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Trade Mark Infringement
Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right, or exclusivity, is a de facto, non-tangible prerogative existing in law (that is, the power (sociology), power or, in a wider sense, right) to perform an action or acquire a benefit and to permit or deny oth ...s attached to a trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also r ... without the authorization of the trademark owner or any licensees (provided that such authorization was within the scope of the licence). Infringement may occur when one party, the "infringer", uses a trademark which is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark owned by another party, in relation to products or services which are identical or similar to the products or services which the ...
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Exclusive Right
In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right, or exclusivity, is a de facto, non-tangible prerogative existing in law (that is, the power (sociology), power or, in a wider sense, right) to perform an action or acquire a benefit and to permit or deny others the right to perform the same action or to acquire the same benefit. A "prerogative" is in effect an exclusive right. The term is restricted for use for official state or sovereign (i.e., constitutional) powers. Exclusive rights are a form of monopoly. Exclusive rights can be established by law or by contractual obligation, but the scope of enforceability will depend upon the extent to which others are bound by the instrument establishing the exclusive right; thus in the case of contractual rights, only persons that are parties to a contract will be affected by the exclusivity. Exclusive rights may be granted in property law, copyright law, patent law, in relation to public utility, public utilities, or, in some jurisdictions, in oth ...
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Unfair Business Practices
Unfair business practices encompass fraud In , fraud is to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate (e.g., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud or recover monetary compensation) or (e.g., a fraud perpetrat ..., misrepresentation In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary' ..., and oppressive or unconscionable Unconscionability (sometimes known as unconscionable dealing/conduct in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian ... acts or practices by business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling prod ...
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Patent Infringement
A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of ... that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention An invention is a unique or novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the for "new", "news", or ... for a limited period of years in exchange for publishing an enabling disclosure of the invention. In most countries, patent rights fall under private law Private law is that part of a civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Editio ...
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Trade Dress
Trade dress is the characteristics of the visual appearance of a product or its packaging (or even the design of a building) that signify the source of the product to consumers. Trade dress is an aspect of trademark law A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-markThe styling of ''trademark'' as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling ''trade mark'' is used in many other countries around ..., , which is a form of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of ... protection law. Trade dress is an extension of trademark protection to " e design and shape of the materials in which a product is packaged, rimarily 'Product configuration,' the design and shape of the product itself, ma ...
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Passing Off
In common law countries such as the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ..., the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ... and New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ..., passing off is a common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of pa ...
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Exhaustion Of Rights
The exhaustion of intellectual property rights constitutes one of the limits of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ... (IP) rights. Once a given product has been sold under the authorization of the IP owner, the reselling, rental, lending and other third party commercial uses of IP-protected goods in domestic and international markets is governed by the principle. After a product covered by an IP right, such as by a patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ... right, has been sold by the IP right owner or by others with the consent of the ...
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Canadian Trademark Law
Canadian trademark law provides protection to marks by statute under the ''Trademarks Act'' and also at common law. Trademark law provides protection for distinctive marks, certification marks, distinguishing guises, and proposed marks against those who appropriate the Goodwill (accounting), goodwill of the mark or create confusion between different vendors' goods or services. A mark can be protected either as a registered trademark under the ''Act'' or can alternately be protected by a common law action in passing off. Overview The scope of Canadian trademarks law A trademark is only protected to the extent that it is used by a person to distinguish a product or service from another. Trademarks do not give exclusive rights to a symbol, for instance, but only for the symbol in relation to a particular use in order to distinguish the product from others. Trademarks help potential customers to identify the source of products and thus have a significant impact on trade, especially w ...
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Madrid Protocol
Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits, second-largest city in the European Union (EU), surpassed only by Berlin in its administrative limits, and its wikt:monocentric, monocentric Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area is the List of metropolitan areas in Europe by population, second-largest in the EU, surpassed only by Paris metropolitan area, Paris.United Nations Department of Economic and Social AffairWorld Urbanization Prospects (2007 revision) (United Nations, 2008), Table A.12. Data for 2007. The municipality covers geographical area. Madrid lies on the Manzanares (river), River Manzanares in the central part of the Iberian Peninsula. Capital city of both Spain (almost without interruption since 1561) and the surrounding C ...
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Polaroid Corp
Polaroid may refer to: * Polaroid Corporation, an American company known for its instant film and cameras * Polaroid camera, a brand of instant camera formerly produced by Polaroid Corporation * Polaroid film, instant film, and photographs * Polaroid B.V., a Dutch manufacturer of instant film and cameras, owner of Polaroid Corporation's brand and intellectual property * Polaroid (polarizer), a type of synthetic plastic sheet used to polarize light * Polaroid Eyewear, with glare-reducing polarized lenses made from Polaroid's polarizer Film and television * ''Polaroid Song'', a 2012 French short film directed by Alphonse Giorgi and Yann Tivrier * Polaroid (film), ''Polaroid'' (film), a 2019 American horror film directed by Lars Klevberg Music * Polaroid (album), ''Polaroid'' (album), an album by Phantom Planet * ''Gentlemen Take Polaroids'', an album by the new wave band Japan (band), Japan * ''Polaroids: A Greatest Hits Collection'', a compilation album by Shawn Colvin * Polaroid (J ...
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College Network, Inc
A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate university, collegiate or federal university, an institution offering vocational education, or a secondary school. In most of the world, a college may be a high school or secondary school, a college of further education, a training institution that awards trade qualifications, a higher-education provider that does not have university status (often without its own degree-awarding powers), or a constituent part of a university. In the United States, a college may offer undergraduate education, undergraduate programs – either as an independent institution or as the undergraduate program of a university – or it may be a residential college of a university or a Community colleges in the United States, community college, referring to (primar ...
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Network Automation, Inc
Network, networking and networked may refer to: Science and technology * Network theory, the study of graphs as a representation of relations between discrete objects * Network science, an academic field that studies complex networks Mathematics * Networks, a graph with attributes studied in network theory ** Scale-free network, a network whose degree distribution follows a power law ** Small-world network, a mathematical graph in which most nodes are not neighbors, but have neighbors in common * Flow network, a directed graph where each edge has a capacity and each edge receives a flow Biology * Biological network, any network that applies to biological systems * Neural network, a network or circuit of neurons Technology and communication * Artificial neural network, a computing system inspired by animal brains * Broadcast network, radio stations, television stations, or other electronic media outlets that broadcast content from a centralized source ** News network ** Radio net ...
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