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The 12th century is the period from
1101 Year 1101 (Roman numerals, MCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It was the 2nd year of the 1100s decade, and the 1st year of the 12th century. Events By place Byzanti ...
to
1200 Events By place Europe * Spring – Boniface I, marquis of March of Montferrat, Montferrat, sends envoys to Republic of Venice, Venice, Republic of Genoa, Genoa and other city-states to negotiate a contract for transport to the ...
in accordance with the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the
High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
and is sometimes called the Age of the
Cistercian The Cistercians, () officially the Order of Cistercians ( la, (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist), are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Be ...
s. The
Golden Age of Islam The Islamic Golden Age ( ar, العصر الذهبي للإسلام , al-'asr al-dhahabi lil-islam), was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, ...
experienced a significant development, particularly in Islamic Spain. In
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
China an invasion by
Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic-speaking peoples, descended from the Donghu people. They ...
caused a political schism of north and south. The
Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire ( km, ចក្រភពខ្មែរ), or the Angkorian Empire ( km, ចក្រភពអង្គរ, link=no), are the terms that historians use to refer to Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ព ...

Khmer Empire
of Cambodia flourished during this century, while the
Fatimid The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid
s of Egypt were overtaken by the
Ayyubid dynasty The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish languages, Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurds, Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt in the Middle Ages, Egypt, ruling over t ...

Ayyubid dynasty
. Following the expansions of the
Ghaznavids The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''Ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym Farsi (, ', ), is a ...
and
Ghurid Empire The Ghurids or Ghorids ( fa, سلسله غوریان; self-designation: , ''Shansabānī'') were a dynasty of Iranian origin from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , D ...
, the
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests include the invasions into modern Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English a ...
took place at the end of the century.


Events

* China is under the
Northern Song dynasty #REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty #REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty#REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty The Northern Song (北宋; 4 February 960 – 20 March 1127) is an era during the Song dynasty, Song Dynasty. It came to an end when its capital city, t ...
. Early in the century,
Zhang Zeduan 240px, Details of the painting ''Along the River During the Qingming Festival'', the 18th century remake. Zhang Zeduan (; 1085–1145), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood i ...
paints ''
Along the River During the Qingming Festival ''Along the River During the Qingming Festival'', also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countr ...
''. It will later end up in the
Palace Museum The Palace Museum () is a national museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifa ...
, Beijing. * In southeast Asia, there is conflict between the
Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire ( km, ចក្រភពខ្មែរ), or the Angkorian Empire ( km, ចក្រភពអង្គរ, link=no), are the terms that historians use to refer to Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ព ...

Khmer Empire
and the
Champa Champa (Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams The Chams or Cham people ( Cham: ''Urang Campa'' / ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, vi, người Chăm or người Chàm, km, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethni ...

Champa
.
Angkor Wat Angkor Wat (; km, អង្គរវត្ត "Temple city/city of temples") is the largest religious structure (temple complex) in the world by land area, measuring , located in Cambodia. Originally constructed as a personal mausoleum for ...

Angkor Wat
is built under the Hindu king
Suryavarman II Suryavarman II ( km, សូរ្យវរ្ម័នទី២), posthumously named Paramavishnuloka, was a Khmer king from 1113 AD to 1145/1150 AD and the builder of Angkor Wat Angkor Wat (; km, អង្គរវត្ត "Temple cit ...

Suryavarman II
. By the end of the century the Buddhist
Jayavarman VII Jayavarman VII, posthumous name of Mahaparamasaugata ( km, ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី៧, c. 1122–1218), was king of the Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire (; km, ចក្រភពខ្មែរ, ), or Angkor Empire ( km, ចក្ ...

Jayavarman VII
becomes the ruler. * Japan is in its
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
. The
Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga , commonly shortened to , is a famous set of four Emakimono, picture scrolls, or ''emakimono'', belonging to Kōzan-ji temple in Kyoto, Japan. The ''Chōjū-giga'' scrolls are also referred to as ''Scrolls of Frolicking Animals'' and ''Scroll ...
is made and attributed to Toba Sōjō. It ends up at the
Kōzan-ji , officially , is a Buddhist temple of the Omuro sect of Shingon Buddhism in Umegahata Toganōchō, Ukyō-ku, Kyoto, Ukyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan. Kōzan-ji is also known as Kōsan-ji and Toganō-dera. The temple was founded by the Shingon scholar a ...
,
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin, Keihanshin metropolitan area along w ...

Kyoto
. * In Oceania, the Tuʻi Tonga Empire expands to a much greater area. * Europe undergoes the
Renaissance of the 12th century The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full sto ...
. The
blast furnace A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science, materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic Chemical element, elements, their Inter-metallic alloy, inter- ...
for the smelting of
cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content more than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impuritie ...
is imported from China, appearing around
Lapphyttan Lapphyttan or Lapphyttejarn in Norberg Municipality, Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group ...
, Sweden, as early as
1150 Year 1150 ( MCL) was a common year starting on Sunday A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Sunday, January 1, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, December 31, 31 December. Its dominical l ...
. *
Alexander Neckam Alexander Neckam (8 September 115731 March 1217) was an English scholar, teacher, theologian and abbot of Cirencester Abbey from 1213 until his death. Early life Born on 8 September 1157 in St Albans, Alexander shared his birthday with Richard I ...
is the first European to document the mariner's
compass A compass is a device that shows the cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular ( ...

compass
, first documented by
Shen Kuo Shen Kuo (; 1031–1095) or Shen Gua, courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
during the previous century. *
Christian humanism Christian humanism regards humanist principles like universal human dignity, individual freedom, and the importance of happiness as essential and principal or even exclusive components of the teachings of Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּע ...
becomes a self-conscious philosophical tendency in Europe. Christianity is also introduced to
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
, Finland, and
Karelia Karelia (Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Karjala, ; rus, Каре́лия, links=y, r=Karélija, p=kɐˈrʲelʲɪjə, historically ''Korjela''; sv, Karelen), the land of the Karelians, Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe o ...

