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The domain name com is a
top-level domain A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and Decentralised system, decentralized naming system used to identify computers, ...
(TLD) in the
Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and Decentralised system, decentralized naming system used to identify computers, Internet#Applications_and_services, services, and other resources reachable through the internet or other intern ...

Domain Name System
of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. Added in 1985, its name is derived from the word ''commercial'', indicating its original intended purpose for domains registered by commercial organizations. Later, the domain opened for general purposes. The domain was originally administered by the
United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entityâ ...
, but is today operated by
Verisign
Verisign
, and remains under ultimate jurisdiction of U.S. law. Verisign Registrations in the .com domain are processed via registrars accredited by
ICANN The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN ) is an American multistakeholder group and nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or ...

ICANN
. The registry accepts
internationalized domain name An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is ...
s. The domain was one of the original
top-level domain A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and Decentralised system, decentralized naming system used to identify computers, ...
s (TLDs) on the Internet when the Domain Name System was implemented in January 1985, the others being
eduEdu or EDU may refer to: People ; Given name or nickname * Edu (footballer, born 1949), Brazilian footballer named Jonas Eduardo Américo * Edu (footballer, born 1974), Brazilian footballer named Eduardo Araújo Moreira * Edu (footballer, born 197 ...
,
gov A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, Executive (government), ex ...
, mil,
net Net or net may refer to: Mathematics and physics * Net (mathematics) In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they ...
,
org ORG or org may refer to: Music * ORG Records, an independent record label active from 1986-2008 Organizations * Organization (or organisation), a social entity that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment * Oxford Research ...
, and int. It has grown into the largest top-level domain, and has lent its name to an era in the late 1990s, the
dot-com bubble The dot-com bubble, also known as the dot-com boom, the tech bubble, and the Internet bubble, was a stock market bubble Stock (also capital stock) is all of the Share (finance), shares into which ownership of a corporation is divided.Long ...
, during which excessive speculation in Internet-related companies in a period of rapid growth in the use and adoption of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
led to a
stock market bubble Stock (also capital stock) is all of the Share (finance), shares into which ownership of a corporation is divided.Longman Business English Dictionary In American English, the shares are collectively known as "stock". A single share of the sto ...
and crash.


History

The domain .com was one of the first set of top-level domains when the Domain Name System was first implemented for use on the Internet on January 1, 1985. The domain was administered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), however, the department contracted the domain maintenance to
SRI International SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit organization, nonprofit scientific research, scientific research institute and organization headquartered in Menlo Park, California. The trustees of Stanford University established SRI in 1946 as ...
. SRI created DDN-NIC, also known as SRI-NIC, or simply ''the NIC'' (
Network Information Center The Network Information Center (NIC), also known as InterNIC from 1993 until 1998, was the organization primarily responsible for Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical and decentralized naming system for computers ...
), then accessible online with the domain name nic.ddn.mil. Beginning October 1, 1991, an operations contract was awarded to Government Systems Inc. (GSI), which sub-contracted it to
Network Solutions Network Solutions, LLC is an American-based technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and materials, techniqu ...

Network Solutions
Inc. (NSI). On January 1, 1993, the
National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the United States government Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group)The Independents were a group of ...

National Science Foundation
assumed responsibility of maintenance, as com was primarily being used for non-defense interests. The NSF contracted operation to
Network Solutions Network Solutions, LLC is an American-based technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and materials, techniqu ...

Network Solutions
(NSI). In 1995, the NSF authorized NSI to begin charging registrants an annual fee for the first time since the domain's inception. Initially, the fee was US$50 per year, with US$35 going to NSI, and US$15 going to a government fund. New registrations had to pay for the first two years, making the new-domain registration fee US$100. In 1997, the
United States Department of Commerce The United States Department of Commerce is an executive department The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the Federal government of the United States, executive branch of the federal government of the U ...
assumed authority over all generic TLDs. It is currently operated by VeriSign, which had acquired Network Solutions. VeriSign later spun off Network Solutions' non-registry functions into a separate company that continues as a registrar. In the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
, the domain is often spelled with a leading period and commonly pronounced as ''dot-com'', and has entered common parlance this way. Although com domains were initially intended to designate commercial entities, the domain has had no restrictions for eligible registrants since the mid-1990s. With the commercialization and popularization of the Internet, the domain was opened to the public and quickly became the most common top-level domain for
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hyperte ...

website
s,
email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

email
, and networking. Many
companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surround ...

companies
that flourished in the period from 1997 to 2001—the time known as the "
dot-com bubble The dot-com bubble, also known as the dot-com boom, the tech bubble, and the Internet bubble, was a stock market bubble Stock (also capital stock) is all of the Share (finance), shares into which ownership of a corporation is divided.Long ...
"—incorporated the label ''com'' into company names; these became known as dot-coms or
dot-com companiesA dot-com company, or simply a dot-com (alternatively rendered dot.com, dot com, dotcom or .com), is a company that does most of its business on the Internet, usually through a website on the World Wide Web that uses the popular Generic top-level dom ...
. The introduction of biz in 2001, which is restricted to businesses, has had no impact on the popularity of com. Although companies anywhere in the world can register ''com'' domains, many countries have a second-level domain with a similar purpose under their own country code top-level domain (
ccTLD A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It ...
), such as Australia (com.au), China (com.cn), Greece (com.gr), Israel (co.il), India (co.in), Indonesia (co.id), Japan (co.jp), Mexico (com.mx), Nepal (.com.np), South Korea (co.kr), Sri Lanka (com.lk), United Kingdom (co.uk), and Vietnam (.com.vn). Many non-commercial sites and networks use com names to benefit from the perceived recognizability of a com domain. However, the registration statistics show varying popularity over the years. In December 2011, VeriSign reported that approximately 100 million com domains were registered..com Monthly Transaction Report of December 2011
/ref> According to the Domain Name Industry Brief published in March 2020, which publishes every quarter, com domain registration totaled 145.4 million. As of March 2009, VeriSign reported that 926 accredited registrars serve the domain. On November 29, 2012, the U.S. Department of Commerce approved the renewal of the com Registry Agreement between Verisign, Inc., and
ICANN The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN ) is an American multistakeholder group and nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or ...

ICANN
. Through this agreement, Verisign managed the com registry until November 30, 2018.


List of oldest second-level domains

The following are the 100 oldest still-existing registered ''com'' domains.


See also

* List of most expensive domain names


References


External links


IANA .com whois information

List of .com accredited registrars

.com WhoIS

.com Registry Agreement
at
ICANN The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN ) is an American multistakeholder group and nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or ...

ICANN
{{DEFAULTSORT:Com Generic top-level domains Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries members Computer-related introductions in 1985 Internet properties established in 1985 1985 establishments in the United States