (b. 1850) * October 23 – Edwin Klebs, Swiss-German pathologist, discoverer of Diphtheria bacterium (b. 1834) * October 29 – Darío de Regoyos, Spanish painter (b. 1857) * October 31 – William Evans-Gordon, Sir William Evans-Gordon, British diplomat and politician (b. 1857)


November

* November 3 – Sava Grujić, Serbian diplomat, general and politician, 5-time Prime Minister of Serbia (b. 1840) * November 4 – Fredericus Anna Jentink, Dutch zoologist (b. 1844) * November 7 – Alfred Russel Wallace, Welsh biologist (b. 1823) * November 8 – Ferdinand Abell, American businessman (b. 1835) * November 16 – George Barham, Sir George Barham, English businessman, founder of Express County Milk Supply Company (b. 1836) * November 21 – Francesco Acri, Italian philosopher (b. 1834) * November 22 – Tokugawa Yoshinobu, 15th and last ''shōgun'' of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan (b. 1837) * November 25 – Haviland Le Mesurier, Australian soldier (b. 1856) * November 28 – George B. Post, American architect (b. 1837)


December

* December 1 ** Juho Lallukka, Finnish businessman (b. 1852) ** Juhan Liiv, Estonian poet, short story writer (b. 1864) * December 5 – Ferdinand Dugué, French playwright (b. 1816) * December 7 ** Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano, Italian Catholic churchman, last surviving cardinal of Pius IX (b. 1828) ** Aaron Montgomery Ward, American businessman, inventor of mail order (b. 1844) * December 8 – František Koláček, Austro-Hungarian physicist (b. 1851) * December 10 – Léon Letort, French aviator (b. 1889) * December 11 ** Abraham Hirsch (architect), Abraham Hirsch, French architect (b. 1828) ** Carl von In der Maur, Governor of Liechtenstein (b. 1852) ** Ioan Kalinderu, Romanian jurist (b. 1840) * December 12 – Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1844) * December 13 – Birger Kildal, Norwegian businessman (b. 1849) * December 15 – Miguel Lebrija, Mexican aviator (b. 1887) * December 19 – Anthimus VII of Constantinople, Patriarch Anthimus VII of Constantinople (b. 1827) * December 25 – Alberto Aguilera, Spanish politician (b. 1842) * December 26 – Ambrose Bierce, American writer, journalist (disappeared on this date) (b. 1842) * December 27 – Infanta Antónia of Portugal (b. 1845) * December 30 – Giovanni Maria Boccardo, Italian Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1848)


Nobel Prizes

* Nobel Prize in Physics, Physics – Heike Kamerlingh Onnes * Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Chemistry – Alfred Werner * Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Medicine – Charles Richet * Nobel Prize in Literature, Literature – Rabindranath Tagore * Nobel Peace Prize, Peace – Henri La Fontaine


References


Further reading

* Charles Emmerson. ''1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War'' (2013
excerpt and text search
covers 20 major world cities * Gilbert, Martin. ''A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 1900-1933'' (1997); global coverage of politics, diplomacy and warfare; pp 269–96. * {{Authority control 1913,