Karelia
. * The first
medieval universities A medieval university was a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law ...
are founded. Pierre Abelard teaches. *
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
begins to develop, and literacy begins to spread outside the Church throughout Europe. In addition, churchmen are increasingly willing to take on secular roles. By the end of the century, at least a third of England's bishops also act as royal judges in secular matters. * The
Ars antiqua ''Ars antiqua'', also called ''ars veterum'' or ''ars vetus'', is a term used by modern scholars to refer to the Medieval music Medieval music encompasses the sacred music, sacred and secular music of Western Europe during the Middle Age ...
period in the history of the
classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various s, s and , depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of , , and ...

classical music
of Western Europe begins. * The earliest recorded
miracle play Mystery plays and miracle plays (they are distinguished as two different forms although the terms are often used interchangeably) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe In the history of Europe, the Middle ...
is performed in
Dunstable Dunstable ( ) is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in Bedfordshire, East of England. It lies on the eastward tail spurs of the Chiltern Hills, north of London. These geographical features form several steep chalk esca ...
, England. *
Gothic architecture Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of sty ...
and
trouvère ''Trouvère'' (, ), sometimes spelled ''trouveur'' (, ), is the Northern French ('' langue d'oïl'') form of the ''langue d'oc Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speaker ...
music begin in France. * During the middle of the century, the
Cappella Palatina arches and Byzantine mosaics complement each other within the Palatine Chapel. The Palatine Chapel (Italian language, Italian: ''Cappella Palatina''), is the royal chapel of the Palazzo dei Normanni, Norman palace in Palermo, Sicily. This build ...

Cappella Palatina
is built in
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), ...

Palermo
, Sicily, and the ''
Madrid Skylitzes The ''Madrid Skylitzes'' is a richly illustrated illuminated manuscript of the ''Synopsis of Histories'' ( el, Σύνοψις Ἱστοριῶν, ), by John Skylitzes, which covers the reigns of the Byzantine emperors from the death of Niceph ...
'' manuscript illustrates the ''Synopsis of Histories'' by
John Skylitzes John Skylitzes, commonly Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1 ...
. * Fire and plague insurance first become available in
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
, and the first documented outbreaks of
influenza Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), ...

influenza
there happens. * The medieval state of
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
is formed by
Stefan Nemanja Stefan Nemanja (Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian Cyrillic: , ; – 13 February 1199) was the Grand Prince (Grand Župan#Serbia, Veliki Župan) of the Grand Principality of Serbia, Serbian Grand Principality (also known as Raška (region), Raš ...

Stefan Nemanja
and then continued by the Nemanjić dynasty. * By the end of the century, both the
Capetian Dynasty The Capetian dynasty (), also known as the House of France The term House of France refers to the branch of the Capetian dynasty which provided the Kings of France following the election of Hugh Capet. The House of France consists of a num ...
and the House of Anjou are relying primarily on
mercenaries A mercenary, sometimes known as a soldier of fortune, is a private individual, particularly a soldier, who takes part in military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and ...
in their militaries. Paid soldiers are available year-round, unlike knights who expected certain periods off to maintain their manor lifestyles. * In India,
Hoysala architecture Hoysala architecture is the building style in Hindu temple architecture Hindu temple architecture as the main form of Hindu architecture Hindu architecture is the traditional system of Indian architecture for structures such as temples, monas ...
reaches a peak. * In the Middle East, the
icon An icon (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...

icon
of
Theotokos of Vladimir , other_title_1 = Our Lady of Vladimir , other_language_2 = uk, Вишгородська ікона Божої Матері , other_title_2 = Vladimir Mother of God , wikidata = Q546241 , image = Virgin of Vl ...
is painted probably in
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
. Everything but the faces will later be retouched, and the icon will go to the
Tretyakov Gallery The State Tretyakov Gallery (russian: Государственная Третьяковская Галерея, ''Gosudarstvennaya Tretyâkovskaya Galereya''; abbreviated ГТГ, ''GTG'') is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost deposito ...
of Moscow. * The
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...

Georgian
poet
Shota Rustaveli Shota Rustaveli ( ka, შოთა რუსთაველი, c. 1160 – after c. 1220), mononymously A mononymous person is an individual who is known and addressed by a single name, or mononym. In some cases, that name has been selected by ...

Shota Rustaveli
composes his epic poem ''
The Knight in the Panther's Skin ''The Knight in the Panther's Skin'' ( ka, ვეფხისტყაოსანი, tr literally "one with a skin of a tiger") is a Georgia (country), Georgian Medieval literature, medieval epic poem, written in the 12th century by Georgia's ...

The Knight in the Panther's Skin
''. *
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi "Shahāb ad-Dīn" Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardī ( fa, شهاب‌الدین سهروردی, also known as Sohrevardi) (1154–1191) was a Persian people, PersianC. E. Butterworth, M. Mahdi, ''The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy'', Harvard ...

Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
founds his "school of illumination". * In
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
, the
kasbah A kasbah (, also ; ar, قَـصَـبَـة, qaṣaba, , 'central part of a town; citadel'), also spelled casbah or qasbah, more rarely as qasaba, gasaba or qasabeh, in also as qassabah, is a type of fortress, a . By extension, the term can ...

kasbah
of
Marrakesh Marrakesh or Marrakech ( or ; ar, مراكش, murrākuš; ber, ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ, amurakuš) is the fourth largest city in the Kingdom of Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Lo ...

Marrakesh
is built, including the city gate
Bab Agnaou Bab Agnaou (; ; sometimes transliterated as Bab Agnaw) is one of the best-known gates of Marrakesh, Morocco. Its construction is attributed to the Almohad Caliphate, Almohad Caliphate, caliph Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur an ...

Bab Agnaou
and the Koutoubia mosque. * In
sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all list of sovereign states and dependent territories i ...

sub-Saharan Africa
,
Kente cloth Kente ( ak, nwentoma; ee, kete) refers to a Ghanaian textile, made of handwoven cloth, strips of silk and cotton. Historically the fabric was worn in a toga-like fashion by royalty among ethnic groups such as the Ashanti people, Ashanti and Ewe ...

Kente cloth
is first woven. * In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, the first piedfort coins in the history of
numismatics Numismatics is the study or collection of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James ...

numismatics
were minted. * The city of Tula burns down, marking the end of the
Toltec Empire According to the Aztecs The Aztecs () were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different Indigenous peoples of Mexico, ethnic groups of central ...


