Sample Rate
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuoustime signal to a discretetime signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave to a sequence of "samples". A sample is a value of the signal at a point in time and/or space; this definition differs from the usage in statistics, which refers to a set of such values. A sampler is a subsystem or operation that extracts samples from a continuous signal. A theoretical ideal sampler produces samples equivalent to the instantaneous value of the continuous signal at the desired points. The original signal can be reconstructed from a sequence of samples, up to the Nyquist limit, by passing the sequence of samples through a type of lowpass filter called a reconstruction filter. Theory Functions of space, time, or any other dimension can be sampled, and similarly in two or more dimensions. For functions that vary with time, let ''S''(''t'') be a continuous function (or "signal") to be sampled, and let sampl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Signal Sampling
In signal processing, a signal is a function that conveys information about a phenomenon. Any quantity that can vary over space or time can be used as a signal to share messages between observers. The ''IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing'' includes audio, video, speech, image, sonar, and radar as examples of signal. A signal may also be defined as observable change in a quantity over space or time (a time series), even if it does not carry information. In nature, signals can be actions done by an organism to alert other organisms, ranging from the release of plant chemicals to warn nearby plants of a predator, to sounds or motions made by animals to alert other animals of food. Signaling occurs in all organisms even at cellular levels, with cell signaling. Signaling theory, in evolutionary biology, proposes that a substantial driver for evolution is the ability of animals to communicate with each other by developing ways of signaling. In human engineering, signals are ty ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nyquist Frequency
In signal processing, the Nyquist frequency (or folding frequency), named after Harry Nyquist, is a characteristic of a sampler, which converts a continuous function or signal into a discrete sequence. In units of cycles per second ( Hz), its value is onehalf of the sampling rate (samples per second). When the highest frequency (bandwidth) of a signal is less than the Nyquist frequency of the sampler, the resulting discretetime sequence is said to be free of the distortion known as aliasing, and the corresponding sample rate is said to be above the Nyquist rate for that particular signal. In a typical application of sampling, one first chooses the highest frequency to be preserved and recreated, based on the expected content (voice, music, etc.) and desired fidelity. Then one inserts an antialiasing filter ahead of the sampler. Its job is to attenuate the frequencies above that limit. Finally, based on the characteristics of the filter, one chooses a sample rate (and corre ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Slew Rate
In electronics, slew rate is defined as the change of voltage or current, or any other electrical quantity, per unit of time. Expressed in SI units, the unit of measurement is volts/second or amperes/second, but is usually expressed in terms of microseconds (μs) or nanoseconds (ns). Electronic circuits may specify minimum or maximum limits on the slew rates for their inputs or outputs, with these limits only valid under some set of given conditions (e.g. output loading). When given for the output of a circuit, such as an amplifier, the slew rate specification guarantees that the speed of the output signal transition will be at least the given minimum, or at most the given maximum. When applied to the input of a circuit, it instead indicates that the external driving circuitry needs to meet those limits in order to guarantee the correct operation of the receiving device. If these limits are violated, some error might occur and correct operation is no longer guaranteed. For exampl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Analog Circuit
Analogue electronics ( enUS, analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is derived from the el, word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional". Analogue signals An analogue signal uses some attribute of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses the angular position of a needle as the signal to convey the information of changes in atmospheric pressure. Electrical signals may represent information by changing their voltage, current, frequency, or total charge. Information is converted from some other physical form (such as sound, light, temperature, pressure, position) to an electrical signal by a transducer which converts one type of energy into another (e.g. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Noise (physics)
In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal. Noise generated by electronic devices varies greatly as it is produced by several different effects. In particular, noise is inherent in physics, and central to thermodynamics. Any conductor with electrical resistance will generate thermal noise inherently. The final elimination of thermal noise in electronics can only be achieved cryogenically, and even then quantum noise would remain inherent. Electronic noise is a common component of noise in signal processing. In communication systems, noise is an error or undesired random disturbance of a useful information signal in a communication channel. The noise is a summation of unwanted or disturbing energy from natural and sometimes manmade sources. Noise is, however, typically distinguished from interference, for example in the signaltonoise ratio (SNR), signaltointerference ratio (SIR) and signaltonoise plus interference ratio (SNIR) me ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jitter
