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Superoxide
In chemistry, a superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide ion, which has the chemical formula . The systematic name of the anion is dioxide(1−). The reactive oxygen ion superoxide is particularly important as the product of the one-electron reduction of dioxygen , which occurs widely in nature. Molecular oxygen (dioxygen) is a diradical containing two unpaired electrons, and superoxide results from the addition of an electron which fills one of the two degenerate molecular orbitals, leaving a charged ionic species with a single unpaired electron and a net negative charge of −1. Both dioxygen and the superoxide anion are free radicals that exhibit paramagnetism. Superoxide was historically also known as "hyperoxide". Salts Superoxide forms salts with alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. The salts caesium superoxide (), rubidium superoxide (), potassium superoxide (), and sodium superoxide () are prepared by the reaction of with the respective a ...
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Reactive Oxygen Species
In chemistry, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive chemicals formed from diatomic oxygen (). Examples of ROS include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and alpha-oxygen. The reduction of molecular oxygen () produces superoxide (), which is the precursor to most other reactive oxygen species: :O2 + e^- -> \ ^\bullet O2- Dismutation of superoxide produces hydrogen peroxide (): :2 H+ + \ ^\bullet O2^- + \ ^\bullet O2^- -> H2O2 + O2 Hydrogen peroxide in turn may be partially reduced, thus forming hydroxide ions and hydroxyl radicals (), or fully reduced to water: :H2O2 + e^- -> HO^- + \ ^\bullet OH :2 H+ + 2 e- + H2O2 -> 2 H2O In a biological context, ROS are byproducts of the normal metabolism of oxygen. ROS have roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. ROS are intrinsic to cellular functioning, and are present at low and stationary levels in normal cells. In plants, ROS are involved in metabolic processes related to photoprotection and toleran ...
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Alkali Metal
The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, ''natrium'' and ''kalium''; these are still the origins of the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian. rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). Together with hydrogen they constitute group 1, which lies in the s-block of the periodic table. All alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour. This family of elements is also known as the lithium family after its leading element. The alkali metals are all shiny, soft, highly reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and read ...
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Potassium Superoxide
Potassium superoxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KO2. It is a yellow paramagnetic solid that decomposes in moist air. It is a rare example of a stable salt of the superoxide anion. It is used as a scrubber, dehumidifier, and generator in rebreathers, spacecraft, submarines, and spacesuits. Production and reactions Potassium superoxide is produced by burning molten potassium in an atmosphere of excess oxygen. :K + → The salt consists of and ions, linked by ionic bonding. The O−O distance is 1.28 Å. Reactivity Potassium superoxide is a source of superoxide, which is a reductant and a nucleophile, depending on its reaction partner. Upon contact with water, it undergoes disproportionation to potassium hydroxide, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide: :2 + → 2 KOH + : + → KOH + + It reacts with carbon dioxide, releasing oxygen: :2 + → K2CO3 + :2 + 2 + H2O → 2 KHCO3 + Potassium superoxide finds only niche uses as a laboratory reagent ...
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Sodium Superoxide
Sodium superoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Na O2. This yellow-orange solid is a salt of the superoxide anion. It is an intermediate in the oxidation of sodium by oxygen. Preparation NaO2 is prepared by treating sodium peroxide with oxygen at high pressures: :Na2O2 + O2 → 2 NaO2 It can also be prepared by careful oxygenation of a solution of sodium in ammonia: :Na(in NH3) + O2 → NaO2 It is also produced, along with sodium peroxide, when sodium is stored under inappropriate conditions (e.g. in dirty or partially halogenated solvents). Properties The product is paramagnetic, as expected for a salt of the anion An ion () is an atom or molecule with a net electrical charge. The charge of an electron is considered to be negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to the charge of a proton, which is considered to be positive by conven .... It hydrolyses readily to give a mixture of sodium hydroxide, oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.Sas ...
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Caesium Superoxide
Caesium superoxide is the superoxide of caesium. It is an orange solid. Preparation Burning caesium in excess oxygen will produce caesium superoxide. : Properties Caesium superoxide's crystal structure is same as calcium carbide. It contains direct oxygen-oxygen bonding. It reacts with water to form hydrogen peroxide and caesium hydroxide. : The standard enthalpy of formation ΔHf0 of caesium superoxide is −295 kJ/mol. Caesium superoxide reacts with ozone to form caesium ozonide Caesium ozonide (CsO3) is an oxygen-rich compound of caesium. It is an ozonide, meaning it contains the ozonide anion (O3−). It can be formed by reacting ozone with caesium superoxide: :CsO2 + O3 -> CsO3 + O2 The compound will react strongly .... : References Caesium compounds Superoxides {{inorganic-compound-stub ...