Inventions, discoveries and introductions by year

* List of 12th-century inventions * 1104: The Venice Arsenal of
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
, Italy, is founded. It employed some 16,000 people for the
mass production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A techni ...
of sailing ships in large
assembly line
assembly line
s, hundreds of years before the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. *
1106 Year 1106 ( MCVI) was a common year starting on MondayA common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the case ...
: Finished building of
Gelati
Gelati
. * 1107: The Chinese engineer Wu Deren combines the mechanical
compass A compass is a device that shows the cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular ( ...

compass
vehicle of the
south-pointing chariot The south-pointing chariot (or carriage) was an ancient Chinese two-wheeled vehicle that carried a movable pointer to indicate the south, no matter how the chariot turned. Usually, the pointer took the form of a doll or figure with an outstretch ...
with the distance-measuring
odometer An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance traveled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car. The device may be electronic, mechanical, or a combination of the two (electromechanical). The noun derives from ancient Gr ...

odometer
device. *
1111 Year 1111 (Roman numerals, MCXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Levant * Battle of Shaizar: Sultan Muhammad I Tapar, Muhammad I (Tapar) appoints Mawd ...

1111
: The Chinese
Donglin AcademyThe Donglin Academy (, Wade–Giles ''Tung-lin''), also known as the Guishan Academy (龜山書院 ''Guīshān Shūyuàn''), was a former Chinese educational institution in Wuxi, China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is ...
is founded. *
1165 Year 1165 ( MCLXV) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) ...
: The
Liuhe Pagoda Liuhe Pagoda (), literally Six Harmonies Pagoda, is a multi-story Chinese pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. It is located at the foot of Yuelun Hill, facing the Qiantang River. It was originally constructed in 970 by the Wuyu ...

Liuhe Pagoda
of
Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca A lingua franca (; ...

Hangzhou
, China, is built. *
1170 Year 1170 ( MCLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additi ...
: The Christian notion of
Purgatory Purgatory (, via Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Norman and Old French) is, according to the belief of some Christianity, Christians (mostly Catholics), an intermediate state after physical death for expiatory purification. There is disagreement amo ...

Purgatory
is defined. *
1185 Year 1185 ( MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addition ...
: First record of
windmills A windmill is a structure that converts wind power into rotational energy by means of vanes called windmill sail, sails or blades, specifically to mill (grinding), mill grain (gristmills), but the term is also extended to windpumps, wind turbine ...

windmills
.


Political events by year


1100s 1100s may refer to: * The period from 1100 to 1199, almost synonymous with the 12th century The 12th century is the period from to in accordance with the . In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the and is ...

*
1100 Year 1100 ( MC) was a century A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered names of numbers in English#Ordinal numbers, ordinally in English and many other languages. The word ''century'' comes from the Latin ''centum'', meaning ...

1100
: On August 5,
Henry IHenry I may refer to: 876–1366 * Henry I the Fowler, King of Germany (876–936) * Henry I, Duke of Bavaria (died 955) * Henry I of Austria, Margrave of Austria (died 1018) * Henry I of France (1008–1060) * Henry I the Long, Margrave of the Nord ...

Henry I
is crowned King of England. *
1100 Year 1100 ( MC) was a century A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered names of numbers in English#Ordinal numbers, ordinally in English and many other languages. The word ''century'' comes from the Latin ''centum'', meaning ...

1100
: On December 25,
Baldwin of Boulogne Baldwin I also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2April 1118), was the first County of Edessa, count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the first king of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death. Being the youngest son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne ...
is crowned as the first
King of Jerusalem The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem ( la, Regnum Hierosolymitanum; fro, Roiaume de Jherusalem; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languag ...
in the
Church of the Nativity The Church of the Nativity, or Basilica of the Nativity,; ar, كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; el, Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; hy, Սուրբ Ծննդեան տաճար; la, Basilica Nativitatis is a basilica located in Be ...

Church of the Nativity
in Bethlehem. *
1101 Year 1101 (Roman numerals, MCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It was the 2nd year of the 1100s decade, and the 1st year of the 12th century. Events By place Byzanti ...
: In July, the Treaty of Alton is signed between
Henry I of England Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself ...

Henry I of England
and his older brother Robert, Duke of Normandy in which Robert agrees to recognize Henry as king of England in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions. The agreement temporarily ends a crisis in the succession of the Anglo-Norman kings. *
1101 Year 1101 (Roman numerals, MCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It was the 2nd year of the 1100s decade, and the 1st year of the 12th century. Events By place Byzanti ...
1103:
David the Builder David IV, also known as David the Builder ( ka, დავით აღმაშენებელი, ') (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) ...
takes over
Kakheti Kakheti ( ka, კახეთი ''K’akheti''; ) is a region (mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia (country), Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti. Telavi is its capital. The re ...

Kakheti
and
Hereti The Kingdom of Hereti ( ka, ჰერეთის სამეფო ''heretis samepo'') was a medieval monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College ...
, (now parts of Georgia). *
1102 Year 1102 ( MCII) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addit ...
:
King Coloman
King Coloman
unites Hungary and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
under the
Hungarian Crown The Hungarian Crown ( pl, Korona Węgierska) was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels. It was made in the 16th century, resembling the Holy Crown of Hungary, Crown of Saint Stephen, as a private crown of John II Sigismund Zápolya. History The orig ...
. *
1102 Year 1102 ( MCII) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addit ...
: Muslims conquer Señorio de Valencia * 1103- 1104: A church council is convened by King
David the Builder David IV, also known as David the Builder ( ka, დავით აღმაშენებელი, ') (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) ...
in
Urbnisi Urbnisi ( ka, ურბნისი) is a village in Georgia (country), Georgia’s Shida Kartli region, in the district of Kareli District, Kareli. Situated on a high left bank of the Mtkvari river, it was an important city in ancient and early m ...
to reorganize the
Georgian Orthodox Church The Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Georgia ( ka, საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, tr), commonly ...
. * 1104: In the Battle of Ertsukhi, King
David the Builder David IV, also known as David the Builder ( ka, დავით აღმაშენებელი, ') (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) ...
defeats an army of
Seljuks The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq'', alternatively spelled as Seljuqs or Saljuqs), also known as Seljuk Turks, Seljuk Turkomans "The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turko ...
. * 1104: King Jayawarsa of
Kadiri Kadiri is a Major City in the Anantapur district of the India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on th ...
(on Java) ascends to the throne. *
1106 Year 1106 ( MCVI) was a common year starting on MondayA common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the case ...
:
Battle of Tinchebray The Battle of Tinchebray (alternative spellings: Tinchebrai or Tenchebrai) took place on 28 September 1106, in Tinchebray (today in the Orne Orne () is a department in the northwest of France France (), officially the French Republic ...
* 1107
1111 Year 1111 (Roman numerals, MCXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Levant * Battle of Shaizar: Sultan Muhammad I Tapar, Muhammad I (Tapar) appoints Mawd ...

