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Specific Leaf Area
Specific leaf area (SLA) is the ratio of leaf area to leaf dry mass. The inverse of SLA is Leaf Mass per Area (LMA). Rationale Specific leaf area is a ratio indicating how much leaf area a plant builds with a given amount of leaf biomass: SLA \ = \ \frac where A is the area of a given leaf or all leaves of a plant, and ML is the dry mass of those leaves. Typical units are m2.kg−1 or mm2.mg−1. Leaf mass per area (LMA) is its inverse and can mathematically be decomposed in two component variables, leaf thickness (LTh) and leaf density (LD): LMA \ = \ \frac \ = LTh.LD Typical units are g.m−2 for LMA, µm for LTh and g.ml−1 for LD. Both SLA and LMA are frequently used in plant ecology and biology. SLA is one of the components in plant growth analysis, and mathematically scales positively and linearly with the relative growth rate of a plant. LMA mathematically scales positively with the investments plants make per unit leaf area (amount of protein and cell wall; cell numbe ...
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Leaf
A leaf ( : leaves) is any of the principal appendages of a vascular plant stem, usually borne laterally aboveground and specialized for photosynthesis. Leaves are collectively called foliage, as in "autumn foliage", while the leaves, stem, flower, and fruit collectively form the shoot system. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue is the palisade mesophyll and is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of ''Eucalyptus'', palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral. Most leaves are flattened and have distinct upper ( adaxial) and lower ( abaxial) surfaces that differ in color, hairiness, the number of stomata (pores that intake and output gases), the amount and structure of epicuticular wax and other features. Leaves are mostly green in color due to the presence of a compound called chlorophyll that is essential for photosynthesis as it absor ...
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Plant Growth Analysis
Plant growth analysis refers to a set of concepts and equations by which changes in size of plants over time can be summarised and dissected in component variables. It is often applied in the analysis of growth of individual plants, but can also be used in a situation where crop growth is followed over time. Absolute size In comparing different treatments, genotypes or species, the simplest type of growth analysis is to evaluate size of plants after a certain period of growth, typically from the time of germination. In plant biology, size is often measured as dry mass of whole plants (M), or the above-ground part of it. In high-throughput phenotyping platforms, the amount of green pixels as derived from photographs taken from plants from various directions is often the variable that is used to estimate plant size. Absolute growth rate (AGR) In the case that plant size was determined at more than one occasion, the increase in size over a given time period can be determined. This is t ...
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Relative Growth Rate
Relative growth rate (RGR) is growth rate relative to size - that is, a rate of growth per unit time, as a proportion of its size at that moment in time. It is also called the exponential growth rate, or the continuous growth rate. Rationale RGR is a concept relevant in cases where the increase in a state variable over time is proportional to the value of that state variable at the beginning of a time period. In terms of differential equations, if S is the current size, and \frac its growth rate, then relative growth rate is :\frac\frac. If the relative growth rate is constant, i.e., :\frac\frac = k, a solution to this equation is :S_t = \exp^. A closely related concept is doubling time. Calculations In the simplest case of observations at two time points, RGR is calculated using the following equation: :RGR \ = \ \frac, where: \ln = natural logarithm t_1 = time one (e.g. in days) t_2 = time two (e.g. in days) S_1 = size at time one S_2 = size at time two When calculating ...
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Reproductive Strategy
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents. Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual. In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes.John Maynard Smith ''The Evolution of Sex'' 1978. Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specializ ...
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Hemispherical Photography
Hemispherical photography, also known as canopy photography, is a technique to estimate solar radiation and characterize plant canopy geometry using photographs taken looking upward through an extreme wide-angle lens or a fisheye lens (Rich 1990). Typically, the viewing angle approaches or equals 180-degrees, such that all sky directions are simultaneously visible. The resulting photographs record the geometry of visible sky, or conversely the geometry of sky obstruction by plant canopies or other near-ground features. This geometry can be measured precisely and used to calculate solar radiation transmitted through (or intercepted by) plant canopies, as well as to estimate aspects of canopy structure such as leaf area index. Detailed treatments of field and analytical methodology have been provided by Paul Rich (1989, 1990) and Robert Pearcy (1989). History The hemispherical lens (also known as a fisheye or whole-sky lens) was originally designed by Robin Hill (1924) to vi ...
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Photosynthetically Active Radiation
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) designates the spectral range (wave band) of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis. This spectral region corresponds more or less with the range of light visible to the human eye. Photons at shorter wavelengths tend to be so energetic that they can be damaging to cells and tissues, but are mostly filtered out by the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Photons at longer wavelengths do not carry enough energy to allow photosynthesis to take place. Other living organisms, such as cyanobacteria, purple bacteria, and heliobacteria, can exploit solar light in slightly extended spectral regions, such as the near-infrared. These bacteria live in environments such as the bottom of stagnant ponds, sediment and ocean depths. Because of their pigments, they form colorful mats of green, red and purple. Chlorophyll, the most abundant plant pigment, is most efficient in cap ...
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Plant Growth Analysis
Plant growth analysis refers to a set of concepts and equations by which changes in size of plants over time can be summarised and dissected in component variables. It is often applied in the analysis of growth of individual plants, but can also be used in a situation where crop growth is followed over time. Absolute size In comparing different treatments, genotypes or species, the simplest type of growth analysis is to evaluate size of plants after a certain period of growth, typically from the time of germination. In plant biology, size is often measured as dry mass of whole plants (M), or the above-ground part of it. In high-throughput phenotyping platforms, the amount of green pixels as derived from photographs taken from plants from various directions is often the variable that is used to estimate plant size. Absolute growth rate (AGR) In the case that plant size was determined at more than one occasion, the increase in size over a given time period can be determined. This is t ...
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Plant Anatomy
Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants. Originally it included plant morphology, the description of the physical form and external structure of plants, but since the mid-20th century plant anatomy has been considered a separate field referring only to internal plant structure. Plant anatomy is now frequently investigated at the cellular level, and often involves the sectioning of tissues and microscopy. Structural divisions Some studies of plant anatomy use a systems approach, organized on the basis of the plant's activities, such as nutrient transport, flowering, pollination, embryogenesis or seed development. Others are more classically divided into the following structural categories: : Flower anatomy, including study of the Calyx, Corolla, Androecium, and Gynoecium : Leaf anatomy, including study of the Epidermis, stomata and Palisade cells : Stem anatomy, including Stem structure and vascular tissues, ...
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