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Rubidium Superoxide
Rubidium superoxide or Rubidium hyperoxide is a compound with the formula . In terms of oxidation states, the negatively charged superoxide and positively charged rubidium give it a structural formula of (Rb+)(O2−). Chemistry It can be created by slowly exposing elemental rubidium to oxygen gas: :Rb(s) + O2(g) → RbO2(s) Like other alkali metal hyperoxides, crystals can also be grown in liquid ammonia. Between 280 and 360 °C, Rubidium superoxide will decompose, leaving not rubidium sesquioxide (Rb2O3), but rather rubidium peroxide (Rb2O2). :RbO2 (s) → 1/2 R2O2(s) + 1/2 O2(g) An even more oxygen rich compound, that of rubidium ozonide (RbO3) can be created using RbO2. Properties Roughly speaking, RbO2 has a crystal structure similar to tetragonal calcium carbide, but is rather distorted due to the Jahn–Teller effect, which makes the crystal structure less symmetrical. RbO2 is stable in dry air, but is extremely hygroscopic. The compound has been studied as a ...
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Hydroperoxyl
The hydroperoxyl radical, also known as the hydrogen superoxide, is the protonated form of superoxide with the chemical formula HO2. This species plays an important role in the atmosphere and as a reactive oxygen species in cell biology. Structure and reactions The molecule has a bent structure. The superoxide anion, , and the hydroperoxyl radical exist in equilibrium in aqueous solution: : + H2O HO2 + OH− The p''K''a of HO2 is 4.88. Therefore, about 0.3% of any superoxide present in the cytosol of a typical cell is in the protonated form. It oxidizes nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide: :NO + HO2 → NO2 + HO Reactive oxygen species in biology Together with its conjugate base superoxide, hydroperoxyl is an important reactive oxygen species. Unlike , which has reducing properties, HO2 can act as an oxidant in a number of biologically important reactions, such as the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from tocopherol and polyunstaturated fatty acids in the lipid bila ...
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Hydroperoxyl
The hydroperoxyl radical, also known as the hydrogen superoxide, is the protonated form of superoxide with the chemical formula HO2. This species plays an important role in the atmosphere and as a reactive oxygen species in cell biology. Structure and reactions The molecule has a bent structure. The superoxide anion, , and the hydroperoxyl radical exist in equilibrium in aqueous solution: : + H2O HO2 + OH− The p''K''a of HO2 is 4.88. Therefore, about 0.3% of any superoxide present in the cytosol of a typical cell is in the protonated form. It oxidizes nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide: :NO + HO2 → NO2 + HO Reactive oxygen species in biology Together with its conjugate base superoxide, hydroperoxyl is an important reactive oxygen species. Unlike , which has reducing properties, HO2 can act as an oxidant in a number of biologically important reactions, such as the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from tocopherol and polyunstaturated fatty acids in the lipid bila ...
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Free Radicals
In chemistry, a radical, also known as a free radical, is an atom, molecule, or ion that has at least one unpaired valence electron. With some exceptions, these unpaired electrons make radicals highly chemically reactive. Many radicals spontaneously dimerize. Most organic radicals have short lifetimes. A notable example of a radical is the hydroxyl radical (HO·), a molecule that has one unpaired electron on the oxygen atom. Two other examples are triplet oxygen and triplet carbene (꞉) which have two unpaired electrons. Radicals may be generated in a number of ways, but typical methods involve redox reactions. Ionizing radiation, heat, electrical discharges, and electrolysis are known to produce radicals. Radicals are intermediates in many chemical reactions, more so than is apparent from the balanced equations. Radicals are important in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, polymerization, plasma chemistry, biochemistry, and many other chemical processes. A majori ...
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Oxygen
Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Oxygen is Earth's most abundant element, and after hydrogen and helium, it is the third-most abundant element in the universe. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula . Diatomic oxygen gas currently constitutes 20.95% of the Earth's atmosphere, though this has changed considerably over long periods of time. Oxygen makes up almost half of the Earth's crust in the form of oxides.Atkins, P.; Jones, L.; Laverman, L. (2016).''Chemical Principles'', 7th edition. Freeman. Many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen atoms, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, ...
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Disproportionation
In chemistry, disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which one compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states. More generally, the term can be applied to any desymmetrizing reaction of the following type, regardless of whether it is a redox or some other type of process: :2A -> A' + A'' Examples * Mercury(I) chloride disproportionates upon UV-irradiation: :Hg2Cl2 → Hg + HgCl2 * Phosphorous acid disproportionates upon heating to give phosphoric acid and phosphine: :4 → 3 H3PO4 + PH3 *Desymmetrizing reactions are sometimes referred to as disproportionation, as illustrated by the thermal degradation of bicarbonate: :2 → + H2CO3 :The oxidation numbers remain constant in this acid-base reaction. This process is also called autoionization. *Another variant on disproportionation is radical disproportionation, in which two radicals form an alkene and an alkane. : Reve ...
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Redox
Redox (reduction–oxidation, , ) is a type of chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of substrate change. Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidation state, while reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidation state. There are two classes of redox reactions: * ''Electron-transfer'' – Only one (usually) electron flows from the reducing agent to the oxidant. This type of redox reaction is often discussed in terms of redox couples and electrode potentials. * ''Atom transfer'' – An atom transfers from one substrate to another. For example, in the rusting of iron, the oxidation state of iron atoms increases as the iron converts to an oxide, and simultaneously the oxidation state of oxygen decreases as it accepts electrons released by the iron. Although oxidation reactions are commonly associated with the formation of oxides, other chemical species can serve the same function. In hydrogenation, C=C (and other) bon ...
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