1111
: Sigurd I of Norway becomes the first Norwegian king to embark on a crusade to the Holy Land. He fights in Lisbon and on various Mediterranean isles, and helps the King of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
to take
Sidon Sidon ( ), known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western ...

Sidon
from the Muslims. * 1108: By the
Treaty of Devol The Treaty of Devol ( el, συνθήκη της Δεαβόλεως) was an agreement made in 1108 between Bohemond I of Antioch Bohemond I (3 March 1111) was the Prince of Taranto from 1089 to 1111 and the Prince of Antioch from 1098 to 1111. He wa ...
, signed in September,
Bohemond I of Antioch Bohemond I (3 March 1111) was the Prince of Taranto from 1089 to 1111 and the Prince of Antioch from 1098 to 1111. He was a leader of the First Crusade, which was governed by a committee of nobility, nobles.Thomas Asbridge, ''The First Crusade, A ...

Bohemond I of Antioch
has to submit to the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
, becoming the vassal of
Alexius I Alexios I Komnenos ( grc-gre, Ἀλέξιος Ά Κομνηνός, – 15 August 1118), Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisati ...
. *
1109 Year 1109 ( MCIX) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the ...
: On June 10, Bertrand of Toulouse captures the County of Tripoli (northern Lebanon/western Syria). *
1109 Year 1109 ( MCIX) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the ...
: In the Battle of Nakło, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats the Pomeranians (Slavic tribe), Pomeranians and re-establishes Polish access to the sea. *
1109 Year 1109 ( MCIX) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the ...
: On August 24, in the Battle of Hundsfeld, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats Emperor Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V of Germany and stops German expansion eastward.


1110s

*
1111 Year 1111 (Roman numerals, MCXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Levant * Battle of Shaizar: Sultan Muhammad I Tapar, Muhammad I (Tapar) appoints Mawd ...

1111
: On April 14, during Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V's first expedition to Rome, he is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. * 1113: Paramavishnulok is crowned as King
Suryavarman II Suryavarman II ( km, សូរ្យវរ្ម័នទី២), posthumously named Paramavishnuloka, was a Khmer king from 1113 AD to 1145/1150 AD and the builder of Angkor Wat Angkor Wat (; km, អង្គរវត្ត "Temple cit ...

Suryavarman II
in Cambodia. He expands the
Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire ( km, ចក្រភពខ្មែរ), or the Angkorian Empire ( km, ចក្រភពអង្គរ, link=no), are the terms that historians use to refer to Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ព ...

Khmer Empire
and builds
Angkor Wat Angkor Wat (; km, អង្គរវត្ត "Temple city/city of temples") is the largest religious structure (temple complex) in the world by land area, measuring , located in Cambodia. Originally constructed as a personal mausoleum for ...

Angkor Wat
during the first half of the century. He establishes diplomatic relations with China. * 1115: The Georgian army occupies Rustavi in the war to free Georgia from the Muslims. * 1115: In Java, King Kamesvara of Kadiri ascends to the throne. Janggala ceases to exist and comes under Kadiri domination, highly possible under royal marriage. During his reign Mpu Dharmaja writes Kakawin Smaradahana, a eulogy for the king which become the inspiration for the Panji (prince), Panji cycle tales, which spread across Southeast Asia.Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.57 * 1116: The Byzantine army defeats the Turks at Philomelion. * 1116: Death of doña Jimena Díaz, governor of Valencia since 1099 to 1102. * c. 1119: The Knights Templar are founded to protect Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem.


1120s

* 1120: On January 16, the Council of Nablus, a council of ecclesiastic and secular lords in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, establishes the first written laws for the kingdom. * 1120: On November 25, William Adelin, the only legitimate son of King
Henry I of England Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself ...

Henry I of England
, drowns in the ''White Ship'' Disaster, leading to a The Anarchy, succession crisis which will bring down the Norman dynasty, Norman monarchy of England. * 1121: On August 12, in the Battle of Didgori, the greatest military victory in Georgian history, King
David the Builder David IV, also known as David the Builder ( ka, დავით აღმაშენებელი, ') (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) ...
with 40,000 Georgians, 15,000 Kipchak people, Kipchak auxiliaries, 500 Alans, Alan mercenaries and 300 French Crusaders defeats a Great Seljuq Empire, Seljuk-led Muslim coalition army of 400,000. * 1121: On December 25, Norbert of Xanten, St. Norbert and 29 companions make their solemn vows in Premontre, France, establishing the Premonstratensian Order. * 1122: The Battle of Beroia (Modern-day Stara Zagora, Bulgaria) results in the disappearance of the Pechenegs Turkish tribe as an independent force. * 1122: On September 23, the Concordat of Worms (''Pactum Calixtinum'') is drawn up between Emperor Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V and Pope Calixtus II bringing an end to the first phase of the power struggle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire. * 1122: King
David the Builder David IV, also known as David the Builder ( ka, დავით აღმაშენებელი, ') (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) ...
captures Tbilisi and declares it the capital city of Georgia (country), Georgia, ending 400 years of Arab rule. * 1123: The Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jurchen dynasty of China forces Goryeo, Koryo (now Korea) to recognize their suzerainty. * 1124: In April or May, David I of Scotland, David I is crowned King of the Scots. * 1125: On June 11, in the Battle of Azaz (1125), Battle of Azaz, the Crusader states, led by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, defeat the Seljuk Turks. * 1125: In November, the Jurchen people, Jurchens of the Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty declare war on the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
, beginning the Jurchen campaigns against the Song dynasty, Jin–Song wars. * 1125: Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair of Supplinburg, duke of Duchy of Saxony, Saxony, is elected Holy Roman Emperor instead of the nearest heir, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick of Swabia, beginning the great struggle of Guelf and Ghibelline. * 1127: The Song dynasty, Northern Song dynasty loses power over Chinese history, northern China to the Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty. * 1128: On June 24, the Kingdom of Portugal gains independence from the Kingdom of León at the Battle of São Mamede; (recognised by Kingdom of León, León in 1143).


