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Substance-induced Mood Disorder
Mood disorder, also known as mood affective disorders, is a group of conditions of mental disorder, mental and Abnormal behavior, behavioral Disorder (medicine), disorder where a disturbance in the person's mood (psychology), mood is the main underlying feature. The classification is in the ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders'' (DSM) and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Mood disorders fall into seven groups, including; abnormally elevated mood, such as mania or hypomania; depressed mood, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) (alternatively known as clinical depression, unipolar depression, or major depression); and moods which cycle between mania and depression, known as bipolar disorder (BD) (formerly known as manic depression). There are several sub-types of depressive disorders or psychiatric syndromes featuring less seve ...
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Psychiatry
Psychiatry is the specialty (medicine), medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions. See glossary of psychiatry. Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a Medical history, case history and mental status examination. Physical examinations and Psychological testing, psychological tests may be conducted. On occasion, neuroimaging or other Neurophysiology, neurophysiological techniques are used. Mental disorders are often diagnosed in accordance with clinical concepts listed in diagnostic manuals such as the ''International Classification of Diseases'' (ICD), edited and used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the widely used ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders'' (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5) was published in May 2013 which r ...
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Dysthymic
Dysthymia, also known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mental disorder, mental and Abnormal behaviour, behavioral disease#disorder, disorder, specifically a disorder primarily of mood disorder, mood, consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as Major depressive disorder, depression, but with longer-lasting symptoms. The concept was coined by Robert Spitzer (psychiatrist), Robert Spitzer as a replacement for the term "depressive personality" in the late 1970s. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), dysthymia is a serious state of chronic depression, which persists for at least two years (one year for children and adolescents). Dysthymia is less Acute (medicine), acute than major depressive disorder, but not necessarily less severe. As dysthymia is a chronic disorder, sufferers may experience symptoms for many years before it is diagnosed, if diagnosis occurs at all. As a result, they may believe that depression is a part o ...
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Social Rejection
Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship In social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer t ... or social interaction In social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer t .... The topic includes ''interpersonal rejection'' (or peer rejection), ''romantic rejection'' and ''familial estrangement''. A person can be rejected by individuals or an entire group of people. Furthermore, rejection can be either ''active'', by bullying upright=1.3, Banner in a campaign against bullying at Cefet-MG Bullying is the use of force, coercion Co ...
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Hypersomnia
Hypersomnia is a neurological disorder A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sense, sensory information by transmitting ... of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness. It can have many possible causes (such as seasonal affective disorder Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder subset in which people who have normal mental health Mental health, defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of th ...) and can cause distress and problems with functioning. In the fifth edition of the ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders'' (DSM; latest edition: DSM-5 The ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition'' (DSM- ...
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Weight Gain
Weight gain is an increase in body weight Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight. Strictly speaking, body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person. Practically though, body weight may be measured with clothes on, but without shoes or heavy a .... This can involve an increase in muscle mass Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ..., fat deposits, excess fluids such as water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ... or other factors. Weight gain can be a symptom of a serious medical condition. Description Weight gai ...
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Atypical Depression
Atypical depression as it has been known in the '' DSM IV'', is depression Depression may refer to: Mental health * Depression (mood), a state of low mood and aversion to activity * Mood disorders characterized by depression are commonly referred to as simply ''depression'', including: ** Dysthymia ** Major depressive ... that shares many of the typical symptoms of the psychiatric syndromes A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms which are correlated with each other and often associated with a particular disease or disorder. The word derives from the Greek language, Greek σύνδρομον, meaning "concurrence". When a syn ... of major depression Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood. Low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain witho ... or dysthymia Dysthymia, also known as persistent depressive disor ...
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Suicide Prevention
Suicide prevention is a collection of efforts to reduce the risk of suicide Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition t .... These efforts may occur at the individual, relationship, community, and society level. Suicide is often preventable. Beyond direct interventions to stop an impending suicide, methods may include: * treating mental illness A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing In internal medici ... * improving coping Coping is conscious or unconscious strategies used to reduce unpleasant emotions. Coping strategies can be cognitions or behaviours and can be individual or social ...
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Suicide
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organi .... Mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing In internal medici ...s (including depression Depression may refer to: Mental health * Depression (mood), a state of low mood and aversion to activity * Mood disorders characterized by depression are commonly referred to as simply ''depression'', including: ** Dysthymia ** Major depressive ..., bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder A mental disorder, al ...
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Major Depressive Episode
A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impai .... Sufferers primarily have a depressed mood Depression is a state of low Mood (psychology), mood and aversion to activity. It can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, motivation, feelings, and subjective well-being, sense of well-being. The core symptom of depression is said to be anh ... for two weeks or more, and a loss of interest or pleasure in everyday activities, accompanied by other symptoms such as feelings of emptiness, hopelessness, anxiety Anxiety is an emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feel ...
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Major Depressive Disorder
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing In internal medici ... characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood, low self-esteem Self-esteem is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself (for example, "I am unloved", "I am worthy") as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Smith an ..., and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. Those affected may also occasionally have delusion A delusion is a false fixed belief that is not amenable to change in light of conflicting evidence. As a pathology, it is distinct from a belief based on false or incomplete information, confabulat ...
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Henry Maudsley
Henry Maudsley Royal College of Physicians, FRCP (5 February 183523 January 1918) was a pioneering English Psychiatry, psychiatrist, commemorated in the Maudsley Hospital in London and in the annual Maudsley Lecture of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Life and career Maudsley was born on an isolated farm near Giggleswick in the North Riding of Yorkshire and educated at Giggleswick School. Maudsley lost his mother at an early age. His aunt cared for him, teaching him poetry which he would recite to the servants, and secured for him a top tutor and an expensive apprenticeship to University College London medical school. He earned ten gold medals and graduated with an M.D. degree in 1857, though is said to have avoided subjects and clinical work he found onerous and to have antagonised his teachers. Maudsley had apparently intended to pursue a career in surgery, but according to his autobiography, he changed his mind when he failed to receive a reply to his first application: i ...
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Psychiatrist
A psychiatrist is a physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintainin ... who specializes in psychiatry Psychiatry is the devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of s. These include various s related to mood, behaviour, , and s. See . Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a and . Physical examinations and ..., the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing In internal medici ...s. Psychiatrists are medical Medicine is the science and Praxis (pr ...
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