In electronics and telecommunications, jitter is the deviation from true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal, often in relation to a reference clock signal. In clock recovery applications it is called timing jitter. Jitter is a significant, and usually undesired, factor in the design of almost all communications links. Jitter can be quantified in the same terms as all timevarying signals, e.g., root mean square (RMS), or peaktopeak displacement. Also, like other timevarying signals, jitter can be expressed in terms of spectral density. Jitter period is the interval between two times of maximum effect (or minimum effect) of a signal characteristic that varies regularly with time. Jitter frequency, the more commonly quoted figure, is its inverse. ITUT G.810 classifies jitter frequencies below 10 Hz as wander and frequencies at or above 10 Hz as jitter. Jitter may be caused by electromagnetic interference and crosstalk with carriers of other signals. Jit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sample And Hold
In electronics, a sample and hold (also known as sample and follow) circuit is an analog device that samples (captures, takes) the voltage of a continuously varying analog signal and holds (locks, freezes) its value at a constant level for a specified minimum period of time. Sample and hold circuits and related peak detectors are the elementary analog memory devices. They are typically used in analogtodigital converters to eliminate variations in input signal that can corrupt the conversion process.Kefauver and Patschke, p. 37. They are also used in electronic music, for instance to impart a random quality to successivelyplayed notes. A typical sample and hold circuit stores electric charge in a capacitor and contains at least one switching device such as a FET (field effect transistor) switch and normally one operational amplifier.Horowitz and Hill, p. 220. To sample the input signal, the switch connects the capacitor to the output of a buffer amplifier. The buffer amp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Capacitor
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field by virtue of accumulating electric charges on two close surfaces insulated from each other. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as the condenser, a term still encountered in a few compound names, such as the ''condenser microphone''. The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types of capacitor are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Analogtodigital Converter
In electronics, an analogtodigital converter (ADC, A/D, or AtoD) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement such as an electronic device that converts an analog input voltage or current to a digital number representing the magnitude of the voltage or current. Typically the digital output is a two's complement binary number that is proportional to the input, but there are other possibilities. There are several ADC architectures. Due to the complexity and the need for precisely matched components, all but the most specialized ADCs are implemented as integrated circuits (ICs). These typically take the form of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) mixedsignal integrated circuit chips that integrate both analog and digital circuits. A digitaltoanalog converter (DAC) performs the reverse function; it converts a digital s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sufficiently Large
In the mathematical areas of number theory and analysis, an infinite sequence or a function is said to eventually have a certain property, if it doesn't have the said property across all its ordered instances, but will after some instances have passed. The use of the term "eventually" can be often rephrased as "for sufficiently large numbers", and can be also extended to the class of properties that apply to elements of any ordered set (such as sequences and subsets of \mathbb). Notation The general form where the phrase eventually (or sufficiently large) is found appears as follows: :P is ''eventually'' true for x (P is true for ''sufficiently large'' x), where \forall and \exists are the universal and existential quantifiers, which is actually a shorthand for: :\exists a \in \mathbb such that P is true \forall x \ge a or somewhat more formally: :\exists a \in \mathbb: \forall x \in \mathbb:x \ge a \Rightarrow P(x) This does not necessarily mean that any particular value ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arbitrarily Small
In mathematics, the phrases arbitrarily large, arbitrarily small and arbitrarily long are used in statements to make clear of the fact that an object is large, small and long with little limitation or restraint, respectively. The use of "arbitrarily" often occurs in the context of real numbers (and its subsets thereof), though its meaning can differ from that of "sufficiently" and "infinitely". Examples The statement : "f(x) is nonnegative for arbitrarily large ''x''." is a shorthand for: : "For every real number ''n'', f(x) is nonnegative for some value of ''x'' greater than ''n''." In the common parlance, the term "arbitrarily long" is often used in the context of sequence of numbers. For example, to say that there are "arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions of prime numbers" does not mean that there exists any infinitely long arithmetic progression of prime numbers (there is not), nor that there exists any particular arithmetic progression of prime numbers that is in s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Distortion
In signal processing, distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of a signal. In communications and electronics it means the alteration of the waveform of an informationbearing signal, such as an audio signal representing sound or a video signal representing images, in an electronic device or communication channel. Distortion is usually unwanted, and so engineers strive to eliminate or minimize it. In some situations, however, distortion may be desirable. For example, in noise reduction systems like the Dolby system, an audio signal is deliberately distorted in ways that emphasize aspects of the signal that are subject to electrical noise, then it is symmetrically "undistorted" after passing through a noisy communication channel, reducing the noise in the received signal. Distortion is also used as a musical effect, particularly with electric guitars. The addition of noise or other outside signals ( hum, interference) is not considere ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 