1130s

* 1130–1180: 50-year drought in the Southwestern United States, American Southwest. * 1130–1138: Papal schism of 1130, Papal schism, Pope Innocent II vs. Antipope Anacletus II. * 1130: On March 26, Sigurd I of Norway dies. A golden era of 95 years comes to an end for Norway as civil wars between the members of Harald Fairhair's family line rage for the remainder of the century. * 1130: On Christmas Day, Roger II is crowned King of Sicily, the royal title being bestowed on him by Antipope Anacletus II. * 1130: King Jayabaya of
Kadiri Kadiri is a Major City in the Anantapur district of the India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on th ...
ascends to the throne. * 1132: The Southern Song dynasty establishes China's first permanent standing navy, although China had a long naval history prior. The main admiral's office is at the port of Dinghai. * 1132–1183: the Chinese navy increases from a mere 3,000 marine soldiers to 52,000 marine soldiers stationed in 20 different squadrons. During this time, hundreds of treadmill-operated paddle steamer, paddle wheel craft are assembled for the navy, in order to fight the Jurchen's Jin dynasty in the north. * 1135–1154: The Anarchy is a period of civil war in England. * 1136: Suger begins rebuilding the Saint Denis Basilica, abbey church at St Denis north of Paris, which is regarded as the first major Gothic architecture, Gothic building. * 1137: On July 22, the future King Louis VII of France marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor, the Duchess of Aquitaine. * 1138: On October 11, the 1138 Aleppo earthquake devastates much of northern Syria. * 1139: in April, the Second Lateran Council ends the papal schism. * 1139: On July 5, in the Treaty of Mignano, Pope Innocent II confirms Roger II as King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia, and Prince of Capua and invests him with his titles. * 1139: On July 26, the Portuguese defeat the Almoravids led by Ali ibn Yusuf in the Battle of Ourique; Prince Afonso Henriques is acclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers.


1140s

* 1140–
1150 Year 1150 ( MCL) was a common year starting on Sunday A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Sunday, January 1, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, December 31, 31 December. Its dominical l ...
: Collapse of the Ancestral Puebloans, Ancestral Puebloan culture at Chaco Canyon (modern-day New Mexico). * 1141: The Treaty of Shaoxing ends the conflict between the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), Jin dynasty and Southern Song dynasty, legally establishing the boundaries of the two countries and forcing the Song dynasty to renounce all claims to its former territories north of the Huai River. The treaty reduces the Southern Song into a quasi-tributary state of the Jurchen Jin dynasty. * 1143: Afonso Henriques is proclaimed King of Portugal by the cortes. * 1143: The Treaty of Zamora recognizes Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León. Portugal also recognizes the suzerainty of the pope. * 1144: On December 24, Siege of Edessa (1144), Edessa falls to the Atabeg Zengi. * 1145–1148: The Second Crusade is launched in response to the fall of the County of Edessa. * 1147: On October 25, the four-month-long Siege of Lisbon successfully brings the city under definitive Portuguese control, expelling the Moorish overlords. * 1147: A new Berber people, Berber dynasty, the Almohads, led by Emir Abd al-Mu'min, takes North Africa from the Almoravides and soon invades the Iberian Peninsula. The Almohads began as a religious movement to rid Islam of impurities. * 1147: The Wendish Crusade against the Polabian Slavs (or "Wends") in what is now northern and eastern Germany.


1150s

*
1150 Year 1150 ( MCL) was a common year starting on Sunday A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Sunday, January 1, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, December 31, 31 December. Its dominical l ...
: Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona marries Petronilla of Aragon, Petronilla, the Queen of Aragon. * 1151: The Treaty of Tudilén (or Treaty of Tudején) is signed by Alfonso VII of León and Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Barcelona, recognising the Aragonese conquests south of the Júcar and the right to expand in and annex the Kingdom of Murcia. * 1153: The Treaty of Wallingford (Treaty of Winchester, Treaty of Westminster), effectively ends the civil war between Empress Matilda and her cousin Stephen of England, King Stephen of England fought over the English crown. Stephen acknowledges Matilda's son Henry II of England, Henry of Anjou as his heir. * 1153: The First Treaty of Constance is signed between Emperor Frederick I and Pope Eugene III, by the terms of which, the emperor is to prevent any action by Manuel I Comnenus to reestablish the Byzantine Empire on Italian soil and to assist the pope against his enemies in revolt in Rome. * 1154: the Morocco, Moroccan-born Muslim geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi publishes his ''Geography''. * 1154: On December 27, Henry II is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey. * 1155: Pope Adrian IV grants overlordship of Ireland to Henry II of England in the papal bull, bull ''Laudabiliter''. * 1156: On June 18, the Treaty of Benevento is entered into by Pope Adrian IV and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. After years of turbulent relations, the popes finally settles down to a peace with the Hauteville kings. The kingship of William I of Sicily, William I is recognised over all Sicily, Apulia, Calabria, Campania, and Capua. The tribute to the pope of 600 ''schifati'' agreed upon by Roger II in 1139 at Treaty of Mignano, Mignano is affirmed and another 400 ''schifati'' is added for the new lands. * 1158: The Treaty of Sahagún (1158), Treaty of Sahagún ends the war between Castile and León.


1160s

* 1161: the Song dynasty Chinese navy, employing gunpowder bombs launched from trebuchets, defeats the enormous Jin dynasty navy in the East China Sea in the Battle of Tangdao and on the Yangtze River in the Battle of Caishi. * 1161: Kilij Arslan II, Sultan of Sultanate of Rum, Rum, makes peace with the Byzantine Empire, recognizing the emperor's primacy. * 1161: In the siege of Ani, Georgia (country), Georgian troops take over control of city, only to have it sold for the second time to the Shaddadids, a Kurdish dynasty. * 1162: Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, is born as Temüjin. * 1163: The Norwegian Law of Succession takes effect. * 1168: King Valdemar I of Denmark conquers Cape Arkona, Arkona on the Island of Rügen, the strongest pagan fortress and temple in northern Europe. * 1169: On May 1, the Norman invasion of Ireland begins. Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Richard fitzGilbert de Clare ('Strongbow') makes an alliance with the exiled Irish chief, Diarmait Mac Murchada, Dermot MacMurrough, to help him recover his kingdom of Leinster.


1170s

*
1170 Year 1170 ( MCLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additi ...
: The Treaty of Sahagún (1170), Treaty of Sahagún is signed by Alfonso VIII of Castile and Alfonso II of Aragon. Based on the terms of the accord, Alfonso VIII agrees to give Alfonso II three hostages, to be used as tribute payments owed by Ibn Mardanīš of Valencia and Murcia. *
1170 Year 1170 ( MCLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additi ...
: On December 29, Thomas Becket is murdered in Canterbury Cathedral. * 1171: Saladin deposes the last
Fatimid The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid
Caliph Al-'Āḍid and establishes the
Ayyubid dynasty The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish languages, Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurds, Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt in the Middle Ages, Egypt, ruling over t ...

Ayyubid dynasty
. * 1171: On November 11, Henry II of England lands in Ireland to assert his claim as Lord of Ireland. * 1174: On July 12, William I of Scotland is captured by the English in the Battle of Alnwick (1174), Battle of Alnwick. He accepts the feudal overlordship of the English crown and pays ceremonial allegiance at York. * 1175: Hōnen, Hōnen Shōnin (Genkū) founds the Jodo shu, Jōdo shū (Pure Land) sect of Buddhism. * 1175: The Treaty of Windsor (1175), Treaty of Windsor is signed by King Henry II of England and the High King of Ireland, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair. * 1176: On May 29, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa's forces are defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League which results in the emperor's acknowledgement of the pope's sovereignty over the Papal States and Alexander acknowledging the emperor's overlordship of the imperial Church. * 1176: On September 17, The Battle of Myriokephalon (Myriocephalum; Turkish: Miryakefalon Savaşı) is fought between the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, Seljuk Turks in Phrygia. It is a serious reversal for the Byzantine forces and will be the final, unsuccessful, effort by the Byzantines to recover the interior of Anatolia from the Seljuk Turks. * 1177: The Treaty of Venice, Treaty or Peace of Venice is signed by the Papacy and its allies, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily also takes part in negotiations and the treaty thereby determines the political course of all Italy for the next several years. * 1178: Chinese writer Zhou Qufei, a Guangzhou customs officer, writes of an island far west in the Indian Ocean (possibly Madagascar), from where people with skin "as black as lacquer" and with frizzy hair were captured and purchased as slaves by Arab merchants. * 1179: The Treaty of Cazola (Cazorla) is signed by Alfonso II of Aragon and Alfonso VIII of Castile, dividing Andalusia into separate zones of conquest for the two kingdoms, so that the work of the Reconquista would not be stymied by internecine feuding.


1180s

* 1180: The Portuguese Navy defeats a Muslim fleet off the coast of Cape Espichel. * 1180–
1185 Year 1185 ( MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addition ...
: the Genpei War in Japan. * 1182: revolt of the people of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
against the Latins, whom they massacre, proclaiming Andronicus I Comnenus co-emperor. * 1183: On January 25, the final Peace of Constance between Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, the pope, and the Lombard towns is signed, confirming the Peace of Venice of 1177. * 1183: On September 24, Andronicus I Comnenus has his nephew Alexius II Comnenus strangled. * 1184: On March 24, Queen Tamar, King of Georgia, accedes to the throne as sole ruler after reigning with her father, George III, for six years. * 1184: Diet of Pentecost organised by Emperor Frederick I in Mainz *
1185 Year 1185 ( MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addition ...
: The Uprising of Asen and Peter against the Byzantine Empire leads to the restoration of the Bulgarian Empire. *
1185 Year 1185 ( MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addition ...
: Andronicus I Comnenus is deposed and, on September 12, executed as a result of the Normans, Norman massacre of the Greeks of Thessalonika. *
1185 Year 1185 ( MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addition ...
: The cathedral school (Katedralskolan) in Lund, Sweden, is founded. The school is the oldest in northern Europe, and one of the oldest in all of Europe. *
1185 Year 1185 ( MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addition ...
: Beginning in this year the Kamakura shogunate deprives the emperor of Japan of political power. * 1186: On January 27, the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI marries Constance of Sicily, the heiress to the Sicilian throne. * 1187: On July 4, in the Battle of Hattin, Saladin defeats the king of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
. * 1187: In August, the Swedish royal and commercial center Sigtuna is attacked by raiders from
Karelia Karelia (Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Karjala, ; rus, Каре́лия, links=y, r=Karélija, p=kɐˈrʲelʲɪjə, historically ''Korjela''; sv, Karelen), the land of the Karelians, Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe o ...

Karelia
, Couronia and/or Estonia.Enn Tarvel (2007)
''Sigtuna hukkumine.
Haridus, 2007 (7-8), p 38–41
* 1188: The Riah were introduced into the Jebala people, Habt and south of Tetouan by the Almohad caliph, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, and Jochem and Acem were introduced in Chaouia (Morocco), Tamesna. * 1189: On September 3, Richard I is crowned King of England at Westminster. * 1189: On November 11, William II of Sicily dies and is succeeded by his illegitimate cousin Tancred, King of Sicily, Tancred, Count of Lecce instead of Constance. * 1189–1192: The Third Crusade is an attempt by European leaders to wrest the Holy Land from Saladin.


1190s

* 1190: On June 10, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowns in the River Salef, leaving the Crusader army under the command of the rivals Philip II of France and Richard I of England, which ultimately leads to the dissolution of the army. * 1191: Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI attacked Kingdom of Sicily from May to August but fails and withdraws, with Empress Constance captured (released 1192). * 1191: On September 7, Saladin is defeated by Richard I of England at the Battle of Arsuf. * 1192: In April, Isabella I of Jerusalem, Isabella I begins her reign as Christian Queen of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
* 1192: In the Battle of Jaffa (1192), Battle of Jaffa, King Richard the Lionheart defeats Saladin. * 1192: In June, the Treaty of Ramla is signed by Saladin and Richard Lionheart. Under the terms of the agreement, Jerusalem will remain under Muslim control. However, the city will be open to Christian pilgrims. The Latin Kingdom is reduced to a coastal strip that extends from Tyre to Jaffa. * 1192: Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed ''Sei-i Taishōgun'', "barbarian-subduing great general", ''shōgun'' for short, the first military dictator to bear this title. * 1193: Nalanda, the great Indian Buddhist educational centre, is destroyed. * 1193: Muhammad of Ghor, Sultan Shahābuddin Muhammad Ghori, establishes the first Muslim empire in India by defeating Prithviraj Chauhan * 1193: the first known merchant guild is established. * 1194: Emperor Henry VI conquers Kingdom of Sicily. * 1195: On June 16, the struggle of Battle of Shamkor, Shamqori. Georgia (country), Georgian forces annihilate the army of Abu Baqar. * 1198: The brethren of the Crusader hospital in Acre are raised to a military order of knights, the Teutonic Knights, formally known as the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem. * 1199: Pope Innocent III writes to Kaloyan, inviting him to unite the Bulgarian Church with the Roman Catholic Church.


Significant people


Politics

* Adrian IV, pope * Afonso I of Portugal, Afonso Henriques, first king of Portugal * Alan IV, Duke of Brittany * Alexander I of Scotland, king * Alexius I Comnenus, emperor * Alexius II Comnenus, emperor * Alexius III Angelus, emperor * Alfonso II of Aragon, king * Alfonso VI of Castile, king * Alfonso VII of Castile, king * Alfonso VIII of Castile, king * Andrei I Bogolyubsky, Prince of Suzdal * Andronicus I Comnenus, emperor * Arthur I, Duke of Brittany * Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, king * Béla II of Hungary * Béla III of Hungary * Bertha, Duchess of Brittany * Bohemund I of Antioch, prince * Boleslaus III Wrymouth, king of Poland * Boleslav IV the Curly, high duke of Poland * Calixtus II, pope * Canute V of Denmark, king * Canute VI of Denmark, king * Coloman of Hungary, Coloman I, King of Hungary * Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, the Younger * Conrad of Montferrat, Conrad I of Montferrat, King elect of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
* Constance, Duchess of Brittany * Constance, Queen of Sicily * David I of Scotland, king *
David the Builder David IV, also known as David the Builder ( ka, დავით აღმაშენებელი, ') (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) ...
, King of Georgia (country), Georgia * David V of Georgia * Demetre I, king of Georgia (country), Georgia * Edgar of Scotland, king * Imre, Emeric I of Hungary, king * Eric I of Denmark, king * Eric II of Denmark, king * Eric III of Denmark, king * Eric IX of Sweden, Saint, king * Pope Eugene III, Eugene III, Blessed, pope * Eystein I of Norway, king * Eystein II of Norway, king * Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor * Gelasius II, pope * Genghis Khan, Khagan, Great Khan of the Mongol Empire * Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany * Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy * George III of Georgia, George III, king of Georgia (country), Georgia * Geza II, king of Hungary * Haakon II of Norway the Broad-shouldered, king * Harald IV of Norway, Harald IV Gille of Norway, king * Henry, Count of Portugal *
Henry I of England Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself ...

Henry I of England
, king and Duke of Normandy * Henry II of England, king and Duke of Normandy * Henry IV of Germany, king and emperor * Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V of Germany, king and emperor * Henry VI of Germany, king and emperor * Pope Honorius II, Honorius II, pope * Huemac, last Emperor of the Toltecs, 1090-1170 * Hugh II, Duke of Burgundy * Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy * Emperor Huizong of Song, Huizong, Emperor of China * Inge I of Norway Hunchback, king * Pope Innocent II, Innocent II, pope * Pope Innocent III, Innocent III, pope * Humbert III, Count of Savoy, Blessed * Hunac Ceel Claimed ruler of The League of Mayapan * Isaac II Angelus, emperor * Ivan Asen I of Bulgaria, emperor *
Jayavarman VII Jayavarman VII, posthumous name of Mahaparamasaugata ( km, ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី៧, c. 1122–1218), was king of the Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire (; km, ចក្រភពខ្មែរ, ), or Angkor Empire ( km, ចក្ ...

Jayavarman VII
, Khmer Empire, Khmer emperor * John II Komnenos, John II Comnenos, emperor * John of England, king and Duke of Normandy * Kaloyan of Bulgaria, emperor * Louis VI of France, king * Louis VII of France, king * Pope Lucius II, Lucius II, pope * Magnus III of Norway, king * Magnus IV of Norway the Blind, king * Magnus V of Norway, king * Malcolm IV of Scotland, king * Manuel I Comnenus, emperor * Matilda of Tuscany, countess * Minamoto no Yoritomo, shōgun of Japan, founder of the Kamakura shogunate * Muhammad of Ghor, Afghanistan, Afghan ruler * Niels of Denmark, king * Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy, Odo I, Duke of Duchy of Burgundy, Burgundy * Eudes II, Duke of Burgundy, Odo II, Duke of Duchy of Burgundy, Burgundy * Eudes III, Duke of Burgundy, Odo III, Duke of Duchy of Burgundy, Burgundy * Olaf Magnusson of Norway, king * Paschal II, pope * Peter IV of Bulgaria, emperor * Philip I of France, king * Philip II of France, Augustus, king * Prithviraj Chauhan, king of Ajmer in India * Richard I of England, king and Duke of Normandy * Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy * Roger II of Sicily, king * Saladin, ruler of Egypt and Syria * Sancho I of Portugal, king * Sigurd I of Norway, king * Sigurd II of Norway, king *
Stefan Nemanja Stefan Nemanja (Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian Cyrillic: , ; – 13 February 1199) was the Grand Prince (Grand Župan#Serbia, Veliki Župan) of the Grand Principality of Serbia, Serbian Grand Principality (also known as Raška (region), Raš ...

Stefan Nemanja
, ruler of Serbia * Stefan Nemanjić, king of Serbia * Stephen II of Hungary, Stephen II, king of Hungary * Stephen of England, king and Duke of Normandy *
Suryavarman II Suryavarman II ( km, សូរ្យវរ្ម័នទី២), posthumously named Paramavishnuloka, was a Khmer king from 1113 AD to 1145/1150 AD and the builder of Angkor Wat Angkor Wat (; km, អង្គរវត្ត "Temple cit ...

Suryavarman II
, Khmer Empire, Khmer emperor * Sverker I of Sweden, king * Sverre of Norway, king * Sweyn III of Denmark * Tamar of Georgia, queen * Urraca of León and Castile queen of Kingdom of Castile, Castile, Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia and Kingdom of León, León, Empress of All the Spains. * Valdemar I of Denmark, the Great, king * Vladimir II Monomakh, prince of Kiev * Vladislav I Herman of Poland, king * William I of Scotland, the Lion, king * William I of Sicily, king * William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, knight and statesman * Yusuf ibn Tashfin, Almoravid ruler of North Africa and Spain


Consorts of Rulers

* David Soslani, husband of Queen Tamar of Georgia, Tamar * Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen consort of France and later of the Kingdom of England


Theologians and Saints

* Aelred, Saint, English monk and spiritual writer * Albert of Jerusalem, Saint, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem * Albert of Louvain, Saint, Bishop of Liège * Amadeus of Lausanne, Blessed, Bishop of Lausanne * Saint Anselm of Canterbury, Anselm, Saint, Abbot of Bec and Archbishop of Canterbury * Anthelm, Saint, Abbot of the Grand Chartreuse * Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard, Saint, Abbot of Clairvaux Abbey, Clairvaux, preacher and reformer * Saint Berthold, Berthold, Saint, found of the Carmelite Order * Bruno of Segni, Saint, Bishop * Christina of Markyate, Prioress of St. Albans Abbey * Saint Dominic, Dominic de Guzmán, Saint, founder of the Order of Preachers * Edmund Rich, Edmund of Abingdon, Saint, theologian, Archbishop of Canterbury * Engelbert II of Berg, Saint, Archbishop of Cologne * Erik Gnupsson, Bishop of Greenland * Eustathios of Thessalonike, Saint, archbishop of Thessaloniki and writer * Eysteinn Erlendsson, Saint, Bishop of Nidaros * Felix of Valois, Saint, co-founder of the Trinitarian Order, Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives * Francis of Assisi, Saint, founder of the Franciscans, Order of Friars Minor * Galdino della Sala, Saint, Archbishop of Milan * Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint, founder of the Gilbertine Order, Gilbertines. * Henry (Bishop of Uppsala), Saint * Hildegard of Bingen, Saint, polymath and first Western musical composer known by name * Hōnen Shōnin (Genkū), religious founder * Hugh of Grenoble, Saint, bishop * Hugh of Lincoln, Saint, bishop * Ida of Lorraine, Ida of Boulogne, Saint, countess * Ivo of Chartres, Saint, Bishop * John of Matha, Saint, co-founder of the Trinitarian Order, Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives * Lorcán Ua Tuathail, Lawrence O'Toole, Saint, Archbishop of Dublin * Leopold III, Margrave of Austria, Saint * Lin Tinggui, Chinese painter of Buddhist themes * Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney, Saint * Saint Malachy, Malachy O'More, Saint, Archbishop of Armagh * Mechtildis of Edelstetten, Mechtildis, Saint, abbess * Nerses of Lambron, Saint, Archbishop of Tarsus, theologian * Norbert of Xanten, Saint, founder of the Premonstratensian Order of canons regular, Archbishop of Magdeburg * Odo of Cambrai, Saint, bishop, theologian * Olegarius, Saint, Archbishop of Tarragona * Otto of Bamberg, Saint, bishop, chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire * Peter Nolasco, Saint, co-founder of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy, Order of Our Lady of Ransom * Peter, Bishop of Poitiers, Saint * Raymond of Fitero, Saint, founder of the Order of Calatrava * Raymond of Peñafort, Saint, canon lawyer * Richard of Chichester, Saint, bishop * Richard of St. Victor, theologian * Robert de Bethune, Bishop of Hereford * Saint Sava, Sava, Saint, organizer and liberator of the Serbian Orthodox Church * Stephen Harding, Saint, abbot, co-founder of the
Cistercian The Cistercians, () officially the Order of Cistercians ( la, (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist), are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Be ...
Order * Abbot Suger, Suger, Abbot of Basilique Saint-Denis, St.-Denis * Thomas Becket, Saint, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England


Literature

* Allama Prabhu, Indian Mystic and an important Vachana Poet. *Basava Indian social reformer, Vachana sahitya, vachana poet * Chakhrukhadze, Georgia (country), Georgian poet * Zhu Yu (author), Zhu Yu, Chinese maritime author


Sciences and Philosophy

* Averroes Ibn Rushd, Spanish Islamic polymath * Bhaskara II, Indian mathematician and astronomer * Maimonides, Jewish philosopher * Omar Khayyám, Iran, Persian poet and astronomer * Peter Abelard, philosopher * Shao Yong, Chinese poet, historian, and philosopher * William of Malmesbury, English historian * Zhu Xi, Neo-Confucian Chinese philosopher


Goldsmiths

* Opizars, Beshqen and Beqa, celebrated Georgia (country), Georgian gold-smiths.


Military

* Yue Fei, Chinese general


Visual Arts

*
Zhang Zeduan 240px, Details of the painting ''Along the River During the Qingming Festival'', the 18th century remake. Zhang Zeduan (; 1085–1145), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood i ...
, Chinese painter * Zhou Jichang, Chinese painter


References


Bibliography

* {{DEFAULTSORT:12th Century 12th century, 2nd millennium Centuries